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The Wanli Emperor
Wanli Emperor
(Chinese: 萬曆; pinyin: Wàn Lì; 4 September 1563 – 18 August 1620), personal name Zhu Yijun (Chinese: 朱翊鈞; pinyin: Zhū Yìjūn), was the 14th emperor of the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
of China. "Wanli", the era name of his reign, literally means "ten thousand calendars". He was the third son of the Longqing Emperor. His reign of 48 years (1572-1620) was the longest among all the Ming dynasty emperors[2] and it witnessed the steady decline of the dynasty.

Contents

1 Early reign (1572–1582) 2 Middle reign (1582–1600) 3 Late reign (1600–1620)

3.1 Palace assault

4 Legacy and death 5 Family

5.1 Spouses

5.1.1 Empresses 5.1.2 Consorts 5.1.3 Imperial Concubines

5.2 Issue

5.2.1 Sons 5.2.2 Daughters

6 Ancestry 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References

Early reign (1572–1582)[edit] Zhu Yijun ascended the throne at the age of ten and adopted the regnal name "Wanli", thus he is historically known as the Wanli Emperor. For the first ten years of his reign, he was aided by the Senior Grand Secretary (shǒufǔ), Zhang Juzheng, who governed the country as Yijun's regent. During this period, the Wanli Emperor
Wanli Emperor
deeply respected Zhang as a mentor and a valued minister. Archery competitions, equestrianism and calligraphy were some of the pastimes of Wanli.[3] As Zhang Juzheng
Zhang Juzheng
was appointed Minister of Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
in 1572, he launched a reform by the name of “abiding by ancestors’ rules”. He started from rectifying administration with a series of measures such as reducing redundant personnel and enhancing assessment of officials’ performance. This improved officials’ quality and efficiency of administration, and based on such facts he launched relevant reforms in the fields of land, finance, and military affairs. In essence, Zhang Juzheng’s reform was a rectification of social maladies without offending the established political and fiscal system of the Ming Dynasty. Although it did not eradicate political corruption and land annexation, it positively relieved social contradictions. More over, Zhang efficiently protected the dynasty from Japan, Jurchens and Mongols so he could save national defense expenditure. By the 1580s, Zhang stored an astronomical amount of silver, worth second only to 10 years of Ming's total tax revenue. The first ten years of Wanli's regime led to a renaissance, economically, culturally and militarily, an era known in China
China
as Wanli's renaissance (萬曆中興)). During the first ten years of the Wanli era, the Ming dynasty's economy and military power prospered in a way not seen since the Yongle Emperor
Yongle Emperor
and the Rule of Ren and Xuan from 1402 to 1435. After Zhang's death, the Wanli Emperor
Wanli Emperor
felt free to act independently, and reversed many of Zhang's administrative improvements. In 1584, the Wanli Emperor
Wanli Emperor
issued an edict confiscating all of Zhang's personal wealth and purging his family members. Especially after 1586 when he had conflicts with vassals about his heir, Wanli decided to not hold the council for 20 years. The Ming dynasty's decline began in the interim. Middle reign (1582–1600)[edit]

A painting of a Ming Army unit in the Wanli era

After Zhang Juzheng's death, the Wanli Emperor
Wanli Emperor
decided to take complete personal control of the government. During this early part of his reign, he showed himself to be a competent and diligent emperor. Overall, the economy continued to prosper and the empire remained powerful. Unlike the last 20 years of his reign, the Wanli Emperor
Wanli Emperor
at this time would attend every morning meeting and discuss affairs of state. The first 18 years of the Wanli era would be dominated by three wars that he dealt with successfully:

Defence against the Mongols: In the northern frontier regions, a Ming general rebelled and allied with the Mongols to attack the Ming Empire. At this time, the Wanli Emperor
Wanli Emperor
sent Li Chengliang and his sons to handle the situation, resulting in overall success. Japanese invasions: Toyotomi Hideyoshi
Toyotomi Hideyoshi
of Japan sent 200,000 soldiers in his first expedition to invade Korea. The Wanli Emperor
Wanli Emperor
made three strategic moves. First, he sent a 3,000-strong army to support the Koreans. Second, if Koreans entered Ming territory, he gave them sanctuary. Third, he instructed the Liaodong
Liaodong
area to prepare for possible invasion. The first two battles fought with the Japanese were defeats since Ming troops under general Li Rusong were outnumbered and ill-prepared to fight the 200,000-strong Japanese army. The emperor then sent a bigger army of 80,000 men, with more success. This resulted in negotiations that favored the Ming. Two years later, in 1596, Japan once again invaded. However, that same year Toyotomi died and the remaining Japanese leadership lost their will to fight. Combined with the naval victories of Korean admiral Yi Sun-sin
Yi Sun-sin
and the bogging down of Japanese forces in the Korean mainland, the demoralised Japanese army withdrew, with peace negotiations following. Yang Yinglong rebellion: At first, the Wanli Emperor
Wanli Emperor
was engaged in war with Japan and sent only 3,000 troops under the command of Yang Guozhu to fight the rebellion. However, this army was annihilated and Yang was killed. After the war with Japan ended, the Wanli Emperor turned his attention to Yang Yinglong, sending Guo Zhizhang and Li Huolong to lead the offensive. In the end, Li Huolong defeated Yang's army and brought him back to the capital.

After the last of these three wars were concluded, the Wanli Emperor withdrew from active participation in morning meetings, a practice which he continued throughout the rest of his reign. Late reign (1600–1620)[edit]

Golden crown (replica) excavated from Dingling tomb

During the later years of the Wanli Emperor's reign, he became thoroughly alienated from his imperial role and, in effect, went on strike. He refused to attend morning meetings, see his ministers or act upon memoranda. He also refused to make necessary personnel appointments, and as a result the whole top echelon of the Ming administration became understaffed. He did, however, pay close attention to the construction of his own tomb, a magnificent structure that took decades to complete. There are several reasons why the Wanli Emperor
Wanli Emperor
deliberately neglected his duties as emperor. One was that he became disenchanted with the moralistic attacks and counterattacks of officials, rooted in an abstract Confucian orthodoxy.[4] A more important reason, though, was a dispute about the imperial succession. The emperor's favorite consort was Noble Consort Zheng, and throughout the 1580s and 1590s, the emperor very much wanted to promote his son by her (Zhu Changxun) as crown prince, even though he was only the emperor's third son and not favored for the succession. Many of his powerful ministers were opposed, and this led to a clash between sovereign and ministers that lasted more than 15 years. In October 1601, the Wanli Emperor
Wanli Emperor
finally gave in and promoted Zhu Changluo – the future Taichang Emperor
Taichang Emperor
– as crown prince. Although the ministers seem to have triumphed, the Wanli Emperor
Wanli Emperor
adopted a policy of passive resistance, refusing to play his part in allowing the government to function adequately, leading to serious problems both within China
China
itself and on the borders.[5] Additionally, the emperor continued to express his objection to the choice of Zhu Changluo as heir apparent, even delaying the burial of Crown Princess Guo by two years, before allowing her to be buried appropriately for the wife of the crown prince.[6] At this time began the growth of what would become the Manchu threat. The area known as Manchuria
Manchuria
in northeastern China
China
was gradually conquered by the Jurchen chieftain Nurhaci. Nurhaci
Nurhaci
would go on to create the Later Jin dynasty (the precursor of the Qing dynasty), which would now become an immediate threat to the Ming dynasty. By this time, after 20 years of imperial dysfunction, the Ming army was in steep decline. While the Jurchens were fewer in number, they were fiercer and better fighters.[citation needed] For instance, in the Battle of Nun Er Chu in 1619, the Ming government sent out an army of 200,000 against the Later Jin army of 60,000, with Nurhaci
Nurhaci
controlling six banners and 45,000 troops as the central attack, while Daišan
Daišan
and Huangtaiji each controlled 7,500 troops and one banner and attacked from the sides. After five days of battle, the Ming army suffered casualties of over 100,000, with 70% of their food supply stolen. The Oirats
Oirats
transmitted some garbled and incorrect descriptions of China
China
to the Russians in 1614, the name "Taibykankan" was used to refer to the Wanli emperor by the Oirats.[7] Palace assault[edit] In 1615, the Ming imperial court was hit by yet another scandal. A man named Zhang Chai (張差), armed with only a wooden staff, managed to chase away the eunuchs guarding the gates and broke into Ciqing Palace (慈慶宮), then the Crown Prince's living quarters. Zhang Chai was eventually subdued and thrown into prison. Initial investigation found him to be a lunatic, but upon further investigation by a magistrate named Wang Zhicai (王之寀), Zhang Chai confessed to being party to a plot instigated by two eunuchs working under Noble Consort Zheng. According to Zhang Chai's confession, the two had promised him rewards for assaulting the Crown Prince, thus implicating the Emperor's favorite concubine in an assassination plot. Presented with the incriminating evidence and the gravity of the accusations, the Wanli Emperor, in an attempt to spare Noble Consort Zheng, personally presided over the case. He laid the full blame on the two implicated eunuchs who were executed along with the would-be assassin. Although the case was quickly hushed up, it did not quash public discussion and eventually became known as the "Case of the Wooden Staff Assault" (梃擊案), one of three notorious 'mysteries' of the late Ming dynasty. Legacy and death[edit]

The remains of the Wanli Emperor
Wanli Emperor
at the Ming tombs. Red Guards dragged the remains of the Wanli Emperor
Wanli Emperor
and Empresses to the front of the tomb, where they were posthumously "denounced" and burned.[8]

Many scholars[weasel words] of Chinese history believe that the Wanli Emperor's reign was a significant factor contributing to the decline of the Ming dynasty. He refused to play the emperor's role in government, and delegated many responsibilities to eunuchs, who made up their own faction. The official administration was so dissatisfied that a group of scholars and political activists loyal to the thoughts of Zhu Xi
Zhu Xi
and against those of Wang Yangming
Wang Yangming
created the Donglin Movement, a political group who believed in upright morals and tried to influence the government according to strict Neo-Confucian principles. His reign also experienced heavy fiscal and military pressures, especially during the final years of the Wanli era when the Manchus began to conduct raids on the northern border of the Ming Empire. Their depredations ultimately led to the fall of the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
in 1644. It has been said[weasel words] that the fall of the Ming dynasty was not a result of the last Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
emperor’s Chongzhen Emperor's rule, but instead due to the lingering consequences of the Wanli Emperor's gross neglect of his duties as Emperor. The Wanli Emperor
Wanli Emperor
died in 1620 and was buried in the Dingling Mausoleum among the Ming tombs
Ming tombs
on the outskirts of Beijing. His tomb is one of the biggest in the vicinity and one of only two that are open to the public. The tomb was excavated in 1956, and remains the only imperial tomb that had been excavated since the founding of the People's Republic of China
China
in 1949. In 1966, during the Cultural Revolution, Red Guards stormed the Dingling Mausoleum, and dragged the remains of the Wanli Emperor
Wanli Emperor
and his two empresses to the front of the tomb, where they were posthumously denounced and burned after photographs were taken of their skulls.[9] Thousands of other artifacts were also destroyed.[10] In 1997, China's Ministry of Public Security published a book on the history of drug abuse. It stated that the Wanli Emperor's remains had been examined in 1958 and found to contain morphine residues at levels which indicate that he had been a heavy and habitual user of opium.[11] According to Dikötter's Narcotic Culture: A History of Drugs in China, Madak was introduced in China
China
by Dutch traders between 1624 and 1660.[12] Before that, Chinese only used opium in medicinal purposes, so therefore the Wanli Emperor
Wanli Emperor
could not have been addicted in smoking opium.[13] Many old Chinese history books[weasel words] on the Ming dynasty commonly assert that Wanli’s regime caused the rapid downfall of the dynasty. However, there are different opinions as to why Wanli was neglectful for a long time. Some historians[weasel words] claim that he had severe depression after Zhang’s death in 1582, that he was a heavy and habitual user of opium and that he suffered from rare malady on his back and leg, so he couldn’t walk himself without help. When his tomb was excavated in 1958, his body was restored and historians found out that Wanli’s upper body was noticeably bent. As a result of problems that he might have had, Wanli could not rule the dynasty in the right way. Twenty years after his death the Ming dynasty was conquered by the Jurchens (Qing dynasty). Ironically, Wanli is considered as one of the worst emperors in Chinese history but he is held in high regards in Korea because Wanli had strongly demanded protection of Joseon from Japan's invasion in 1592. Wanli sent approximately 43,000 soldiers with 100,000 bags of rice for the people of Joseon. During Japan's invasion from 1592 to 1598, the emperor sent more than 100,000 soldiers and he spent tremendous amounts of money for war, in excess of 5 years of tax revenues. Many historians[weasel words] assume that this war completely destroyed the Ming economy and caused the rapid downfall of the dynasty. Family[edit] Spouses[edit] Empresses[edit]

Empress Dowager Xiaojing, who was titled Imperial Noble Consort Wensu in her husband's lifetime.

Title Name Born Died Father Mother Issue Notes

Empress Xiaoduan Xian 孝端显皇后 Wang Xijie 王喜姐 1564 1620 Wang Wei, Count of Yongnian 永年伯王伟 unknown 1. Princess of Rongchang Entered Shenzong's harem in 1577 Became Empress in 1578 Posthumously honoured as Empress Xiaoduan then Empress Xiaoduan Xian in 1620

Empress Dowager Xiaojing 孝靖皇太后 Lady Wang 王氏 27 Feb 1565 18 Oct 1611 Wang Chaocai, Count of Yongning 永宁伯王朝采 Lady Ge, Countess of Yongning 永宁伯夫人葛氏 1. Guangzong 4. Princess of Yunmeng Entered Shenzong's harem as Empress Dowager Xiaoding's palace maid in 1578 Became Respectful Consort (恭妃) in 1582 Promoted to Imperial Noble Consort (皇贵妃) in 1605 Posthumous name Wensu (温肃) in 1611 Posthumously honoured in 1620

Grand Empress Dowager Xiaoning 孝宁太皇太后 Lady Zheng 郑氏 1565 1630 Zheng Chengxian 郑承宪 unknown 2. Princess of Yunhe 2. Prince Ai of Bin 3. Gongzong 4. Prince Huai of Yuan 6. Princess of Lingqiu 7. Princess of Shouning Entered Shenzong's harem in 1581 Became Pure Imperial Concubine (淑嫔) and promoted to Virtuous Consort (德妃) in 1582 Promoted to Noble Consort (贵妃) in 1584 Promoted to Imperial Noble Consort (皇贵妃) in 1586 Posthumous name Gongke (恭恪) in 1630 Posthumously honoured in 1644

Grand Empress Dowager Xiaojing 孝敬太皇太后 Lady Li 李氏 unknown 1597 unknown unknown 6. Prince of Hui 7. Lizong Venerational Consort (敬妃) Posthumously honoured as Imperial Noble Consort Gongshun (恭顺皇贵妃) in 1597 Posthumously honoured in 1646

Consorts[edit]

Title Name Born Died Father Mother Issue Notes

Bright Consort Xuanyi 宣懿昭妃 Lady Liu 刘氏 1557 1642 Liu Yingjie 刘应节 unknown none Became Bright Consort in 1578 Became Consort Dowager (太妃) in 1620

Proper Consort Ronghui 荣惠宜妃 Lady Yang 杨氏 unknown 1581 Yang Chen 杨臣 unknown none Entered Shenzong's harem and became Proper Consort in 1578

Favourable Consort Wenjing 温静顺妃 Lady Chang 常氏 1568 1594 Chang Jiang 常江 Lady Gao 高氏 none Entered Shenzong's harem as palace maid in 1582 Became Favourable Consort in 1583 Miscarried

Glorious Consort Duanjing 端靖荣妃 Lady Wang 王氏 unknown 1591 Wang Wenjin 王文锦 unknown 3. Princess of Jingle Entered Shenzong's harem in 1581 Became Peaceful Imperial Concubine (安嫔) in 1582 Promoted to Glorious Consort in 1584

Virtuous Consort Zhuangjing 庄靖德妃 Lady Xu 许氏 unknown 1602 unknown unknown none Became Virtuous Consort in 1586

Cautious Consort 僖妃 Lady Wang 王氏 unknown 1589 unknown unknown none Court official Posthumously honoured in 1589

Final Consort 端妃 Lady Zhou 周氏 unknown unknown Zhou Qing 周清 unknown 5. Prince of Rui Entered Shenzong's harem in 1581 Became Final Imperial Concubine (端嫔) in 1582 Promoted to Final Consort in 1593 Returned to her maiden home in 1644

Favourable Consort Qinghui 清惠顺妃 Lady Li 李氏 unknown 1623 unknown unknown 8. Prince Si of Yong 10. Princess of Tiantai Became Favourable Consort in 1604

Imperial Concubines[edit]

Title Name Born Died Father Mother Issue Notes

Virtuous Imperial Concubine 德嫔 Lady Li 李氏 1567 1628 Li Shiliang 李时亮 Lady Lei 雷氏 5. Princess of Xianju 8. Princess of Taishun 9. Princess of Xiangshan Entered Shenzong's harem in 1581 Became Virtuous Imperial Concubine in 1582

Glorious Imperial Concubine 荣嫔 Lady Li 李氏 1568 1626 Li Shan 李山 Lady Lü 吕氏 none Entered Shenzong's harem in 1581 Became Glorious Imperial Concubine in 1582

Cautious Imperial Concubine 慎嫔 Lady Wei 魏氏 1567 1606 Wei Chengzhi 魏承志 Lady Qiao 乔氏 none Entered Shenzong's harem in 1581 Became Cautious Imperial Concubine in 1582

Venerational Imperial Concubine 敬嫔 Lady Shao 邵氏 unknown 1606 Shao Ming 邵名 Lady Qi 齐氏 none Entered Shenzong's harem in 1581 Became Venerational Imperial Concubine in 1582

Favourable Imperial Concubine 顺嫔 Lady Zhang 张氏 1567 1588 Zhang Zhen 张榛 Lady Wang 王氏 none Entered Shenzong's harem in 1581 Became Favourable Imperial Concubine in 1582

Gentle Imperial Concubine 和嫔 Lady Liang 梁氏 1562 1643 Liang Shen 梁慎 Lady Pan 潘氏 none Entered Shenzong's harem in 1581 Became Gentle Imperial Concubine in 1582

Great Imperial Concubine Dao 悼伟嫔 Lady Geng 耿氏 1568 1589 Geng Daxiang 耿大享 Lady Wang 王氏 none Entered Shenzong's harem as palace maid in 1583

Issue[edit] Sons[edit]

# Title Name Born Died Mother Notes

1 Guangzong 光宗 Changluo 常洛 28 Aug 1582 26 Sep 1620 Empress Dowager Xiaojing Became Crown Prince (皇太子) in 1601 Became Emperor (皇帝) in 1620

2 Prince Ai of Bin 邠哀王 Changxu 常溆 19 Jan 1585 19 Jan 1585 Grand Empress Dowager Xiaoning Died in infancy Posthumously honoured in 1585

3 Gongzong 恭宗 Changxun 常洵 22 Feb 1586 2 Mar 1641 Became Prince of Fu (福王) in 1601 Executed by Li Zicheng Posthumous name Zhong (忠) in 1641 Posthumously honoured in 1644 Son: Anzong

4 Prince Huai of Yuan 沅怀王 Changzhi 常治 1587 1588 Died in infancy Posthumously honoured in 1588

5 Prince of Rui 瑞王 Changhao 常浩 1590 1644 Final Consort Zhou Became Prince of Rui in 1601 Beheaded by Zhang Xianzhong

6 Prince of Hui 惠王 Changrun 常润 1594 1647 Grand Empress Dowager Xiaojing Became Prince of Hui in 1601 Captured and killed by Qing forces

7 Lizong 礼宗 Changying 常瀛 1597 2 Dec 1644 Became Prince of Gui (桂王) in 1601 Posthumous name Duan (端) in 1644 Posthumously honoured as Lizong in 1648 Son: Zhaozong

8 Prince Si of Yong 永思王 Changpu 常溥 1604 1606 Favourable Consort Qinghui Died in infancy Posthumously honoured in 1606

Daughters[edit]

# Title Name Born Died Mother Spouses Issue Notes

1 Princess of Rongchang 荣昌公主 Xuanying 轩媖 1582 1647 Empress Xiaoduan Xian 1596: Yang Chunyuan (杨春元) Yang Guangkui (杨光夔) Yang Guanggao (杨光皋) Yang Guangdan (杨光旦) Yang Guangyi (杨光益) Yang Guanglong (杨光龙)

2 Princess of Yunhe 云和公主 Xuanshu 轩姝 9 Jan 1584 1590 Grand Empress Dowager Xiaoning none none Died young

3 Princess of Jingle 静乐公主 Xuangui 轩妫 8 Jul 1584 12 Nov 1585 Glorious Consort Duanjing none none Died in infancy

4 Princess of Yunmeng 云梦公主 Xuanyuan 轩嫄 1584 1587 Empress Dowager Xiaojing none none Died young

5 Princess of Xianju 仙居公主 Xuanji 轩姞 1584 1585 Virtuous Imperial Concubine Li none none Died in infancy

6 Princess of Lingqiu 灵丘公主 Xuanyao 轩姚 1588 1589 Grand Empress Dowager Xiaoning none none Died in infancy

7 Princess of Shouning 寿宁公主 Xuanwei 轩媁 1592 1634 1609: Ran Xingrang (冉兴让) Ran Yinkong (冉印孔)

8 Princess of Taishun 泰顺公主 Xuanji 轩姬 unknown 1593 Virtuous Imperial Concubine Li none none Died in infancy Posthumously honoured in 1593

9 Princess of Xiangshan 香山公主 Xuandeng 轩嬁 1598 1599 none none Died in infancy

10 Princess of Tiantai 天台公主 Xuanmei 轩媺 1605 1606 Favourable Consort Qinghui none none Died in infancy

Ancestry[edit]

Ancestors of Wanli Emperor

Zhu Jianshen, Xianzong 宪宗朱见深 1447–1487

4th son: Zhu Youwan, Emperor Xian 献皇帝朱佑杬 1476–1519

Concubine: Lady Shao, Empress Xiaohui 孝惠皇后邵氏 d. 1522

2nd son: Zhu Houcong, Shizong 世宗朱厚熜 1507–1567

Jiang Xiao, Count of Yutian 玉田伯蒋斅

Wife: Lady Jiang, Empress Cixiao Xian 慈孝献皇后蒋氏 d. 1538

Countess of Yutian 玉田伯夫人

3rd son: Zhu Zaihou, Muzong 穆宗朱载垕 1537–1572

Du Lin, Count of Qingdou 庆都伯杜林

Concubine: Lady Du, Empress Xiaoke 孝恪皇后杜氏 d. 1554

Countess of Qingdou 庆都伯夫人

3rd son: Zhu Yijun, Shenzong 神宗朱翊钧 1563–1620

Li Gang, Marquis of Wuqing

Li Yu, Marquis of Wuqing 武清侯李玉

Li Wei, Duke Zhuangjian of An 安庄简公李伟 1527–1583

Concubine: Lady Li, Empress Dowager Xiaoding 孝定皇太后李氏 1546–1614

Lady Wang, Countess of Wuqing 武清伯夫人王氏

See also[edit]

Chinese emperors family tree (late)

Notes[edit]

^ Following the death of the emperor, the Wanli era was normally due to end on 21 January 1621. However, the Wanli Emperor's successor, the Taichang Emperor, died within a month, before 22 January 1621, which should have been the start of the Taichang era. The Tianqi Emperor, who succeeded the Taichang Emperor, decided that the Wanli era would be considered as having ended on the last day of the seventh month (equivalent to 27 August 1620), to enable the Taichang era to be applied retrospectively for the remaining five months in that year (see the Taichang Emperor
Taichang Emperor
article). ^ a b Frederick W. Mote (2003). Imperial China
China
900-1800. Harvard University Press. pp. 727–. ISBN 978-0-674-01212-7.  ^ Frederick W. Mote; Denis Twitchett (26 February 1988). The Cambridge History of China: Volume 7, The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644. Cambridge University Press. pp. 514–. ISBN 978-0-521-24332-2.  ^ Huang, Ray(1981) 1587, a Year of No Significance: The Ming Dynasty in Decline. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-02518-1 ^ Goodrich, Carrington L. & Fang, Chaoying, eds. (1976). Dictionary of Ming Biography. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-03801-1.  ^ zhaoxiaoyan (2 February 2015). "朱常洛嫡妃孝元皇后郭氏简介 孝元贞皇后生平" [Biography of Empress Xiaoyuan of the Guo clan, first concubine of Zhu Changluo: life of Empress Xiaoyuanzhen]. Qulishi. Retrieved 2 September 2017.  ^ Peter C Perdue (30 June 2009). China
China
Marches West: The Qing Conquest of Central Eurasia. Harvard University Press. pp. 100–. ISBN 978-0-674-04202-5.  ^ "China's reluctant Emperor", The New York Times, Sheila Melvin, Sept. 7, 2011. ^ Becker, Jasper (2008). City of Heavenly Tranquility: Beijing
Beijing
in the History of China. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-530997-3, pp 77-79. ^ "China's reluctant Emperor", The New York Times, Sheila Melvin, Sept. 7, 2011. ^ Zheng Yangwen (2005). The Social Life of Opium
Opium
in China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 18–19. ISBN 0-521-84608-0.  ^ Frank Dikötter; Lars Peter Laamann; Zhou Xun (2004). Narcotic Culture: A History of Drugs in China. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 32. ISBN 1-85065-725-4.  ^ Frank Dikötter; Lars Peter Laamann; Zhou Xun (2004). Narcotic Culture: A History of Drugs in China. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. pp. 24–31. ISBN 1-85065-725-4. 

References[edit] Huang Ray, 1587, a Year of No Significance: The Ming Dynasty
Dynasty
in Decline. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1981. ISBN 0300-025181 Huiping Pang, "The Confiscating Henchmen: The Masquerade of Ming Embroidered-Uniform Guard Liu Shouyou (ca. 1540-1604)," Ming Studies 72 (2015): 24-45. ISSN 0147-037X

Wanli Emperor House of Zhu Born: 4 September 1563 Died: 18 August 1620

Regnal titles

Preceded by The Longqing Emperor Emperor of China 1572–1620 Succeeded by The Taichang Emperor

v t e

Emperors of the Ming dynasty

Ming

Hongwu Jianwen Yongle Hongxi Xuande Yingzong (Zhengtong reign) Jingtai Yingzong (Tianshun reign) Chenghua Hongzhi Zhengde Jiajing Longqing Wanli Taichang Tianqi Chongzhen

Southern Ming

Hongguang Longwu (co-ruler) Gengyin (co-ruler) Shaowu (co-ruler) Yongli (co-ruler) Dongwu (co-ruler) Dingwu

Xia → Shang → Zhou → Qin → Han → 3 Kingdoms → Jìn / 16 Kingdoms → S. Dynasties / N. Dynasties → Sui → Tang → 5 Dynasties & 10 Kingdoms → Liao / Song / W. Xia / Jīn → Yuan → Ming → Qing → ROC / PRC

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 77401128 LCCN: nr92027516 ISNI: 0000 0000 6324 9

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