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Walter Wanger
Walter Wanger
(July 11, 1894 – November 18, 1968) was an American film producer active in filmmaking from the 1910s to the turbulent production of Cleopatra, his last film, in 1963. He began at Paramount Pictures in the 1920s and eventually worked at virtually every major studio as either a contract producer or an independent. He also served as president of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
from 1939 to October 1941 and from December 1941 to 1945. Strongly influenced by European films, Wanger developed a reputation as an intellectual and a socially conscious movie executive who produced provocative message movies and glittering romantic melodramas. He achieved notoriety when, in 1951, he shot and wounded the agent of his then-wife, Joan Bennett, because he suspected they were having an affair. He was convicted for the crime and served a four-month sentence, then returned to making movies.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Early career

2.1 Paramount 2.2 Columbia

3 Later career 4 Personal life and death 5 Scandal 6 Partial filmography 7 References

7.1 Bibliography

8 Sources 9 External links

Early life[edit] Wanger was born Walter Feuchtwanger in San Francisco, and pronounced "Wanger" to rhyme with "danger". He was the son of Stella (Stettheimer) and Sigmund Feuchtwanger, who were from German Jewish families that had emigrated to the United States in the nineteenth century.[1] Wanger was from a non-observant Jewish family, and in later life attended Episcopalian services with his wife. In order to assimilate into American society, his mother altered the family name simply to Wanger in 1908.[2] The Wangers were well-connected and upper middle class, something which later differentiated Wanger from the other Jewish film moguls who came from more ordinary backgrounds. Wanger attended Dartmouth College
Dartmouth College
in New Hampshire, where he developed an interest in Amateur theatre. After leaving Dartmouth, Wanger became a professional theatrical producer in New York City where he worked with figures such as the influential British manager Harley Granville-Barker and the Russian actress Alla Nazimova.[3] Following the American entry into World War I
American entry into World War I
in 1917, Wanger served with the United States Army in Italy initially in the Signal Corps where he worked as a pilot on reconnaissance missions,[4] and later in propaganda operations directed at the Italian public. It was during this period that Wanger first came into contact with filmmaking. In April 1918 Wanger was transferred to the Committee on Public Information, and joined an effort to combat anti-war or pro-German sentiment in Allied Italy. This was partly accomplished through a series of short propaganda films screened in Italian cinemas promoting democracy and Allied war aims.[5] After the Allied victory, Wanger returned to the United States in 1919 and was discharged from the army. Wanger married silent film actress Justine Johnstone
Justine Johnstone
in 1919. He initially returned to theatre production, before a chance meeting with Jesse Lasky
Jesse Lasky
drew him into the world of commercial filmmaking.[6] Lasky was impressed with Wanger's ideas and his experiences in the theatre, and hired him to head a New York office vetting and acquiring books and plays for use as film stories for Famous Players-Lasky
Famous Players-Lasky
(later to become Paramount), which was then the largest film production company in the world.[7] Early career[edit]

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Paramount[edit] Wanger's job was to help meet the studio's large annual requirement for fresh stories . One of Wanger's major successes in his early years with the company was his identification of the British novel The Sheik as a story with potential. In 1921 it was turned into an extremely successful film starring Rudolph Valentino. The film helped establish the popularity of the Orientalist genre, which Wanger returned to a number of times during his career.[8] By 1921, Wanger was unhappy with the terms he was receiving and left his job with Paramount. He travelled to Britain where he worked as a prominent cinema and theatre manager until 1924. While on a visit to London, Jesse Lasky
Jesse Lasky
offered to appoint him as "general manager of production" on improved terms and Wanger accepted.[9] Wanger's second spell with Paramount lasted from 1924 to 1931, during which time his annual wage rose from $150,000 to $250,000.[10] He was tasked with overseeing the work of the studio heads, which meant he had little involvement with the production of individual films. Because he was based in New York, Wanger worked more closely with the company's Astoria Studios in Queens, New York. A rivalry developed between Wanger-influenced Astoria productions and those of B. P. Schulberg who ran the Paramount productions in Hollywood.[11] From the mid-1920s, the company was rapidly overtaken by the recently formed Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
as the industry's leading company and this along with heavy losses incurred on big-budget films, led to Paramount's executives decision in 1927 to eventually close the New York operation and shift all production to Hollywood. Wanger opposed this move and felt he was being squeezed out of the company.[12] In 1926 Warner Brothers's premièred Don Juan, a film with music and sound effects, and the following year released The Jazz Singer
The Jazz Singer
with dialogue and singing scenes. Along with other big companies, Paramount initially resisted adopting sound films and continued to exclusively make silent films. Wanger convinced his colleagues of the importance of sound, and personally oversaw the conversion of a silent baseball film Warming Up to sound.[13] After the film's successful release, the company switched dramatically away from silent to sound. After being closed for a year, the Astoria Studios were re-opened in 1929 to make sound films, taking advantage of their close proximity to Broadway where many actors were recruited to appear in early Talkies. Wanger recruited large numbers of new performers including Maurice Chevalier, the Marx Brothers, Claudette Colbert, Jeanette MacDonald, Fredric March
Fredric March
and Miriam Hopkins
Miriam Hopkins
and directors such George Cukor
George Cukor
and Rouben Mamoulian.[14] Wanger's New York films were often adapted from stage plays and focused on sophisticated comedies, often with European settings, while Schulberg concentrated on more populist stories in Hollywood. As the effects of the Great Depression
Great Depression
hit the film industry in the early 1930s, the Astoria Studios increasingly struggled to produce box office hits, and in December 1931 it was closed down again. Wanger had been informed that his contract would not be renewed, and he had already left the company.[15] Columbia[edit] After leaving Paramount, Wanger tried unsuccessfully to set himself up as an independent. Unable to secure financing for films, he joined Columbia Pictures
Columbia Pictures
in December 1931. Wanger was recruited by Harry Cohn, who wanted to move Columbia away from its Poverty Row past by producing several special, large-budget productions each year to complement the bulk of the studio's low-budget films.[16] Wanger was to take on a greater personal role in individual films than he had previously, although he always attempted to give directors and screenwriters creative freedom. In general his efforts were overshadowed by the more successful films made by Frank Capra
Frank Capra
for Columbia. Later career[edit]

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Wanger was given an Honorary Academy Award in 1946 for his service as President of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. He refused another honorary Oscar in 1949 for Joan of Arc, out of anger over the fact that the film, which he felt was one of his best, had not been nominated for Best Picture.[17] His 1958 production of I Want to Live!
I Want to Live!
starred Susan Hayward
Susan Hayward
in an anti-capital punishment film that is one of the most highly regarded films on the subject. Hayward won her only Oscar for her role in the film. In 1963, Wanger was nominated for an Academy Award
Academy Award
for his production of Cleopatra. In May 1966, Wanger received the Commendation of the Order of Merit, Italy's third-highest honor, from Consul General Alvaro v. Bettrani, "for your friendship and cooperation with the Italian government in all phases of the motion picture industry."[18] Personal life and death[edit]

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Wanger married silent film actress Justine Johnstone
Justine Johnstone
in 1919. They divorced in 1938 and in 1940 he married Joan Bennett
Joan Bennett
to whom he remained married until their divorce in 1965. They had two daughters, Stephanie (born 1943) and Shelley Antonia (born 1948), and Wanger adopted Bennett's daughter, Diana, by her marriage to John Fox. Wanger died of a heart attack, aged 74, in New York City. He was interred in the Home of Peace Cemetery in Colma, California.[19] Scandal[edit]

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Starting in 1950, and continuing for 12 years, Bennett was represented by agent Jennings Lang. Formerly the vice-president of the Sam Jaffe Agency, he had become the head of MCA's West Coast television operations. On the afternoon of December 13, 1951, they had a meeting to talk over an upcoming television show. Bennett parked her Cadillac convertible in the lot at the back of the MCA offices, at Santa Monica Boulevard and Rexford Drive, across the street from the Beverly Hills Police Department, and she and Lang drove off in his car. Meanwhile, her husband Walter Wanger
Walter Wanger
drove by at about 2:30 p.m. and noticed his wife's car parked there. Half an hour later, he again saw her car there and stopped to wait. Bennett and Lang drove into the parking lot a few hours later and he walked her to her convertible. As she started the engine, turned on the headlights and prepared to drive away, Lang leaned on the car, with both hands raised to his shoulders, and talked to her. In a fit of jealousy, Wanger walked up and twice shot and wounded the unsuspecting agent. One bullet hit Jennings in the right thigh, near the hip, and the other penetrated his groin. Bennett said she did not see Wanger at first. She said she suddenly saw two livid flashes, then Lang slumped to the ground. As soon as she recognized who had fired the shots, she told Wanger, "Get away and leave us alone." He tossed the pistol into his wife's car.[20] She and the parking lot's service station manager took Lang to the agent's doctor. He was then taken to a hospital, where he recovered. The police, who had heard the shots, came to the scene and found the gun in Bennett's car when they took Wanger into custody. Wanger was booked and fingerprinted, and underwent lengthy questioning. He was booked on suspicion of assault with intent to commit murder. "I shot him because I thought he was breaking up my home", Wanger told the chief of police of Beverly Hills. Bennett denied a romance, however. "But if Walter thinks the relationships between Mr. Lang and myself are romantic or anything but strictly business, he is wrong", she declared. She blamed the trouble on financial setbacks involving film productions Wanger was involved with, and said he was on the verge of a nervous breakdown. The following day Wanger, out on bond, returned to their Holmby Hills home, collected his belongings and moved out. Bennett, however, said there would not be a divorce. The following is extracted from the book On Sunset Boulevard (1998, p. 431) by Ed Sikov:

In 1951, producer Walter Wanger
Walter Wanger
discovered that his wife, Joan Bennett, was having an affair with the agent Jennings Lang. Their encounters were brief and frequent. When Lang and Bennett weren't meeting clandestinely at vacation spots like New Orleans and the West Indies, they were back in L.A. enjoying weekday quickies at a Beverly Hills apartment otherwise occupied by one of Lang's underlings at the agency. When Wanger found proof of the affair, he did what any crazed cuckold would do: he shot Lang in the balls.

On December 14, Bennett issued a statement in which she said she hoped her husband "will not be blamed too much" for wounding her agent. She read the prepared statement in the bedroom of her home to a group of newspapermen while TV cameras recorded the scene. Wanger's attorney, Jerry Giesler, mounted a "temporary insanity" defense. He then decided to waive his rights to a jury and threw himself on the mercy of the court. Wanger served a four-month sentence in the County Honor Farm at Castaic, 39 miles north of Downtown Los Angeles, quickly returning to his career to make a series of successful films. The experience affected him profoundly, and in 1954 he made the prison film Riot in Cell Block 11. In David Niven's autobiography, Bring on the Empty Horses, Niven describes a similar incident as that of Lang in which Wanger stalked Errol Flynn
Errol Flynn
and threatened to kill him, believing he was also having an affair with Bennett. Partial filmography[edit]

The Sheik (1921) The Cocoanuts
The Cocoanuts
(1929) The Lady Lies (1929) Roadhouse Nights (1930) Tarnished Lady
Tarnished Lady
(1931) Washington Merry-Go-Round (1932) Gabriel Over the White House (1933) The Bitter Tea of General Yen
The Bitter Tea of General Yen
(1933) Going Hollywood (1933) Queen Christina (1933) The President Vanishes (1934) Private Worlds
Private Worlds
(1935) Every Night at Eight (1935) Shanghai (1935) Palm Springs (1936) The Trail of the Lonesome Pine (1936) History Is Made at Night (1937) Stand-In (1937) Blockade (1938) Trade Winds (1938) I Met My Love Again
I Met My Love Again
(1938) Stagecoach (1939) Eternally Yours (1939) Foreign Correspondent (1940)

Slightly Honorable (1940) The Long Voyage Home
The Long Voyage Home
(1940) The House Across the Bay
The House Across the Bay
(1940) Eagle Squadron (1942) Arabian Nights (1942) We've Never Been Licked
We've Never Been Licked
(1943) Gung Ho! (1943) Scarlet Street
Scarlet Street
(1945) Salome Where She Danced
Salome Where She Danced
(1945) Night in Paradise
Night in Paradise
(1946) Canyon Passage
Canyon Passage
(1946) Smash-Up, the Story of a Woman
Smash-Up, the Story of a Woman
(1947) The Lost Moment
The Lost Moment
(1947) Joan of Arc (1948) Secret Beyond the Door (1948) The Reckless Moment
The Reckless Moment
(1949) Tulsa (1949) Lady in the Iron Mask (1952) Kansas Pacific (1953) Riot in Cell Block 11
Riot in Cell Block 11
(1954) The Adventures of Hajji Baba (1954) Invasion of the Body Snatchers
Invasion of the Body Snatchers
(1956) Navy Wife
Navy Wife
(1956) I Want to Live!
I Want to Live!
(1958) Cleopatra (1963)

References[edit]

^ "Archival Resources in Wisconsin: Descriptive Finding Aids". Digicoll.library.wisc.edu. Retrieved 2017-07-26.  ^ Bernstein 2000, p. 6. ^ Bernstein 2000, pp. 23–30. ^ Bernstein 2000, p. 31. ^ Bernstein 2000, pp. 31–35. ^ Bernstein 2000, pp. 35–41. ^ Bernstein 2000, pp. 41–43. ^ Bernstein 2000, pp. 44–46. ^ Bernstein 2000, pp. 49–53. ^ Bernstein 2000, p. 54. ^ Bernstein 2000, pp. 60–61. ^ Bernstein 2000, pp. 62–63. ^ Bernstein 2000, p. 63. ^ Bernstein 2000, p. 65. ^ Bernstein 2000, pp. 68–69. ^ Bernstein 2000, pp. 75–77. ^ Booker, Keith M. (2011-03-17). Historical Dictionary of American Cinema. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810874596.  ^ Bernstein, Matthew (1994). Walter Wanger: Hollywood Independent. U of Minnesota Press. ISBN 9781452904689.  ^ Walter Wanger
Walter Wanger
on IMDb ^ " Joan Bennett
Joan Bennett
Sees Mate Shoot Agent –'Thought He Was Breaking Up My Home,' Says Wanger – Jennings Lang Hit by Two Bullets; Actress Denies Any Romance", Los Angeles Times, December 14, 1951, p. 1.

Bibliography[edit]

Sources[edit]

Bernstein, Matthew. Walter Wanger: Hollywood Independent. St. Paul, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-52008-127-7. Schatz, Thomas. The Genius of the System: Hollywood Filmmaking in the Studio Era. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1989. ISBN 978-0-39453-979-9.

Chrissochoidis, Ilias (ed.). The Cleopatra Files: Selected Documents from the Spyros P. Skouras Archive. Stanford, 2013. ISBN 978-0-61582-919-7.

External links[edit]

Walter Wanger
Walter Wanger
on IMDb Article on Wanger shooting Jennings Lang

Non-profit organization positions

Preceded by Frank Capra President of Academy of Motion Pictures, Arts and Sciences 1939–1941 Succeeded by Bette Davis

Preceded by Bette Davis President of Academy of Motion Pictures, Arts and Sciences 1941–1945 Succeeded by Jean Hersholt

Preceded by Bob Hope 12th Academy Awards Oscars host 13th Academy Awards Succeeded by Bob Hope 14th Academy Awards

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 15575719 LCCN: n85199162 ISNI: 0000 0000 8095 5093 GND: 119239604 SUDOC: 055823084 BNF: cb13611708r (data) BNE: XX1089572 SNAC: w6571khx

v t e

Films produced by Walter Wanger

The Sheik (1921) The Cocoanuts
The Cocoanuts
(1929) The Lady Lies (1929) Applause (1929) Roadhouse Nights (1930) Tarnished Lady
Tarnished Lady
(1931) Washington Merry-Go-Round (1932) Gabriel Over the White House (1933) The Bitter Tea of General Yen
The Bitter Tea of General Yen
(1933) Going Hollywood (1933) Another Language (1933) Queen Christina (1933) The President Vanishes (1934) Private Worlds
Private Worlds
(1935) Smart Girl (1935) Every Night at Eight (1935) Shanghai (1935) Mary Burns, Fugitive
Mary Burns, Fugitive
(1935) The Moon's Our Home
The Moon's Our Home
(1936) Her Master's Voice (1936) The Case Against Mrs. Ames
The Case Against Mrs. Ames
(1936) Fatal Lady
Fatal Lady
(1936) Palm Springs (1936) The Trail of the Lonesome Pine (1936) Big Brown Eyes
Big Brown Eyes
(1936) Spendthrift (1936) You Only Live Once (1937) Vogues of 1938 (1937) History Is Made At Night (1937) Stand-In (1937) 52nd Street (1937) Trade Winds (1938) Blockade (1938) Algiers (1938) I Met My Love Again
I Met My Love Again
(1938) Stagecoach (1939) Winter Carnival (1939) Eternally Yours (1939) Foreign Correspondent (1940) The Long Voyage Home
The Long Voyage Home
(1940) Slightly Honorable (1940) The House Across the Bay
The House Across the Bay
(1940) Sundown (1941) Eagle Squadron (1942) Arabian Nights (1942) We've Never Been Licked
We've Never Been Licked
(1943) Gung Ho! (1943) Ladies Courageous
Ladies Courageous
(1944) Scarlet Street
Scarlet Street
(1945) Salome, Where She Danced
Salome, Where She Danced
(1945) Night in Paradise
Night in Paradise
(1946) Canyon Passage
Canyon Passage
(1946) Smash-Up, the Story of a Woman
Smash-Up, the Story of a Woman
(1947) The Lost Moment
The Lost Moment
(1947) Tap Roots
Tap Roots
(1948) Joan of Arc (1948) Secret Beyond the Door (1948) The Reckless Moment
The Reckless Moment
(1949) Reign of Terror (1949) Tulsa (1949) Aladdin and His Lamp (1952) Lady in the Iron Mask (1952) Battle Zone (1952) Fort Vengeance (1953) Kansas Pacific (1953) Riot in Cell Block 11
Riot in Cell Block 11
(1954) The Adventures of Hajji Baba (1954) Invasion of the Body Snatchers
Invasion of the Body Snatchers
(1956) Navy Wife
Navy Wife
(1956) I Want to Live!
I Want to Live!
(1958) Cleopatra (1963)

v t e

Academy Honorary Award

1928–1950

Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
/ Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
(1928) Walt Disney
Walt Disney
(1932) Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
(1934) D. W. Griffith
D. W. Griffith
(1935) The March of Time
The March of Time
/ W. Howard Greene and Harold Rosson (1936) Edgar Bergen
Edgar Bergen
/ W. Howard Greene / Museum of Modern Art
Museum of Modern Art
Film Library / Mack Sennett
Mack Sennett
(1937) J. Arthur Ball / Walt Disney
Walt Disney
/ Deanna Durbin
Deanna Durbin
and Mickey Rooney
Mickey Rooney
/ Gordon Jennings, Jan Domela, Devereaux Jennings, Irmin Roberts, Art Smith, Farciot Edouart, Loyal Griggs, Loren L. Ryder, Harry D. Mills, Louis Mesenkop, Walter Oberst / Oliver T. Marsh and Allen Davey / Harry Warner
Harry Warner
(1938) Douglas Fairbanks
Douglas Fairbanks
/ Judy Garland
Judy Garland
/ William Cameron Menzies / Motion Picture Relief Fund (Jean Hersholt, Ralph Morgan, Ralph Block, Conrad Nagel)/ Technicolor Company (1939) Bob Hope
Bob Hope
/ Nathan Levinson (1940) Walt Disney, William Garity, John N. A. Hawkins, and the RCA Manufacturing Company / Leopold Stokowski
Leopold Stokowski
and his associates / Rey Scott / British Ministry of Information (1941) Charles Boyer
Charles Boyer
/ Noël Coward
Noël Coward
/ Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
(1942) George Pal
George Pal
(1943) Bob Hope
Bob Hope
/ Margaret O'Brien
Margaret O'Brien
(1944) Republic Studio, Daniel J. Bloomberg, and the Republic Studio Sound Department / Walter Wanger
Walter Wanger
/ The House I Live In / Peggy Ann Garner (1945) Harold Russell
Harold Russell
/ Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
/ Ernst Lubitsch
Ernst Lubitsch
/ Claude Jarman Jr. (1946) James Baskett
James Baskett
/ Thomas Armat, William Nicholas Selig, Albert E. Smith, and George Kirke Spoor
George Kirke Spoor
/ Bill and Coo / Shoeshine (1947) Walter Wanger
Walter Wanger
/ Monsieur Vincent
Monsieur Vincent
/ Sid Grauman
Sid Grauman
/ Adolph Zukor
Adolph Zukor
(1948) Jean Hersholt
Jean Hersholt
/ Fred Astaire
Fred Astaire
/ Cecil B. DeMille
Cecil B. DeMille
/ The Bicycle Thief (1949) Louis B. Mayer
Louis B. Mayer
/ George Murphy
George Murphy
/ The Walls of Malapaga (1950)

1951–1975

Gene Kelly
Gene Kelly
/ Rashomon
Rashomon
(1951) Merian C. Cooper
Merian C. Cooper
/ Bob Hope
Bob Hope
/ Harold Lloyd
Harold Lloyd
/ George Mitchell / Joseph M. Schenck / Forbidden Games
Forbidden Games
(1952) 20th Century-Fox Film Corporation / Bell & Howell Company / Joseph Breen / Pete Smith (1953) Bausch & Lomb Optical Company / Danny Kaye
Danny Kaye
/ Kemp Niver / Greta Garbo / Jon Whiteley
Jon Whiteley
/ Vincent Winter / Gate of Hell (1954) Samurai I: Musashi Miyamoto (1955) Eddie Cantor
Eddie Cantor
(1956) Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
/ Gilbert M. "Broncho Billy" Anderson / Charles Brackett / B. B. Kahane (1957) Maurice Chevalier
Maurice Chevalier
(1958) Buster Keaton
Buster Keaton
/ Lee de Forest
Lee de Forest
(1959) Gary Cooper
Gary Cooper
/ Stan Laurel
Stan Laurel
/ Hayley Mills
Hayley Mills
(1960) William L. Hendricks / Fred L. Metzler / Jerome Robbins
Jerome Robbins
(1961) William J. Tuttle
William J. Tuttle
(1964) Bob Hope
Bob Hope
(1965) Yakima Canutt
Yakima Canutt
/ Y. Frank Freeman
Y. Frank Freeman
(1966) Arthur Freed (1967) John Chambers / Onna White (1968) Cary Grant
Cary Grant
(1969) Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
/ Orson Welles
Orson Welles
(1970) Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
(1971) Charles S. Boren / Edward G. Robinson
Edward G. Robinson
(1972) Henri Langlois
Henri Langlois
/ Groucho Marx
Groucho Marx
(1973) Howard Hawks
Howard Hawks
/ Jean Renoir
Jean Renoir
(1974) Mary Pickford
Mary Pickford
(1975)

1976–2000

Margaret Booth (1977) Walter Lantz
Walter Lantz
/ Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
/ King Vidor
King Vidor
/ Museum of Modern Art Department of Film (1978) Hal Elias / Alec Guinness
Alec Guinness
(1979) Henry Fonda
Henry Fonda
(1980) Barbara Stanwyck
Barbara Stanwyck
(1981) Mickey Rooney
Mickey Rooney
(1982) Hal Roach
Hal Roach
(1983) James Stewart
James Stewart
/ National Endowment for the Arts
National Endowment for the Arts
(1984) Paul Newman
Paul Newman
/ Alex North (1985) Ralph Bellamy
Ralph Bellamy
(1986) Eastman Kodak
Kodak
Company / National Film Board of Canada
National Film Board of Canada
(1988) Akira Kurosawa
Akira Kurosawa
(1989) Sophia Loren
Sophia Loren
/ Myrna Loy
Myrna Loy
(1990) Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
(1991) Federico Fellini
Federico Fellini
(1992) Deborah Kerr
Deborah Kerr
(1993) Michelangelo Antonioni
Michelangelo Antonioni
(1994) Kirk Douglas
Kirk Douglas
/ Chuck Jones
Chuck Jones
(1995) Michael Kidd
Michael Kidd
(1996) Stanley Donen
Stanley Donen
(1997) Elia Kazan
Elia Kazan
(1998) Andrzej Wajda
Andrzej Wajda
(1999) Jack Cardiff
Jack Cardiff
/ Ernest Lehman (2000)

2001–present

Sidney Poitier
Sidney Poitier
/ Robert Redford
Robert Redford
(2001) Peter O'Toole
Peter O'Toole
(2002) Blake Edwards
Blake Edwards
(2003) Sidney Lumet
Sidney Lumet
(2004) Robert Altman
Robert Altman
(2005) Ennio Morricone
Ennio Morricone
(2006) Robert F. Boyle (2007) Lauren Bacall
Lauren Bacall
/ Roger Corman
Roger Corman
/ Gordon Willis
Gordon Willis
(2009) Kevin Brownlow / Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
/ Eli Wallach
Eli Wallach
(2010) James Earl Jones
James Earl Jones
/ Dick Smith (2011) D. A. Pennebaker
D. A. Pennebaker
/ Hal Needham
Hal Needham
/ George Stevens Jr.
George Stevens Jr.
(2012) Angela Lansbury
Angela Lansbury
/ Steve Martin
Steve Martin
/ Piero Tosi (2013) Jean-Claude Carrière
Jean-Claude Carrière
/ Hayao Miyazaki
Hayao Miyazaki
/ Maureen O'Hara
Maureen O'Hara
(2014) Spike Lee
Spike Lee
/ Gena Rowlands
Gena Rowlands
(2015) Jackie Chan
Jackie Chan
/ Lynn Stalmaster / Anne V. Coates / Frederick Wiseman (2016) Charles Burnett / Owen Roizman / Donald Sutherland
Donald Sutherland
/ Agnès

.