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WANG ANSHI ( ; Chinese : 王安石; December 8, 1021 – May 21, 1086) was a Chinese economist , statesman, chancellor and poet of the Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
who attempted major and controversial socioeconomic reforms known as the New Policies . These reforms constituted the core concepts of the Song-Dynasty Reformists, in contrast to their rivals, the Conservatives, led by the Chancellor Sima Guang
Sima Guang
.

Wang Anshi's ideas are usually analyzed in terms of the influence the Rites of Zhou
Rites of Zhou
or Legalism had on him. His economic reforms included increase currency circulation, breaking up of private monopolies, and early forms of government regulation and social welfare. His military reforms expanded the use of local militias and his government reforms expanded the civil service examination system and attempted to suppress nepotism in government. Although successful for a while, he eventually fell out of favor of the emperor.

CONTENTS

* 1 Background * 2 Early career * 3 Major reform * 4 Wang’s downfall * 5 Poet * 6 Poems * 7 Legacy * 8 Works cited * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links

BACKGROUND

During the Song Dynasty, the unprecedented development of large estates , whose owners managed to evade paying their share of taxes , resulted in an increasingly heavy burden of taxation on commoners. The drop in state revenues, a succession of budget deficits , and widespread inflation prompted the Emperor Shenzong of Song
Emperor Shenzong of Song
to seek advice from Wang.

EARLY CAREER

Wang Anshi
Wang Anshi
came from a family of imperial scholars (進士 Jìnshì ) and was placed fourth in the imperial exam of 1042. He spent the first twenty years of his career in the regional government of the lower Yangtze region. During this period, he gained practical experience in local governance. This experience guided his analysis in formulating solutions to revitalize the ailing Song society.

MAJOR REFORM

Main article: New Policies (Song dynasty) Illustration of Wang Anshi from the Wan Xiao Tang, 1743.

Wang believed that the state has the responsibility to provide for its people the essentials for a decent living standard: "The state should take the entire management of commerce , industry , and agriculture into its own hands, with a view to succoring the working classes and preventing them from being ground into the dust by the rich."

Wang came to power as 2nd privy councilor in 1069. It was there that he introduced and promulgated his reform policy (xin fa 新法). There were three main components to this policy: 1) state finance and trade, 2) defense and social order, and 3) education and improving of governance. Some of the finance reforms included paying cash for labor in place of corvee labor , increase the supply of copper coins, improve management of trade, direct government loan to farmers during planting seasons and to be repaid at harvest. He believed that foundation of the state rests on the well being of the common people. To limit speculation and eliminate private monopolies , he initiated price control and regulated wages and set up pensions for the aged and unemployed. The state also began to institute public orphanages, hospitals, dispensaries, hospices, cemeteries, and reserve granaries.

The military reform centered on a new institution of the baojia system or organized households. This was done to ensure collective responsibility in society and was later used to strengthen local defense. He also proposed the creation of systems to breed military horses, the more efficient manufacture of weapons and training of the militia.

To improve education and government, he sought to break down the barrier between clerical and official careers as well as improving their supervision to prevent connections being used for personal gain. Tests in law, military affairs and medicine were added to the examination system, with mathematics added in 1104. The National Academy was transformed into a real school rather than simply a holding place for officials waiting for appointments. However, there was deep-seated resistance to the education reforms as it hurt bureaucrats coming in under the old system.

WANG’S DOWNFALL

Although Wang had the alliance of such prominent court figures as Shen Kuo
Shen Kuo
, imperial scholar-officials such as Su Dongpo
Su Dongpo
and Ouyang Xiu bitterly opposed these reforms on the grounds of tradition. They believed Wang's reforms were against the moral fundamentals of the Two Emperors and would therefore prevent the Song from experiencing the prosperity and peace of the ancients. The tide tilted in favor of the conservatives due to renewed foreign conflict. He was even temporarily removed from power and imprisoned in 1075.

Like many Chinese officials of the era, Wang's career experienced many ups and downs, but the beginning of the end came in 1074. A famine in northern China
China
drove many farmers off their lands. Their circumstances were made worse by the debts they had incurred from the seasonal loans granted under Wang’s reform initiatives. Local officials insisted on collecting on the loans as the farmers were leaving their land. This crisis was depicted as being Wang’s fault. The empress dowager was also an opponent of Wang. Wang wanted to resign, but the emperor still supported him, giving him high honors and an appointment to Jiangning (present-day Nanjing
Nanjing
.)

He was recalled by the emperor the following year, but now he was seen as vulnerable and was openly attacked from groups of conservatives. Wang returned to Nanjing, which he preferred to Kaifeng. He wrote and engaged in scholarship through to his death in 1086.

With Shenzong 's death in 1085, Wang was ousted and the New Policies were rolled back - some temporarily, some permanently.

POET

In addition to his political achievements, Wang Anshi
Wang Anshi
was a noted poet. He wrote poems in the shi form, modelled on those of Du Fu
Du Fu
. He was traditionally classed as one of the Eight Great Prose Masters of the Tang and Song (唐宋八大家).

POEMS

A well-known man-of-letters, Wang Anshi
Wang Anshi
produced many outstanding essays and poems. Green in the spring winds the south bank of the Yangtse When will the bright moon light my journey home

The above are his very reputed lines. One of eight famous literati of Tang-Song period, Wang Anshi
Wang Anshi
was known for writing with succinctness and profundity. He laid stress on literature's social function and that writings should serve a purpose. His essays "A Visit to Baochan Mountain" and "In Reply to Official Censor Sima's Letter" are widely read by posterity.

LEGACY

Chinese politicians and historians have continued to look back on the reforms of Wang Anshi
Wang Anshi
as either principled and measured or misguided and disastrous.

The twentieth-century Chinese warlord Yan Xishan
Yan Xishan
cited the reforms of Wang Anshi
Wang Anshi
to justify his use of a limited form of local democracy in Shanxi
Shanxi
. Yan believed that the focus and intent of Wang's reforms was to strengthen the Song dynasty
Song dynasty
by persuading ordinary Chinese to give the dynasty their active support, instead of merely serving it. The system of "democratic" government that Yan justified via the philosophy of Wang Anshi
Wang Anshi
was mostly focused on improving Yan's own popularity without holding any real power, and never became an effective alternative to military dictatorship. On the other hand, the popular scholar Lin Yutang
Lin Yutang
cast Wang as the equivalent of communist totalitarian government in his biography of Wang's adversary Su Dongpo
Su Dongpo
.

WORKS CITED

* Mote, F.W. (1999). Imperial China: 900-1800 . Harvard University Press . pp. 122, 138–142. * Gillin, Donald G. Warlord: Yen Hsi-shan in Shansi Province 1911–1949. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. 1967. LCCN 66-14308

SEE ALSO

* China
China
portal * Politics portal * Poetry portal * Biography portal

* History of the Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
* Chancellor of China
China
* Fan Zhongyan
Fan Zhongyan
* Sima Guang
Sima Guang
* Qin Hui * Wen Tianxiang
Wen Tianxiang

REFERENCES

* ^ hence referred to as Wáng Jīnggōng 王荊公 * ^ hence referred to as Wáng Wéngōng 王文公 * ^ D.B. Boulger (1881). History of China. pp. 388–. * ^ Man and the universe. Japan. Siberia. China. Carmelite House. 1907. pp. 771–. * ^ Patricia Buckley Ebrey, Paul Jakov Smith 2016 p.237. State Power in China, 900-1325. https://books.google.com/books?id=9SpADAAAQBAJ&pg=PA237 * ^ Mote ch. 6 * ^ Nourse, Mary A. 1944. A Short History of the Chinese, 3rd edition. P.136 * ^ " Wang Anshi
Wang Anshi
Chinese author and political reformer Britannica.com". britannica.com. Retrieved 2015-10-23. * ^ Mote p. 139 * ^ "Ethics of China
China
7 BC To 1279 by Sanderson Beck Song Dynasty Renaissance 960-1279". san.beck.org. Retrieved 2015-10-23. * ^ Mote p. 140 * ^ Mote p. 141 * ^ Mote p. 141-42 * ^ Gillin 42 * ^ Yutang Lin. Gay Genius: The Life and Times of Su Tungpo. New York: John Day, 1947; rpr. Hesperides 2008 ISBN 978-1-4437-2217-9 .

16. Wang. "CCTV-English Channel-civilization." CCTV-English Channel-civilization. Web. 28 Jan. 2016.

FURTHER READING

* Anderson, Gregory E., To Change China: A Tale of Three Reformers", Asia Pacific: Perspectives, 1:1 (2001).

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Works by Wang Anshi
Wang Anshi
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public