Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet, FRSE (15 August 1771 – 21 September
1832) was a Scottish historical novelist, playwright, poet and
historian. Many of his works remain classics of both English-language
literature and of Scottish literature. Famous titles include Ivanhoe,
Rob Roy, Old Mortality, The Lady of the Lake, Waverley, The Heart of
Midlothian and The Bride of Lammermoor.
Although primarily remembered for his extensive literary works and his
political engagement, Scott was an advocate, judge and legal
administrator by profession, and throughout his career combined his
writing and editing work with his daily occupation as Clerk of Session
Sheriff-Depute of Selkirkshire.
A prominent member of the
Tory establishment in Edinburgh, Scott was
an active member of the Highland Society and served a long term as
President of the Royal Society of
1 Life and works
1.1 Early days
1.2 Meeting with Blacklock and Burns
1.3 Start of literary career, marriage and family
1.6 Recovery of the Crown Jewels, baronetcy and ceremonial pageantry
1.7 Financial problems and death
2 Personal life
4.1 Later assessment
4.2 Memorials and commemoration
4.3 Literature by other authors
5.3 Short stories
6 See also
8 Further reading
9 External links
Life and works
Scott's childhood at Sandyknowes, in the shadow of Smailholm Tower,
introduced him to the tales and folklore of the Scottish Borders.
Walter Scott was born on 15 August 1771. He was the ninth child of
Walter Scott, a
Writer to the Signet
Writer to the Signet (solicitor), and Anne Rutherford.
His father was a member of a cadet branch of the Scotts Clan, and his
mother descended from the Haliburton family, the descent from whom
granted Walter's family the hereditary right of burial in Dryburgh
Abbey. Via the Haliburton family, Walter (b.1771) was a cousin of
the pre-eminent contemporaneous property developer James Burton, who
was a Haliburton who had shortened his surname, and of his son, the
architect Decimus Burton. Walter subsequently became a member of
the Clarence Club, of which the Burtons were also members.
Five of Walter's siblings died in infancy, and a sixth died when he
was five months of age. Walter was born in a third-floor flat on
College Wynd in the Old Town of Edinburgh, a narrow alleyway leading
Cowgate to the gates of the University of
College). He survived a childhood bout of polio in 1773 that left
him lame, a condition that was to have a significant effect on his
life and writing. To cure his lameness he was sent in 1773 to live
in the rural
Scottish Borders at his paternal grandparents' farm at
Sandyknowe, adjacent to the ruin of Smailholm Tower, the earlier
family home. Here he was taught to read by his aunt Jenny, and
learned from her the speech patterns and many of the tales and legends
that characterised much of his work. In January 1775 he returned to
Edinburgh, and that summer went with his aunt Jenny to take spa
treatment at Bath in England, where they lived at 6 South Parade.
In the winter of 1776 he went back to Sandyknowe, with another attempt
at a water cure at
Prestonpans during the following summer.
The Scotts' family home in George Square, Edinburgh
In 1778, Scott returned to
Edinburgh for private education to prepare
him for school, and joined his family in their new house built as one
of the first in George Square. In October 1779 he began at the
Royal High School of
Edinburgh (in High School Yards). He was now well
able to walk and explore the city and the surrounding countryside. His
reading included chivalric romances, poems, history and travel books.
He was given private tuition by James Mitchell in arithmetic and
writing, and learned from him the history of the Church of Scotland
with emphasis on the Covenanters. After finishing school he was sent
to stay for six months with his aunt Jenny in Kelso, attending the
local grammar school where he met James and John Ballantyne, who later
became his business partners and printed his books.
Meeting with Blacklock and Burns
Scott began studying classics at the University of
November 1783, at the age of 12, a year or so younger than most of his
fellow students. In March 1786 he began an apprenticeship in his
father's office to become a Writer to the Signet. While at the
university Scott had become a friend of Adam Ferguson, the son of
Adam Ferguson who hosted literary salons. Scott met the
blind poet Thomas Blacklock, who lent him books and introduced him to
Ossian cycle of poems. During the winter of
1786–87 the 15-year-old Scott saw
Robert Burns at one of these
salons, for what was to be their only meeting. When Burns noticed a
print illustrating the poem "The Justice of the Peace" and asked who
had written the poem, only Scott knew that it was by John Langhorne,
and was thanked by Burns. When it was decided that he would become
a lawyer, he returned to the university to study law, first taking
classes in Moral Philosophy and Universal History in 1789–90.
After completing his studies in law, he became a lawyer in Edinburgh.
As a lawyer's clerk he made his first visit to the Scottish Highlands
directing an eviction. He was admitted to the
Faculty of Advocates
Faculty of Advocates in
1792. He had an unsuccessful love suit with Williamina Belsches of
Fettercairn, who married Scott's friend Sir William Forbes, 7th
Start of literary career, marriage and family
A copy of Scott's Minstrelsy in the National Museum of Scotland
As a boy, youth and young man, Scott was fascinated by the oral
traditions of the Scottish Borders. He was an obsessive collector of
stories, and developed an innovative method of recording what he heard
at the feet of local story-tellers using carvings on twigs, to avoid
the disapproval of those who believed that such stories were neither
for writing down nor for printing. At the age of 25 he began to
write professionally, translating works from German, his first
publication being rhymed versions of ballads by Gottfried August
Bürger in 1796. He then published an idiosyncratic three-volume set
of collected ballads of his adopted home region, The Minstrelsy of the
Scottish Border. This was the first sign from a literary standpoint of
his interest in Scottish history.
As a result of his early polio infection, Scott had a pronounced limp.
He was described in 1820 as tall, well formed (except for one ankle
and foot which made him walk lamely), neither fat nor thin, with
forehead very high, nose short, upper lip long and face rather fleshy,
complexion fresh and clear, eyes very blue, shrewd and penetrating,
with hair now silvery white. Although a determined walker, on
horseback he experienced greater freedom of movement. Unable to
consider a military career, Scott enlisted as a volunteer in the 1st
Lothian and Border yeomanry.
On a trip to the
Lake District with old college friends he met
Charlotte Charpentier (or Carpenter), daughter of Jean Charpentier of
Lyon in France, and ward of Lord Downshire in Cumberland, an
Episcopalian. After three weeks of courtship, Scott proposed and they
were married on Christmas Eve 1797 in St Mary's Church, Carlisle (a
church set up in the now destroyed nave of Carlisle Cathedral).
After renting a house in George Street, they moved to nearby South
Castle Street. They had five children, of whom four survived by the
time of Scott's death, most baptized by an Episcopalian clergyman. In
1799 he was appointed
Sheriff-Depute of the County of Selkirk, based
Royal Burgh of Selkirk. In his early married days Scott had a
decent living from his earnings at the law, his salary as
Sheriff-Depute, his wife's income, some revenue from his writing, and
his share of his father's rather meagre estate.
After their third son was born in 1801, they moved to a spacious
three-storey house built for Scott at 39 North Castle Street. This
remained Scott's base in
Edinburgh until 1826, when he could no longer
afford two homes. From 1798 Scott had spent the summers in a cottage
at Lasswade, where he entertained guests including literary figures,
and it was there that his career as an author began. There were
nominal residency requirements for his position of Sheriff-Depute, and
at first he stayed at a local inn during the circuit. In 1804 he ended
his use of the
Lasswade cottage and leased the substantial house of
Ashestiel, 6 miles (9.7 km) from Selkirk. It was sited on the
south bank of the River Tweed, and the building incorporated an old
Scott's father, also Walter (1729–1799), was a Freemason, being a
member of Lodge St David, No.36 (Edinburgh), and Scott also became a
Freemason in his father's Lodge in 1801, albeit only after the death
of his father.
Sir Walter Scott, novelist and poet – painted by Sir William Allan
In 1796, Scott's friend James Ballantyne founded a printing press
in Kelso, in the Scottish Borders. Through Ballantyne, Scott was able
to publish his first works, including "Glenfinlas" and "The Eve of St.
John", and his poetry then began to bring him to public attention. In
The Lay of the Last Minstrel
The Lay of the Last Minstrel captured wide public imagination,
and his career as a writer was established in spectacular fashion.
The way was long, the wind was cold,
The Minstrel was infirm and old
The Lay of the Last Minstrel
The Lay of the Last Minstrel (first lines)
He published many other poems over the next ten years, including the
popular The Lady of the Lake, printed in 1810 and set in the
Trossachs. Portions of the German translation of this work were set to
music by Franz Schubert. One of these songs, "Ellens dritter Gesang",
is popularly labelled as "Schubert's Ave Maria".
Beethoven's opus 108 "Twenty-Five Scottish Songs" includes 3 folk
songs whose words are by Walter Scott.
Marmion, published in 1808, produced lines that have become
proverbial. Canto VI. Stanza 17 reads:
Yet Clare's sharp questions must I shun
Must separate Constance from the nun
Oh! what a tangled web we weave
When first we practise to deceive!
A Palmer too! No wonder why
I felt rebuked beneath his eye.
In 1809 Scott persuaded
James Ballantyne and his brother to move to
Edinburgh and to establish their printing press there. He became a
partner in their business. As a political conservative, Scott
helped to found the
Tory Quarterly Review, a review journal to which
he made several anonymous contributions. Scott was also a contributor
Edinburgh Review, which espoused Whig views.
Scott was ordained as an elder in the
Presbyterian Church of
Duddington and sat in the General Assembly for a time as
representative elder of the burgh of Selkirk.
When the lease of Ashestiel expired in 1811, Scott bought Cartley Hole
Farm, on the south bank of the
River Tweed nearer Melrose. The farm
had the nickname of "Clarty Hole", and when Scott built a family
cottage there in 1812 he named it "Abbotsford". He continued to expand
the estate, and built
Abbotsford House in a series of extensions.
In 1813 Scott was offered the position of Poet Laureate. He declined,
due to concerns that "such an appointment would be a poisoned
chalice", as the Laureateship had fallen into disrepute, due to the
decline in quality of work suffered by previous title holders, "as a
succession of poetasters had churned out conventional and obsequious
odes on royal occasions." He sought advice from the Duke of
Buccleuch, who counseled him to retain his literary independence, and
the position went to Scott's friend, Robert Southey.
A Legend of Montrose, illustration from the 1872 edition
Although Scott had attained worldwide celebrity through his poetry, he
soon tried his hand at documenting his researches into the oral
tradition of the
Scottish Borders in prose fiction—stories and
novels—at the time still considered aesthetically inferior to poetry
(above all to such classical genres as the epic or poetic tragedy) as
a mimetic vehicle for portraying historical events. In an innovative
and astute action, he wrote and published his first novel, Waverley,
anonymously in 1814. It was a tale of the Jacobite rising of 1745. Its
English protagonist, Edward Waverley, like
Don Quixote a great reader
of romances, has been brought up by his
Tory uncle, who is sympathetic
to Jacobitism, although Edward's own father is a Whig. The youthful
Waverley obtains a commission in the Whig army and is posted in
Dundee. On leave, he meets his uncle's friend, the Jacobite Baron
Bradwardine and is attracted to the Baron's daughter Rose. On a visit
to the Highlands, Edward overstays his leave and is arrested and
charged with desertion but is rescued by the Highland chieftain Fergus
MacIvor and his mesmerizing sister Flora, whose devotion to the Stuart
cause, "as it exceeded her brother's in fanaticism, excelled it also
in purity". Through Flora, Waverley meets Bonnie Prince Charlie, and
under her influence goes over to the Jacobite side and takes part in
the Battle of Prestonpans. He escapes retribution, however, after
saving the life of a Whig colonel during the battle. Waverley (whose
surname reflects his divided loyalties) eventually decides to lead a
peaceful life of establishment respectability under the House of
Hanover rather than live as a proscribed rebel. He chooses to marry
the beautiful Rose Bradwardine, rather than cast his lot with the
sublime Flora MacIvor, who, after the failure of the '45 rising,
retires to a French convent.
There followed a succession of novels over the next five years, each
with a Scottish historical setting. Mindful of his reputation as a
poet, Scott maintained the anonymity he had begun with Waverley,
publishing the novels under the name "Author of Waverley" or as "Tales
of..." with no author. Among those familiar with his poetry, his
identity became an open secret, but Scott persisted in maintaining the
façade, perhaps because he thought his old-fashioned father would
disapprove of his engaging in such a trivial pursuit as novel writing.
During this time Scott became known by the nickname "The Wizard of the
North". In 1815 he was given the honour of dining with George, Prince
Regent, who wanted to meet the "Author of Waverley".
"Edgar and Lucie at Mermaiden's well" by Charles Robert Leslie (1886),
after Sir Walter Scott's Bride of Lammermoor. Lucie is wearing a full
Scott's 1819 series
Tales of my Landlord
Tales of my Landlord is sometimes considered a
subset of the Waverley novels and was intended to illustrate aspects
of Scottish regional life. Among the best known is The Bride of
Lammermoor, a fictionalized version of an actual incident in the
history of the Dalrymple family that took place in the Lammermuir
Hills in 1669. In the novel, Lucie Ashton and the nobly born but now
dispossessed and impoverished Edgar Ravenswood exchange vows. But the
Ravenswoods and the wealthy Ashtons, who now own the former Ravenswood
lands, are enemies, and Lucie's mother forces her daughter to break
her engagement to Edgar and marry the wealthy Sir Arthur Bucklaw.
Lucie falls into a depression and on their wedding night stabs the
bridegroom, succumbs to insanity, and dies. In 1821, French Romantic
Eugène Delacroix painted a portrait depicting himself as the
melancholy, disinherited Edgar Ravenswood. The prolonged, climactic
coloratura mad scene for Lucia in Donizetti's 1835 bel canto opera
Lucia di Lammermoor
Lucia di Lammermoor is based on what in the novel were just a few
Tales of my Landlord
Tales of my Landlord includes the now highly regarded novel Old
Mortality, set in 1679–89 against the backdrop of the ferocious
anti-Covenanting campaign of the
Tory Graham of Claverhouse,
subsequently made Viscount
Dundee (called "Bluidy Clavers" by his
opponents but later dubbed "Bonnie Dundee" by Scott). The Covenanters
were presbyterians who had supported the Restoration of Charles II on
promises of a
Presbyterian settlement, but he had instead reintroduced
Episcopalian church government with draconian penalties for
Presbyterian worship. This led to the destitution of around 270
ministers who had refused to take an oath of allegiance and submit
themselves to bishops, and who continued to conduct worship among a
remnant of their flock in caves and other remote country spots. The
relentless persecution of these conventicles and attempts to break
them up by military force had led to open revolt. The story is told
from the point of view of Henry Morton, a moderate Presbyterian, who
is unwittingly drawn into the conflict and barely escapes summary
execution. In writing
Old Mortality Scott drew upon the knowledge he
had acquired from his researches into ballads on the subject for The
Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border. Scott's background as a lawyer
also informed his perspective, for at the time of the novel, which
takes place before the Act of Union of 1707, English law did not apply
in Scotland, and afterwards Scotland has continued to have its own
Scots law as a hybrid legal system. A recent critic, who is a legal as
well as a literary scholar, argues that
Old Mortality not only
reflects the dispute between Stuart's absolute monarchy and the
jurisdiction of the courts, but also invokes a foundational moment in
British sovereignty, namely, the Habeas Corpus Act (also known as the
Great Writ), passed by the
English Parliament in 1679. Oblique
reference to the origin of
Habeas corpus underlies Scott's next novel,
Ivanhoe, set during the era of the creation of the Magna Carta, which
political conservatives like
Walter Scott and
Edmund Burke regarded as
rooted in immemorial British custom and precedent.
Ivanhoe (1819), set in 12th-century England, marked a move away from
Scott's focus on the local history of Scotland. Based partly on Hume's
History of England and the ballad cycle of Robin Hood,
quickly translated into many languages and inspired countless
imitations and theatrical adaptations.
Ivanhoe depicts the cruel
tyranny of the Norman overlords (Norman Yoke) over the impoverished
Saxon populace of England, with two of the main characters, Rowena and
Locksley (Robin Hood), representing the dispossessed Saxon
aristocracy. When the protagonists are captured and imprisoned by a
Norman baron, Scott interrupts the story to exclaim:
It is grievous to think that those valiant barons, to whose stand
against the crown the liberties of England were indebted for their
existence, should themselves have been such dreadful oppressors, and
capable of excesses contrary not only to the laws of England, but to
those of nature and humanity. But, alas ...fiction itself can
hardly reach the dark reality of the horrors of the period. (Chapter
The institution of the Magna Carta, which happens outside the time
frame of the story, is portrayed as a progressive (incremental)
reform, but also as a step towards the recovery of a lost golden age
of liberty endemic to England and the English system. Scott puts a
derisive prophecy in the mouth of the jester Wamba:
Norman saw on English oak.
On English neck a Norman yoke;
Norman spoon to English dish,
And England ruled as Normans wish;
Blithe world in England never will be more,
Till England's rid of all the four. (Ivanhoe, Ch. xxvii)
Although on the surface an entertaining escapist romance, alert
contemporary readers would have quickly recognised the political
subtext of Ivanhoe, which appeared immediately after the English
Parliament, fearful of French-style revolution in the aftermath of
Waterloo, had passed the Habeas Corpus Suspension acts of 1817 and
1818 and other extremely repressive measures, and when traditional
English Charter rights versus revolutionary human rights was a topic
Ivanhoe was also remarkable in its sympathetic portrayal of Jewish
characters: Rebecca, considered by many critics the book's real
heroine, does not in the end get to marry Ivanhoe, whom she loves, but
Scott allows her to remain faithful to her own religion, rather than
having her convert to Christianity. Likewise, her father, Isaac of
York, a Jewish moneylender, is shown as a victim rather than a
villain. In Ivanhoe, which is one of Scott's Waverley novels,
religious and sectarian fanatics are the villains, while the eponymous
hero is a bystander who must weigh the evidence and decide where to
take a stand. Scott's positive portrayal of Judaism, which reflects
his humanity and concern for religious toleration, also coincided with
a contemporary movement for the Emancipation of the Jews in England.
Recovery of the Crown Jewels, baronetcy and ceremonial pageantry
Rediscovering the 'lost'
Honours of Scotland
Honours of Scotland in 1818
George IV landing at
Leith in 1822
Scott's fame grew as his explorations and interpretations of Scottish
history and society captured popular imagination. Impressed by this,
the Prince Regent (the future George IV) gave Scott permission to
conduct a search for the Crown Jewels ("Honours of Scotland"). During
the years of the Protectorate under Cromwell the Crown Jewels had been
hidden away, but had subsequently been used to crown Charles II. They
were not used to crown subsequent monarchs, but were regularly taken
to sittings of Parliament, to represent the absent monarch, until the
Act of Union 1707. Thereafter, the honours were stored in Edinburgh
Castle, but the large locked box in which they were stored was not
opened for more than 100 years, and stories circulated that they had
been "lost" or removed. In 1818, Scott and a small team of military
men opened the box, and "unearthed" the honours from the Crown Room in
the depths of
Edinburgh Castle. A grateful Prince Regent granted Scott
the title of baronet, and in March 1820 he received the baronetcy
in London, becoming Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet.
After George's accession to the throne, the city council of Edinburgh
invited Scott, at the King's behest, to stage-manage the 1822 visit of
King George IV to Scotland. With only three weeks for planning and
execution, Scott created a spectacular and comprehensive pageant,
designed not only to impress the King, but also in some way to heal
the rifts that had destabilised Scots society. He used the event to
contribute to the drawing of a line under an old world that pitched
his homeland into regular bouts of bloody strife. He, along with his
"production team", mounted what in modern days could be termed a PR
event, in which the King was dressed in tartan, and was greeted by his
people, many of whom were also dressed in similar tartan ceremonial
dress. This form of dress, proscribed after the 1745 rebellion against
the English, became one of the seminal, potent and ubiquitous symbols
of Scottish identity.
In his novel Kenilworth, Elizabeth I is welcomed to the castle of that
name by means of an elaborate pageant, the details of which Scott was
well qualified to itemize.
Much of Scott's autograph work shows an almost stream-of-consciousness
approach to writing. He included little in the way of punctuation in
his drafts, leaving such details to the printers to supply. He
eventually acknowledged in 1827 that he was the author of the Waverley
Financial problems and death
Sir Walter Scott's grave at Dryburgh Abbey
In 1825 a UK-wide banking crisis resulted in the collapse of the
Ballantyne printing business, of which Scott was the only partner with
a financial interest; the company's debts of £130,000 (equivalent to
£9,800,000 in 2016) caused his very public ruin. Rather than
declare himself bankrupt, or to accept any kind of financial support
from his many supporters and admirers (including the king himself), he
placed his house and income in a trust belonging to his creditors, and
determined to write his way out of debt. He kept up his prodigious
output of fiction, as well as producing a biography of Napoleon
Bonaparte, until 1831. By then his health was failing, but he
nevertheless undertook a grand tour of Europe, and was welcomed and
celebrated wherever he went. He returned to Scotland and, in September
1832, during the epidemic in Scotland that year, died of typhus at
Abbotsford, the home he had designed and had built, near Melrose in
the Scottish Borders. (His wife, Lady Scott, had died in 1826 and was
buried as an Episcopalian.) Two
Presbyterian ministers and one
Episcopalian officiated at his funeral. Scott died owing money,
but his novels continued to sell, and the debts encumbering his estate
were discharged shortly after his death.
Scott married Charlotte Carpenter in St Mary's Church, Carlisle
Cathedral on Christmas Eve 1797.
Scott's eldest son, Lt Walter Scott, inherited his father's estate and
possessions. He married Jane Jobson, only daughter of William Jobson
Lochore (died 1822) and his wife Rachel Stuart (died 1863), on 3
Scott, Sr.'s lawyer from at least 1814 was Hay Donaldson WS (died
1822), who was also agent to the Duke of Buccleuch. Scott was
Donaldson's proposer when he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society
Scott was raised a
Presbyterian but later also adhered to the Scottish
Episcopal Church. Many have suggested this demonstrates both his
nationalistic and unionistic tendencies. He was ordained as an
elder in the
Presbyterian Church of Duddington and sat in the General
Assembly for a time as representative elder of the burgh of
Selkirk. However, he received an Episcopal funeral at his own
insistence. His Christian beliefs were explained and developed
upon in his Religious Discourses of 1828.
His distant cousin was the poet Randall Swingler.
Tomb of Walter Scott, in
Dryburgh Abbey by Henry Fox Talbot, 1844
When Scott was a boy, he sometimes travelled with his father from
Selkirk to Melrose, where some of his novels are set. At a certain
spot the old gentleman would stop the carriage and take his son to a
stone on the site of the
Battle of Melrose (1526).
During the summers from 1804, Scott made his home at the large house
of Ashestiel, on the south bank of the
River Tweed 6 miles
(9.7 km) north of Selkirk. When his lease on this property
expired in 1811, Scott bought Cartley Hole Farm, downstream on the
Tweed nearer Melrose. The farm had the nickname of "Clarty Hole", and
when Scott built a family cottage there in 1812 he named it
"Abbotsford". He continued to expand the estate, and built Abbotsford
House in a series of extensions. The farmhouse developed into a
wonderful home that has been likened to a fairy palace. Scott was a
pioneer of the Scottish Baronial style of architecture, therefore
Abbotsford is festooned with turrets and stepped gabling. Through
windows enriched with the insignia of heraldry the sun shone on suits
of armour, trophies of the chase, a library of more than 9,000
volumes, fine furniture, and still finer pictures. Panelling of oak
and cedar and carved ceilings relieved by coats of arms in their
correct colours added to the beauty of the house.[verification
It is estimated that the building cost Scott more than £25,000
(equivalent to £1,900,000 in 2016). More land was purchased until
Scott owned nearly 1,000 acres (4.0 km2). A Roman road with a
ford near Melrose used in olden days by the abbots of Melrose
suggested the name of Abbotsford. Scott was buried in Dryburgh Abbey,
where his wife had earlier been interred. Nearby is a large statue of
William Wallace, one of Scotland's many romanticised historical
figures. Abbotsford later gave its name to the Abbotsford Club,
founded in 1834 in memory of Sir Walter Scott.
Part of the Politics series on
High Church Anglicanism
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1st Earl of Rochester
1st Viscount Bolingbroke
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1st Duke of Wellington
G. K. Chesterton
Although he continued to be extremely popular and widely read, both at
home and abroad, Scott's critical reputation declined in the last
half of the 19th century as serious writers turned from romanticism to
realism, and Scott began to be regarded as an author suitable for
children. This trend accelerated in the 20th century. For example, in
his classic study
Aspects of the Novel
Aspects of the Novel (1927),
E. M. Forster
E. M. Forster harshly
criticized Scott's clumsy and slapdash writing style, "flat"
characters, and thin plots. In contrast, the novels of Scott's
contemporary Jane Austen, once appreciated only by the discerning few
(including, as it happened, Scott himself) rose steadily in critical
esteem, though Austen, as a female writer, was still faulted for her
narrow ("feminine") choice of subject matter, which, unlike Scott,
avoided the grand historical themes traditionally viewed as masculine.
Nevertheless, Scott's importance as an innovator continued to be
recognized. He was acclaimed as the inventor of the genre of the
modern historical novel (which others trace to Jane Porter, whose work
in the genre predates Scott's) and the inspiration for enormous
numbers of imitators and genre writers both in Britain and on the
European continent. In the cultural sphere, Scott's Waverley novels
played a significant part in the movement (begun with James
Ossian cycle) in rehabilitating the public perception of
Scottish Highlands and its culture, which had been formerly
suppressed as barbaric, and viewed in the southern mind as a breeding
ground of hill bandits, religious fanaticism, and Jacobite rebellions.
Scott served as chairman of the Royal Society of
Edinburgh and was
also a member of the Royal Celtic Society. His own contribution to the
reinvention of Scottish culture was enormous, even though his
re-creations of the customs of the Highlands were fanciful at times,
despite his extensive travels around his native country. It is a
testament to Scott's contribution in creating a unified identity for
Scotland that Edinburgh's central railway station, opened in 1854 by
the North British Railway, is called Waverley. The fact that Scott was
a Lowland Presbyterian, rather than a Gaelic-speaking Catholic
Highlander, made him more acceptable to a conservative English reading
public. Scott's novels were certainly influential in the making of the
Victorian craze for all things Scottish among British royalty, who
were anxious to claim legitimacy through their rather attenuated
historical connection with the royal house of Stuart.
At the time Scott wrote, Scotland was poised to move away from an era
of socially divisive clan warfare to a modern world of literacy and
industrial capitalism. Through the medium of Scott's novels, the
violent religious and political conflicts of the country's recent past
could be seen as belonging to history—which Scott defined, as the
subtitle of Waverley ("'Tis Sixty Years Since") indicates, as
something that happened at least 60 years ago. Scott's advocacy of
objectivity and moderation and his strong repudiation of political
violence on either side also had a strong, though unspoken,
contemporary resonance in an era when many conservative English
speakers lived in mortal fear of a revolution in the French style on
British soil. Scott's orchestration of King George IV's visit to
Scotland, in 1822, was a pivotal event intended to inspire a view of
his home country that, in his view, accentuated the positive aspects
of the past while allowing the age of quasi-medieval blood-letting to
be put to rest, while envisioning a more useful, peaceful future.
After Scott's work had been essentially unstudied for many decades, a
revival of critical interest began from the 1960s.
favoured discontinuous narratives and the introduction of the "first
person", yet they were more favourable to Scott's work than Modernist
F. R. Leavis
F. R. Leavis had disdained Scott, seeing him as a
thoroughly bad novelist and a thoroughly bad influence (The Great
György Lukács (The Historical Novel [1937, trans.
David Daiches (Scott's Achievement as a Novelist )
offered a Marxian political reading of Scott's fiction that generated
a great deal of genuine interest in his work. Scott is now seen as an
important innovator and a key figure in the development of Scottish
and world literature, and particularly as the principal inventor of
the historical novel.
Memorials and commemoration
Scott Monument on Edinburgh's Princes Street
Statue by Sir
John Steell on the
Scott Monument in Edinburgh
Scott Monument in Glasgow's George Square
Statue on the
During his lifetime, Scott's portrait was painted by Sir Edwin
Landseer and fellow Scots Sir
Henry Raeburn and James Eckford Lauder.
In Edinburgh, the 61.1-metre-tall
Victorian Gothic spire of the Scott
Monument was designed by George Meikle Kemp. It was completed in 1844,
12 years after Scott's death, and dominates the south side of Princes
Street. Scott is also commemorated on a stone slab in Makars' Court,
outside The Writers' Museum, Lawnmarket, Edinburgh, along with other
prominent Scottish writers; quotes from his work are also visible on
Canongate Wall of the
Scottish Parliament building
Scottish Parliament building in Holyrood.
There is a tower dedicated to his memory on
Corstorphine Hill in the
west of the city and, as mentioned, Edinburgh's Waverley railway
station takes its name from one of his novels.
In Glasgow, Walter Scott's Monument dominates the centre of George
Square, the main public square in the city. Designed by
David Rhind in
1838, the monument features a large column topped by a statue of
Scott. There is a statue of Scott in New York City's Central
Numerous Masonic Lodges have been named after him and his novels. For
example: Lodge Sir Walter Scott, No. 859 (Perth, Australia) and Lodge
Waverley, No. 597 (Edinburgh, Scotland).
Walter Scott Prize for Historical Fiction was created in
2010 by the Duke and Duchess of Buccleuch, whose ancestors were
closely linked to Sir Walter Scott. At £25,000, it is one of the
largest prizes in British literature. The award has been presented at
Scott's historic home, Abbotsford House.
Scott has been credited with rescuing the Scottish banknote. In 1826,
there was outrage in Scotland at the attempt of Parliament to prevent
the production of banknotes of less than five pounds. Scott wrote a
series of letters to the
Edinburgh Weekly Journal under the pseudonym
"Malachi Malagrowther" for retaining the right of Scottish banks to
issue their own banknotes. This provoked such a response that the
Government was forced to relent and allow the Scottish banks to
continue printing pound notes. This campaign is commemorated by his
continued appearance on the front of all notes issued by the Bank of
Scotland. The image on the 2007 series of banknotes is based on the
portrait by Henry Raeburn.
During and immediately after World War I there was a movement
spearheaded by President Wilson and other eminent people to inculcate
patriotism in American school children, especially immigrants, and to
stress the American connection with the literature and institutions of
the "mother country" of Great Britain, using selected readings in
middle school textbooks. Scott's
Ivanhoe continued to be required
reading for many American high school students until the end of the
A bust of Scott is in the Hall of Heroes of the National Wallace
Monument in Stirling.
Literature by other authors
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
'On Walter Scott',
a poem by L. E. L.
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
'Sir Walter Scott',
a poem by L. E. L.
Letitia Elizabeth Landon
Letitia Elizabeth Landon was a great admirer of Scott and, on his
death, she wrote two tributes to him: On
Walter Scott in the Literary
Gazette, and Sir
Walter Scott in Fisher's Drawing Room Scrap Book,
1833. Towards the end of her life she began a series called The Female
Picture Gallery with a series of character analyses based on the women
in Scott's works.
In Charles Baudelaire's
La Fanfarlo (1847), poet Samuel Cramer says of
Oh that tedious author, a dusty exhumer of chronicles! A fastidious
mass of descriptions of bric-a-brac ... and castoff things of
every sort, armor, tableware, furniture, gothic inns, and melodramatic
castles where lifeless mannequins stalk about, dressed in leotards.
In the novella, however, Cramer proves as deluded a romantic as any
hero in one of Scott's novels.
In Anne Brontë's
The Tenant of Wildfell Hall
The Tenant of Wildfell Hall (1848) the narrator,
Gilbert Markham, brings an elegantly bound copy of Marmion as a
present to the independent "tenant of Wildfell Hall" (Helen Graham)
whom he is courting, and is mortified when she insists on paying for
In a speech delivered at Salem, Massachusetts, on 6 January 1860, to
raise money for the families of the executed abolitionist John Brown
and his followers,
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Ralph Waldo Emerson calls Brown an example of true
chivalry, which consists not in noble birth but in helping the weak
and defenseless and declares that "
Walter Scott would have delighted
to draw his picture and trace his adventurous career".
In his 1870 memoir, Army Life in a Black Regiment, New England
Thomas Wentworth Higginson
Thomas Wentworth Higginson (later editor of Emily
Dickinson), described how he wrote down and preserved Negro spirituals
or "shouts" while serving as a colonel in the First South Carolina
Volunteers, the first authorized Union Army regiment recruited from
freedmen during the Civil War (memorialized in the 1989 film Glory).
He wrote that he was "a faithful student of the Scottish ballads, and
had always envied Sir Walter the delight of tracing them out amid
their own heather, and of writing them down piecemeal from the lips of
According to his daughter Eleanor, Scott was "an author to whom Karl
Marx again and again returned, whom he admired and knew as well as he
did Balzac and Fielding".
In his 1883 Life on the Mississippi,
Mark Twain satirized the impact
of Scott's writings, declaring (with humorous hyperbole) that Scott
"had so large a hand in making Southern character, as it existed
before the [American Civil] war", that he is "in great measure
responsible for the war". He goes on to coin the term "Sir Walter
Scott disease", which he blames for the South's lack of advancement.
Twain also targeted Scott in Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, where he
names a sinking boat the "Walter Scott" (1884); and, in A Connecticut
Yankee in King Arthur's Court (1889), the main character repeatedly
utters "great Scott" as an oath; by the end of the book, however, he
has become absorbed in the world of knights in armor, reflecting
Twain's ambivalence on the topic.
The idyllic Cape Cod retreat of suffragists Verena Tarrant and Olive
Chancellor in Henry James'
The Bostonians (1886) is called Marmion,
evoking what James considered the Quixotic idealism of these social
To the Lighthouse
To the Lighthouse by Virginia Woolf, Mrs. Ramsey glances at her
He was reading something that moved him very much ... He was
tossing the pages over. He was acting it – perhaps he was thinking
himself the person in the book. She wondered what book it was. Oh, it
was one of old Sir Walter's she saw, adjusting the shade of her lamp
so that the light fell on her knitting. For Charles Tansley had been
saying (she looked up as if she expected to hear the crash of books on
the floor above) – had been saying that people don’t read Scott
any more. Then her husband thought, "That's what they’ll say of me;"
so he went and got one of those books ... It fortified him. He
clean forgot all the little rubs and digs of the evening... and his
being so irritable with his wife and so touchy and minding when they
passed his books over as if they didn’t exist at
all ...[Scott's] feeling for straight forward simple things,
these fishermen, the poor old crazed creature in Mucklebackit's
cottage [in The Antiquary] made him feel so vigorous, so relieved of
something that he felt roused and triumphant and could not choke back
his tears. Raising the book a little to hide his face he let them fall
and shook his head from side to side and forgot himself completely
(but not one or two reflections about morality and French novels and
English novels and Scott's hands being tied but his view perhaps being
as true as the other view), forgot his own bothers and failures
completely in poor Steenie's drowning and Mucklebackit's sorrow (that
was Scott at his best) and the astonishing delight and feeling of
vigor that it gave him.
Well, let them improve upon that, he thought as he finished the
chapter ... The whole of life did not consist in going to bed
with a woman, he thought, returning to Scott and Balzac, to the
English novel and the French novel.
In 1951, science-fiction author
Isaac Asimov wrote Breeds There a
Man...?, a short story with a title alluding vividly to Scott's The
Lay of the Last Minstrel (1805).
To Kill a Mockingbird
To Kill a Mockingbird (1960), the protagonist's brother is made to
read Walter Scott's book
Ivanhoe to the ailing Mrs. Henry Lafayette
Dubose, and he refers to the author as "Sir Walter Scout", in
reference to his own sister's nickname.
Mother Night (1961) by
Kurt Vonnegut Jr., memoirist and playwright
Howard W. Campbell Jr. prefaces his text with the six lines beginning
"Breathes there the man..."
In Knights of the Sea (2010) by Canadian author Paul Marlowe, there
are several quotes from and references to Marmion, as well as an inn
named after Ivanhoe, and a fictitious Scott novel entitled The
Beastmen of Glen Glammoch.
Walter Scott by Robert Scott Moncrieff.
Waverley Novels is the title given to the long series of Scott
novels released from 1814 to 1832 which takes its name from the first
novel, Waverley. The following is a chronological list of the entire
1815: Guy Mannering
1816: The Antiquary
1816: The Black Dwarf and The Tale of
Old Mortality – the 1st
installment from the subset series, Tales of My Landlord
1817: Rob Roy
The Heart of Midlothian
The Heart of Midlothian – the 2nd installment from the subset
series, Tales of My Landlord
The Bride of Lammermoor
The Bride of Lammermoor and
A Legend of Montrose
A Legend of Montrose – the 3rd
installment from the subset series, Tales of My Landlord
The Monastery and
The Abbot – from the subset series, Tales
from Benedictine Sources
1822: The Pirate
1822: The Fortunes of Nigel
1822: Peveril of the Peak
1823: Quentin Durward
1824: St. Ronan's Well
1825: The Betrothed and The Talisman – from the subset series, Tales
of the Crusaders
The Fair Maid of Perth
The Fair Maid of Perth – the 2nd installment from the subset
series, Chronicles of the
Canongate (sometimes not considered as part
Waverley Novels series)
1829: Anne of Geierstein
Count Robert of Paris
Count Robert of Paris and
Castle Dangerous – the 4th
installment from the subset series, Tales of My Landlord
1831–1832: The Siege of Malta – a finished novel published
posthumously in 2008
1832: Bizarro – an unfinished novel (or novella) published
posthumously in 2008
Many of the short poems or songs released by Scott (or later
anthologized) were originally not separate pieces but parts of longer
poems interspersed throughout his novels, tales, and dramas.
1796: "The Chase" – an English-language translation of the
German-language poem by
Gottfried August Bürger
Gottfried August Bürger entitled "Der Wilde
Jäger" (or, "The Wild Huntsmen", its more common English
translation), first of the translations and imitations from German
ballads by Scott
1802–1803: The Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border
1805: The Lay of the Last Minstrel
1806: Ballads and Lyrical Pieces
1810: The Lady of the Lake
1811: The Vision of Don Roderick
1813: The Bridal of Triermain
1815: The Field of Waterloo
1815: The Lord of the Isles
1817: Harold the Dauntless
1827: "The Highland Widow", "The Two Drovers", and "The Surgeon's
Daughter" – the 1st installment from the series Chronicles of the
1828: "My Aunt Margaret's Mirror", "The Tapestried Chamber", and
"Death of the Laird's Jock" – from the series The Keepsake Stories
1799: Goetz of Berlichingen, with the Iron Hand: A Tragedy – an
English-language translation of the 1773 German-language play by
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe entitled Götz von Berlichingen
1822: Halidon Hill
1823: MacDuff's Cross
1830: The Doom of Devorgoil
1796 Translations & imitations of German Ballads Librivox audio
1814–1817: The Border Antiquities of England and Scotland – a work
Luke Clennell and
John Greig with Scott's contribution
consisting of the substantial introductory essay, originally published
in 2 volumes from 1814 to 1817
1815–1824: Essays on Chivalry, Romance, and Drama – a supplement
to the 1815–1824 editions of the Encyclopædia Britannica
1816: Paul's Letters to his Kinsfolk
1819–1826: Provincial Antiquities of Scotland
1821–1824: Lives of the Novelists
1825–1832: The Journal of Sir Walter Scott
1826: The Letters of Malachi Malagrowther
1827: The Life of Napoleon Buonaparte
1828: Religious Discourses
1828: Tales of a Grandfather; Being Stories Taken from Scottish
History – the 1st installment from the series, Tales of a
1829: The History of Scotland: Volume I
1829: Tales of a Grandfather; Being Stories Taken from Scottish
History – the 2nd installment from the series, Tales of a
1830: Essays on Ballad Poetry
1830: The History of Scotland: Volume II
1830: Tales of a Grandfather; Being Stories Taken from Scottish
History – the 3rd installment from the series, Tales of a
1830: Letters on Demonology and Witchcraft
1831: Tales of a Grandfather; Being Stories Taken from the History of
France – the 4th installment from the series, Tales of a Grandfather
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Walter Scott
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Operas inspired by Walter Scott
Jedediah Cleishbotham (fictional editor of Tales of My Landlord, and
Scott's alter ego)
G. A. Henty
Alexandre Dumas, père
GWR Waverley Class steam locomotives
"Famous Scots Series"
Clerk of Session
Clerk of Session and Justiciary
^ "Family Background". Retrieved 2011-04-09.
^ "Who were the Burtons". The Burtons' St Leonards Society. Retrieved
18 September 2017.
^ Beattie, William (1849). Life and Letters of Thomas Campbell, In
Three Volumes, Volume II. Edward Moxon, Dover Street, London.
^ The Athenaeum, Volume 3, Issues 115–165. J. Lection, London. 1830.
^ a b c d e
Edinburgh University Library (22 October 2004). "Homes of
Sir Walter Scott". x
Edinburgh University Library. Retrieved 9 July
^ Cone, T E (1973). "Was Sir Walter Scott's Lameness Caused by
Poliomyelitis?". Pediatrics. 51 (1): 33.
^ Robertson, Fiona. "Disfigurement and Disability: Walter Scott's
Bodies". Otranto.co.uk. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
^ a b "Sandyknowe and Early Childhood". Retrieved 2011-04-09.
^ "No 1 Nos 2 and 3 (Farrell's Hotel) Nos 4 to 8 (consec) (Pratt's
Hotel)". Images of England. English Heritage. Retrieved 29 July
^ a b "School and University". Walterscott.lib.ed.ac.uk. 24 October
2003. Retrieved 29 November 2009.
^ "Literary Beginnings". Walterscott.lib.ed.ac.uk. 11 December 2007.
Retrieved 29 November 2009.
^ Walter, Sir Walter (2012). The Lady of the Lake. Lititz,
Pennsylvania: AP Publishing House. p. 308.
ISBN 9781105941573. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
^ BBC profile
^ Leslie C. R. Letter to Miss C Leslie dated 26 June 1820 in
Autobiographical recollections ed. Tom Taylor, Ticknor & Fields,
^ 1st Lothians and Border Yeomanry
^ ""Williamina, Charlotte and Marriage"". University of Edinburgh. 24
October 2003. Retrieved 31 October 2017.
^ Cooper, Robert L D, Ed. 2010. Famous Scottish Freemasons, pp
58–59. ISBN 978-0-9560933-8-7
Edinburgh Archive – Ballantyne Brothers
^ The early editions of Marmion use Scott's original spelling of
"practice" (still used in the U.S.A). Later editions, compiled without
Scott's oversight, usually favour the modern standard British English
spelling of "practise".
^ Hay, James (1899). Sir Walter Scott. London. p. 258.
ISBN 978-1278170947. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
^ "Scott the Poet". Walterscott.lib.ed.ac.uk. 11 December 2007.
Retrieved 29 November 2009.
Old Mortality on the University of
Edinburgh Walter Scott
^ See Amy Witherbee, in "Habeas Corpus: British Imaginations of Power
in Walter Scott's Old Mortality", New Literary History 39 (2008):
By the 1670s, conflicts between religious dissidents and the Stuart
Crown had given way to a Crown policy of seizing and imprisoning
opponents without recourse to the courts. In 1679, this policy of
using extrajudicial imprisonments to quell rebellion finally provoked
English Parliament to pass the Act of Habeas Corpus in England.
Usually translated as "produce the body", habeas corpus could be
invoked by any subject to require that the king or his agents produce
the body of a prisoner for adjudication before the courts. In its
barest terms the Great Writ protected a subject from indefinite terms
of imprisonment, from imprisonment outside the kingdom, or from
imprisonment without cause. It did so by asserting the jurisdiction of
the courts as superior to the executive powers of the king. The Act
was thus part of a long debate within the three kingdoms about the
relationship of king to law and vice versa.
^ Witherbee (2008), pp. 363–64.
Habeas corpus had been suspended in
the mid-1790s at the time of the French Revolution by William Pitt,
who had called the French declaration of human rights "monstrous".
Widely publicised trials for sedition took place in
and in London (1794)
John Thelwall and two others were charged with
treason. The Scottish defendants received harsh sentences whereas the
English ones were acquitted. According to historian Anne Stott: "The
difference between the English and Scottish trials reflects the
different legal systems. Ironically, the acquittals made the loyalist
case—that England was a country where a man could have a fair
^ a b "Chronology of Walter Scott's life".
Walter Scott Digital
Archive. Retrieved 2 May 2015.
^ "The Abbot".
Walter Scott Digital Archive. Retrieved 2 May 2015.
Scott had travelled to London in March  to receive his
^ a b "
Walter Scott Digital Archive – Chronology".
Walterscott.lib.ed.ac.uk. 13 Oct 2008. Retrieved 29 Nov 2009.
^ Stuart Kelly quoted by Arnold Zwicky in The Book of Lost Books
^ a b McKinstry, Sam; Fletcher, Marie (2002). "The Personal Account
Books of Sir Walter Scott". The Accounting Historians Journal. 29:
59–89. JSTOR 40698269. (Subscription required (help)).
^ London Medical and Surgical Journal, January 1833
Edinburgh Profile, Financial Hardship
^ Monuments and monumental inscriptions in Scotland: The Grampian
^ BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF FORMER FELLOWS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF
EDINBURGH 1783 – 2002 (PDF). The Royal Society of Edinburgh. July
2006. ISBN 0 902 198 84 X.
^ Lockhart, John Gibson (1837). Memoirs of the Life of Sir Walter
Scott, Bart. Philadelphia. p. 1.397. Retrieved 7 November
Abbotsford House website.
^ Scott, Sir Walter; Grant, George (2001). From Bannockburn to
Flodden: Wallace, Bruce, and the Heroes of Medieval Scotland.
Nashville: Cumberland. p. viii. ISBN 978-1581821277.
^ The Oxford Companion to English Literature, 6th Edition. Edited by
Margaret Drabble, Oxford University Press, 2000 Pp1
^ "…it would be difficult to name, from among both modern and
ancient works, many read more widely and with greater pleasure than
the historical novels of … Walter Scott." – Alessandro Manzoni, On
the Historical Novel.
^ Higgins, Charlotte (16 August 2010). "Scotland's image-maker Sir
Walter Scott 'invented English legends'". The Guardian. London.
^ "Glasgow, George Square, Walter Scott's Monument". Retrieved
^ New York monument
^ Grand Lodge of Scotland Year Book. 2014. pp 25 & 34.
^ Scottish Banks
^ For example, see the textbook compiled by Emma Serl and William J.
Pelo, American Ideals: Selected Patriotic Readings for Seventh and
Eighth Grades, introduction by Charles W. Eliot, President Emeritus of
Harvard (Gregg Publishing, 1919).
^ See Francis S. Heck, "Baudelaire's La Fanfarlo: An Example of
Romantic Irony", The French Review 49: 3 (1976): 328–36.
^ Kenneth S. Sacks, editor, Emerson: Political Writings (Cambridge
Texts in the History of Political Thought) (Cambridge University
Press, 2008), p, 193.
^ S.S. Prawer,
Karl Marx and World Literature, Oxford, 1976, p.386.
^ Twain, Mark. "Life on the Mississippi", Chapter 46
Bautz, Annika. Reception of
Jane Austen and Walter Scott: A
Comparative Longitudinal Study. Continuum, 2007.
ISBN 0-8264-9546-X, ISBN 978-0-8264-9546-4.
Walter Scott and the Historical Imagination. Routledge,
1979, ISBN 0-7100-0301-3; Kindle ed. 2013.
Buchan, John. Sir Walter Scott, Coward-McCann Inc., New York, 1932.
Cornish, Sidney W. The "Waverley" Manual; or, Handbook of the Chief
Characters, Incidents, and Descriptions in the "Waverley" Novels, with
Critical Breviates from Various Sources. Edinburgh: A. and C. Black,
Duncan, Ian. Scott's Shadow: The Novel in Romantic Edinburgh.
Princeton UP, 2007. ISBN 978-0-691-04383-8.
Kelly, Stuart. Scott-Land: The Man Who Invented a Nation. Polygon,
2010. ISBN 978-1-84697-107-5.
Walter Scott And Modernity.
Edinburgh UP, 2007.
Stephen, Leslie (1898). "The Story of Scott's Ruin". Studies of a
Biographer. 2. London: Duckworth & Co.
Letitia Elizabeth Landon
Letitia Elizabeth Landon The Female Portrait Gallery. A series of 22
analyses of Scott's female characters (sadly curtailed by Letitia's
untimely death in 1838). Laman Blanchard: Life and Literary Remains of
L.E.L., 1841. Vol. 2. pp. 81–194.
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Sir Walter Scott, biography by Richard H. Hutton, 1878 (from Project
Walter Scott at Project Gutenberg
Works by or about
Walter Scott at Internet Archive
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LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
Walter Scott at The Online Books Page
Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Scott, Sir Walter". Encyclopædia
Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Walter Scott's profile and catalogue of his library at Abbotsford on
Guardian Books - Sir Walter Scott
Portraits at the National Portrait Gallery
Walter Scott by Sir Francis Leggatt Chantrey, 1828, white
marble, Philadelphia Museum of Art, # 2002.222.1, Philadelphia (PA).
Millgate Union Catalogue of
Walter Scott Correspondence
Correspondence of Sir Walter Scott, with related papers, ca.
Coat of arms of Sir Walter Scott
A nymph, in her dexter hand a sun in splendour, in her sinister a
Quarterly; 1st & 4th or two mullets in chief and a crescent in
base azure within an orle azure (Scott); 2nd & 3rd or on a bend
azure three mascles or, in sinister chief point a buckle or
(Haliburton); escutcheon of the Hand of Ulster
Dexter a mermaid holding in the exterior hand a mirror proper;
Sinister a savage wreathed around the head and middle, holding in the
exterior hand a club
(above) Reparabit cornua phoebe – the moon shall fill her horns
(below) Watch weel
Baronetage of the United Kingdom
Sir Walter Scott
Works by Walter Scott
Guy Mannering (1815)
The Antiquary (1816)
The Black Dwarf (1816)
Old Mortality (1816)
Rob Roy (1817)
The Heart of Midlothian
The Heart of Midlothian (1818)
The Bride of Lammermoor
The Bride of Lammermoor (1819)
A Legend of Montrose
A Legend of Montrose (1819)
The Monastery (1820)
The Abbot (1820)
The Pirate (1821)
The Fortunes of Nigel
The Fortunes of Nigel (1822)
Peveril of the Peak
Peveril of the Peak (1823)
Quentin Durward (1823)
St. Ronan's Well
St. Ronan's Well (1823)
The Betrothed (1825)
The Talisman (1825)
The Fair Maid of Perth
The Fair Maid of Perth (1828)
Anne of Geierstein
Anne of Geierstein (1829)
Count Robert of Paris
Count Robert of Paris (1831)
Castle Dangerous (1831)
The Siege of Malta (1831-1832, pub. posthumously 2008)
Bizarro (1832, pub. posthumously 2008)
Translations and Imitations from German Ballads (1796-1819)
The Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border
The Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border (1802-1803)
The Lay of the Last Minstrel
The Lay of the Last Minstrel (1805)
Ballads and Lyrical Pieces (1806)
The Lady of the Lake (1810)
The Vision of Don Roderick
The Vision of Don Roderick (1811)
The Bridal of Triermain
The Bridal of Triermain (1813)
The Field of Waterloo (1815)
The Lord of the Isles
The Lord of the Isles (1815)
Harold the Dauntless (1817)
Chronicles of the Canongate, 1st series (1827)
"The Keepsake Stories" (1828)
Halidon Hill (1822)
MacDuff's Cross (1823)
The Doom of Devorgoil (1830)
Auchindrane, or, The Ayrshire Tragedy (1830)
The Journal (1825-1832)
Tales of a Grandfather (1828-1831)
John Gibson Lockhart
J. B. S. Morritt
Sir Arthur Wardour
Dandie Dinmont Terrier
"Hail to the Chief"
Walter Scott Way
Walter Scott Prize
Walter Scott's Ivanhoe
Der Templer und die Jüdin
Ivanhoe (1913 British)
Ivanhoe (1913 American)
The Ballad of the Valiant Knight
Gothic Revival (architecture)
Hudson River School
Romanticism in science
Opium and Romanticism
A. v. Arnim
B. v. Arnim
P. B. Shelley
« Age of Enlightenment
ISNI: 0000 0001 2144 1874
BNF: cb11924221r (data)