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Wakefield
Wakefield
is a city in West Yorkshire, England, on the River Calder and the eastern edge of the Pennines, which had a population of 99,251 at the 2011 census.[1] Wakefield
Wakefield
was dubbed the "Merrie City" in the Middle Ages[2] and in 1538 John Leland described it as, "a very quick market town and meately large; well served of fish and flesh both from sea and by rivers ... so that all vitaile is very good and chepe there. A right honest man shall fare well for 2d. a meal. ... There be plenti of se coal in the quarters about Wakefield".[nb 1] The Battle of Wakefield
Battle of Wakefield
took place in the Wars of the Roses
Wars of the Roses
and it was a Royalist stronghold in the Civil War. Wakefield
Wakefield
became an important market town and centre for wool, exploiting its position on the navigable River Calder to become an inland port. In the 18th century, Wakefield
Wakefield
traded in corn, coal mining and textiles and in 1888 its parish church acquired cathedral status. It became the county town of the West Riding of Yorkshire
West Riding of Yorkshire
and was the seat of the West Riding County Council
West Riding County Council
from 1889 until 1974, when the county and council were abolished, and of the West Yorkshire Metropolitan County Council from 1974 until its dissolution in 1986.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Toponymy 1.2 Early history 1.3 Industrial Revolution 1.4 20th century

2 Governance 3 Geography

3.1 Neighbouring towns and places

4 Demography

4.1 Population change

5 Economy

5.1 Regeneration

6 Landmarks 7 Transport 8 Education 9 Religion 10 Culture 11 Sport 12 Public services 13 Notable people 14 Twin cities 15 See also 16 References 17 External links

History[edit]

Wakefield
Wakefield
Cathedral.

Toponymy[edit] The name "Wakefield" may derive from "Waca's field" – the open land belonging to someone named "Waca" or could have evolved from the Old English word wacu, meaning "a watch or wake", and feld, an open field in which a wake or festival was held.[4][5] In the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
of 1086, it was written Wachefeld and also as Wachefelt. Early history[edit] Flint
Flint
and stone tools and later bronze and iron implements have been found at Lee Moor and Lupset in the Wakefield
Wakefield
area showing evidence of human activity since prehistoric times.[6] This part of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
was home to the Brigantes
Brigantes
until the Roman occupation in AD 43. A Roman road from Pontefract
Pontefract
passing Streethouse, Heath Common, Ossett Street Side, through Kirklees
Kirklees
and on to Manchester
Manchester
crossed the River Calder by a ford at Wakefield
Wakefield
near the site of Wakefield
Wakefield
Bridge.[7] Wakefield
Wakefield
was probably settled by the Angles
Angles
in the 5th or 6th century and after AD 876 the area was controlled by the Vikings
Vikings
who founded twelve hamlets or thorpes around Wakefield.[nb 2] They divided the area into wapentakes and Wakefield
Wakefield
was part of the Wapentake
Wapentake
of Agbrigg. The settlement grew near a crossing place on the River Calder around three roads, Westgate, Northgate and Kirkgate.[9] The "gate" suffix derives from Old Norse
Old Norse
gata meaning road[10] and kirk, from kirkja indicates there was a church.[11] Before 1066 the manor of Wakefield
Wakefield
belonged to Edward the Confessor and it passed to William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror
after the Battle of Hastings.[12] After the Conquest Wakefield
Wakefield
was a victim of the Harrying of the North
Harrying of the North
in 1069 when William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror
took revenge on the local population for resistance to Norman rule. The settlement was recorded as Wachfeld in the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
of 1086, and covered a much greater area than present day Wakefield, much of which was described as "waste".[13] The manor was granted by the crown to William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Surrey whose descendants, the Earls Warenne, inherited it after his death in 1088.[14] The construction of Sandal Castle
Sandal Castle
began early in the 12th century.[15] A second castle was built at Lawe Hill on the north side of the Calder but was abandoned.[16] Wakefield
Wakefield
and its environs formed the caput of an extensive baronial holding by the Warennes that extended to Cheshire and Lancashire. The Warennes, and their feudal sublords, held the area until the 14th century, when it passed to their heirs.[17] Norman tenants holding land in the region included the Lyvet family at Lupset.[18] The Domesday Book
Domesday Book
recorded two churches, one in Wakefield
Wakefield
and one in Sandal Magna.[19] The Saxon church in Wakefield
Wakefield
was rebuilt in about 1100 in stone in the Norman style and was continually enlarged until 1315 when the central tower collapsed. By 1420 the church was again rebuilt and was extended between 1458 and 1475. In 1203 William de Warenne, 5th Earl of Surrey
William de Warenne, 5th Earl of Surrey
received a grant for a market in the town.[20] In 1204 King John granted the rights for a fair at the feast of All Saints, 1 November, and in 1258 Henry III granted the right for fair on the feast of Saint John the Baptist, 24 June. The market was close to the Bull Ring and the church.[20] The townsfolk of Wakefield
Wakefield
amused themselves in games and sports earning the title "Merrie Wakefield", the chief sport in the 14th century was archery and the butts in Wakefield
Wakefield
were at the Ings, near the river.[21]

Memorial to the Duke of York, killed in battle, 1460

During the Wars of the Roses, Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York
Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York
was killed on 30 December 1460 in the Battle of Wakefield
Battle of Wakefield
near Sandal Castle. As preparation for the impending invasion by the Spanish Armada in April 1558, 400 men from the wapentake of Morley and Agbrigg were summoned to Bruntcliffe near Morley with their weapons. Men from Kirkgate, Westgate, Northgate and Sandal were amongst them and all returned by August.[22] At the time of the Civil War, Wakefield
Wakefield
was a Royalist stronghold. An attack led by Sir Thomas Fairfax
Thomas Fairfax
on 20 May 1643 captured the town for the Parliamentarians. Over 1500 troops were taken prisoner along with the Royalist commander, Lieutenant-General Goring.[23] In medieval times Wakefield
Wakefield
became an inland port on the Calder and centre for the woollen and tanning trades. In 1699 an Act of Parliament was passed creating the Aire and Calder Navigation
Aire and Calder Navigation
which provided the town with access to the North Sea.[24] The first Registry of Deeds in the country opened in 1704 and in 1765 Wakefield's cattle market was established and became the one of largest in the north of England. The town was a centre for cloth dealing, with its own piece hall, the Tammy Hall, built in 1766.[3] In the late 1700s Georgian town houses and St John's Church were built to the north of the town centre.[24][25] Industrial Revolution[edit]

Wakefield
Wakefield
Westgate c. 1900

At the start of 19th century Wakefield
Wakefield
was a wealthy market town and inland port trading in wool and grain.[26] The Aire and Calder and Calder and Hebble Navigations and the Barnsley Canal
Barnsley Canal
were instrumental in the development of Wakefield
Wakefield
as an important market for grain and more was sold here than at any other market in the north. Large warehouses were built on the river banks to store grain from Norfolk, Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
and Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
to supply the fast-growing population in the West Riding of Yorkshire. Great quantities of barley were grown in the neighbourhood and in 1885 more malt was made in Wakefield
Wakefield
"than in any district of equal extent in the kingdom".[27] The market developed in the streets around the Bull Ring, and the cattle market between George Street and Ings Road grew to be one of the biggest in the country.[28] Road transport using turnpiked roads was important. Regular mail coaches departed to Leeds, London, Manchester, York
York
and Sheffield
Sheffield
and the 'Strafford Arms' was an important coaching inn.[29] The railways arrived in Wakefield
Wakefield
in 1840 when Kirkgate Station was built on the Manchester
Manchester
to Leeds
Leeds
line. When cloth dealing declined, wool spinning mills using steam power were built by the river. There was a glass works in Calder Vale Road, several breweries including Melbourne's and Beverley's Eagle Breweries, engineering works with strong links to the mining industry, soapworks and brickyards in Eastmoor, giving the town a diverse economy.[30][31] Boats and sloops were built at yards on the Calder.[27] On the outskirts of the town, coal had been dug since the 15th century and 300 men were employed in the town's coal pits in 1831.[3] During the 19th century more mines were sunk so that there were 46 small mines in Wakefield
Wakefield
and the surrounding area by 1869.[31][32] The National Coal Board
National Coal Board
eventually became Wakefield's largest employer with Manor
Manor
Colliery on Cross Lane and Park Hill colliery at Eastmoor surviving until 1982.[33] During the 19th century Wakefield
Wakefield
became the administrative centre for the West Riding, when many familiar buildings were constructed.[34] The first civic building in Wood Street, the court house, was built in 1810.[35] The West Riding Pauper Lunatic Asylum was built at Stanley Royd, just outside the town on Aberford Road in 1816. During the 19th century, the Wakefield
Wakefield
Asylum played a central role in the development of British psychiatry, with Henry Maudsley and James Crichton-Browne
James Crichton-Browne
amongst its medical staff. Most of it is now demolished. The old House of Correction of 1595 was rebuilt as Wakefield Prison
Wakefield Prison
in 1847.[36] Wakefield
Wakefield
Union workhouse[37] was built on Park Lodge Lane, Eastmoor in 1853 and Clayton Hospital was built in 1854 after a donation from Alderman Thomas Clayton.[34] The Mechanics Institute containing an Assembly Room, public library and newsroom supported by subscription was built in Wood Street in 1820-1821 in the Classical style
Classical style
with Ionic details. Wakefield Literary Society ran there from 1827 until the 20th century and its Geological Society left artefacts to Wakefield
Wakefield
Museum.[27] Up to 1837 Wakefield
Wakefield
relied on wells and springs for its water supply; water from the River Calder was polluted, and various water supply schemes were unsuccessful until reservoirs on the Rishworth Moors and a service reservoir at Ardsley were built providing clean water from 1888.[38] By 1885 the streets of the town were paved and flagged and lit with gas supplied by a company incorporated in 1822.[27] Between 1870-1885 improvements were made on the north side of town around St John's Church now a conservation area.[39] 20th century[edit] On 2 June 1906, Andrew Carnegie
Andrew Carnegie
opened a new Wakefield
Wakefield
Library on Drury Lane which had been built with a grant of £8,000 from the Carnegie Trust.[40] There are seven ex-council estates in Wakefield
Wakefield
which the council started to build after the First World War, the oldest is Portobello, the largest is Lupset and the rest are Flanshaw, Plumpton, Peacock, Eastmoor and Kettlethorpe. Homes not bought by occupants under the Right to Buy
Right to Buy
scheme were transferred to a registered social landlord, Wakefield
Wakefield
and District Housing (WDH) in 2005.[41] The outlying villages of Sandal Magna, Belle Vue and Agbrigg
Agbrigg
have become suburbs of Wakefield. The glass and textile industries closed in the 1970s and 1980s, and coal faced competition from alternative sources and demand decreased. The coal mines around Wakefield
Wakefield
were amongst the first in Yorkshire
Yorkshire
to close under the government of Margaret Thatcher, which altered the national energy policy from a reliance on British coal and opposed the political power of the NUM. Between 1979 and 1983, the pits at Lofthouse, Manor, Newmarket, Newmillerdam, Parkhill and Walton all closed.[42] As the Wakefield
Wakefield
pits closed, the Selby Coalfield
Selby Coalfield
was being opened, many colliers in Wakefield
Wakefield
accepted offers to transfer to the new pits which were built to facilitate commuting.[43] Governance[edit]

Wakefield
Wakefield
Town Hall

Wakefield
Wakefield
County Hall

Wakefield
Wakefield
was anciently a market and parish town in the Agbrigg division of the wapentake of Agbrigg and Morley
Agbrigg and Morley
in the West Riding of Yorkshire. It became a parliamentary borough with one Member of Parliament after the Reform Act 1832. In 1836 the Wakefield
Wakefield
Poor Law Union was formed following the Poor Law Amendment Act
Poor Law Amendment Act
1834 with an elected Board of Guardians.[44] The town was incorporated as a municipal borough with elected councillors in 1848 under the Municipal Corporations Act 1835.[45] Wakefield
Wakefield
was the de facto seat of regional government in Yorkshire for two centuries and became the county headquarters of the West Riding County Council created by the Local Government Act of 1888.[46] After Wakefield
Wakefield
was elevated to diocese in 1888, Wakefield
Wakefield
Council sought city status which was granted the same year.[47] Wakefield became a county borough in 1913.[48] In 1974, under the terms of the Local Government Act 1972, the county borough became defunct as it merged with surrounding local authorities to become the City of Wakefield
Wakefield
district. Today the city is the headquarters of Wakefield
Wakefield
Metropolitan District Council, Yorkshire Ambulance Service
Yorkshire Ambulance Service
and West Yorkshire Police.[49][50] Since 1987, the district council has been based in County Hall. Wakefield
Wakefield
is covered by four electoral wards ( Wakefield
Wakefield
East, Wakefield
Wakefield
North, Wakefield
Wakefield
South and Wakefield
Wakefield
West) of the Wakefield Metropolitan District Council. Each ward elects three councillors to the 63-member metropolitan district council, Wakefield's local authority. In 2015 all the councillors elected for Wakefield
Wakefield
East, North and West were members of the Labour Party and the councillors for Wakefield
Wakefield
South represent the Conservative Party.[51] Wakefield's MP is Mary Creagh
Mary Creagh
who has represented the parliamentary seat for the Labour Party since the 2005 General Election. She was re-elected in 2010 with a reduced majority[52] and returned with a 40.3 share of the vote in 2015.[53] The seat has been held by the Labour Party since 1932. The Wakefield
Wakefield
South ward covering Sandal, Kettlethorpe, Agbrigg
Agbrigg
and Belle Vue, is in the Hemsworth
Hemsworth
constituency, represented by the Labour party's Jon Trickett
Jon Trickett
since 1996. He was re-elected in May 2010[54] and returned in 2015 with 51.3% of the vote.[55] The seat has been held by the Labour Party since its creation in 1918. Geography[edit] Wakefield
Wakefield
is 9 miles (14 km) southeast of Leeds
Leeds
and 28 miles (45 km) southwest of York
York
on the eastern edge of the Pennines
Pennines
in the lower Calder Valley. The city centre is sited on a low hill on the north bank of the Calder close to a crossing place where it is spanned by a 14th-century, nine-arched, stone bridge and a reinforced concrete bridge built in 1929–1930.[56][57] It is at the junction of major north-south routes to Sheffield, Leeds
Leeds
and Doncaster
Doncaster
and west-east routes to Huddersfield, Dewsbury
Dewsbury
and Pontefract. Wakefield
Wakefield
is within the area of the Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire & Yorkshire
Yorkshire
coalfield and lies on the middle coal measures and sandstones laid down in the Carboniferous
Carboniferous
period.[58] Wakefield
Wakefield
includes the former outlying villages of Alverthorpe, Thornes, Sandal Magna, Agbrigg, Lupset, Kettlethorpe and Flanshaw. In the 2011 Census, Newton Hill, Outwood, Stanley and Wrenthorpe were counted as parts of Wakefield, having been classified separately in the 2001 Census.

Climate data for Wakefield

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 7 (44) 7 (44) 9 (49) 12 (53) 16 (60) 18 (65) 21 (69) 21 (69) 17 (63) 13 (56) 9 (49) 7 (45) 13.1 (55.5)

Average low °C (°F) 2 (36) 2 (36) 3 (37) 4 (39) 7 (45) 10 (50) 12 (54) 12 (54) 10 (50) 7 (45) 4 (39) 3 (37) 6.3 (43.5)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 86.6 (3.41) 63.5 (2.50) 67.8 (2.67) 62.5 (2.46) 55.6 (2.19) 66.8 (2.63) 51.1 (2.01) 63.5 (2.50) 64.3 (2.53) 73.9 (2.91) 77.7 (3.06) 91.9 (3.62) 825.2 (32.49)

Source: [59]

Neighbouring towns and places[edit]

Places adjacent to Wakefield

Morley Leeds Castleford

Ossett

Wakefield

Pontefract

Horbury Barnsley Ackworth

Demography[edit]

Wakefield
Wakefield
Compared in 2008

2008 UK Population Estimates[60] Wakefield Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and the Humber England

Total population 322,300 5,213,200 51,446,200

White 95.7% 90.6% 88.2%

Asian 2.4% 5.7% 5.7%

Black 0.5% 1.3% 2.8%

In 2001 the Wakefield
Wakefield
urban area had a population of 76,886[61] comprising 37,477 males and 39,409 females.[61] Also at the time of the 2001 UK census, the City of Wakefield
City of Wakefield
had a total population of 315,172 of whom 161,962 were female and 153,210 were male. Of the 132,212 households in Wakefield, 39.56% were married couples living together, 28.32% were one-person households, 9.38% were co-habiting couples and 9.71% were lone parents. The figures for lone parent households were slightly above the national average of 9.5%, and the percentage of married couples was above the national average of 36.5%; the proportion of one person households was below the national average of 30.1%.[62] The population density was 9.31/km2 (24.1/sq mi). Of those aged 16–74 in Wakefield, 39.14% had no academic qualifications, much higher than 28.9% in all of England. Of Wakefield's residents, 2.53% were born outside the United Kingdom, significantly lower than the national average of 9.2%. The largest minority group was recorded as Asian, at 1.41% of the population. The number of theft-from-a-vehicle offences and theft of a vehicle per 1,000 of the population was 7.9 and 3.9 compared to the English national average of 6.3 and 2.3 respectively.[63] The number of sexual offences was 0.9, in line with the national average.[63] The national average of violence against another person was 16.7 compared to the Wakefield
Wakefield
average of 15.[63] The figures for crime statistics were all recorded during the 2008–09 financial year. Population change[edit] Wakefield
Wakefield
had a population of 76,886 in 2001.[64] At the 2011 Census, the population was given as 99,251.[1] However, these two estimates are not directly comparable, as the 2001 Census did not classify the old Stanley Urban District
Stanley Urban District
as part of Wakefield
Wakefield
whereas the 2011 Census classified all settlements in this area except Bottom Boat (a small village built for Newmarket Colliery workers) as parts of Wakefield.

Population growth in Wakefield
Wakefield
from 1881–1961

Year 1881 1891 1901 1911 1921 1931 1939 1951 1961

Population 22,173 23,315 24,107 43,588 52,891 59,122 56,963 60,371 61,268

Wakefield
Wakefield
RSD 1881 - 1911[65] Wakefield
Wakefield
MB/CB 1921 - 1961[66]

Economy[edit]

Wakefield
Wakefield
Compared

2001 UK Census Wakefield WY Urban Area England

Population (16-74) 55,789 1,072,276 35,532,091

Full-time employment 39.7% 39.5% 40.8%

Part-time employment 12.4% 12.1% 11.8%

Self employed 6.7% 6.3% 8.3%

Unemployed 4.1% 3.8% 3.3%

Retired 14.1% 12.8% 13.5%

Source: Office for National Statistics[67]

The economy of Wakefield
Wakefield
declined in the last quarter of the 20th century as the coal mines and traditional manufacturing industries closed, contributing to high rates of unemployment. In the Index of Multiple Deprivation 2015, 14.35% of the district's lower super-output areas were in the most deprived 10% of England.[68] Employment grew by 12% between 1998 and 2003 as the economy recovered and enjoyed growth as the economic base of the district was diversified. Growth has been supported by inward investment from European and United Kingdom
United Kingdom
government funding which has impacted on the regeneration of the area. Manufacturing remains an important employment sector although the decline is projected to continue whilst distribution and the service industries are now among the main employers.[69] At the 2001 census, there were 33,521 people in employment who were resident within Wakefield. Of these, 20.74% worked in the wholesale and retail trade, including repair of motor vehicles; 14.42% worked within manufacturing industry; 11% worked within the health and social work sector and 6.49% were employed in the transport, storage and communication industries.[70] Wakefield
Wakefield
is a member of the Leeds
Leeds
City Region Partnership, a sub-regional economic development partnership covering an area of the historic county of Yorkshire.[71] Regeneration[edit]

Trinity Walk
Trinity Walk
shopping centre

Regeneration projects in Wakefield
Wakefield
included the Trinity Walk
Trinity Walk
retail development to the north east of the city centre, including department stores, a supermarket and shop units.[72] Work began in autumn 2007 but was halted in 2009, restarted in 2010 and opened in 2011.[73] The central square at the Bull Ring has been redesigned with a water feature and the Ridings Shopping Centre refurbished.[74] Wakefield Westgate Station goods yard and land on Westgate and Balne Lane have been developed to create retail, residential and commercial space including new offices, a multi-storey carpark serving the station, and a hotel.[75] Developments by the river and canal, the "Wakefield Waterfront", include the refurbishment of the Grade II listed Navigation Warehouse and office, retail, restaurant and cafe units. The development includes the art gallery, The Hepworth Wakefield
The Hepworth Wakefield
named in honour of local sculptor, Barbara Hepworth
Barbara Hepworth
which opened in May 2011. The gallery has ten internal spaces, exhibiting many examples of Hepworth's work. The gallery added about £10 million to the local economy by attracting 500,000 visitors in its first year.[76] Flats and offices were built at Chantry Waters, on an island between the river and canal. Landmarks[edit]

Chantry Bridge over the River Calder

The most prominent landmark in Wakefield
Wakefield
is Wakefield
Wakefield
Cathedral, which at 247 feet (75 m) has the tallest spire in Yorkshire.[77][78] Other landmarks in the Civic Quarter on Wood Street include the Grade II* Neoclassical Crown Court of 1810,[79] Wakefield
Wakefield
Town Hall designed by T.W. Collcutt and opened in 1880,[80] and the Queen Anne Style County Hall of 1898 which are Grade I listed.[81] St John's Church and Square, St John's North and South Parade are part of residential development dating from the Georgian period. The old Wakefield
Wakefield
Bridge with its Chantry Chapel, Sandal Castle, and Lawe Hill in Clarence Park are ancient monuments.[82] Another prominent structure is the 95-arch railway viaduct, constructed of 800,000,000 bricks in the 1860s on the Doncaster
Doncaster
to Leeds
Leeds
railway line. At its northern end is a bridge with an 80-foot (24 m) span over Westgate and at its southern end a 163-foot (50 m) iron bridge crossing the River Calder.[83]

Transport[edit]

The brick-built 95-arch viaduct in Wakefield

Wakefield
Wakefield
Kirkgate railway station

Wakefield
Wakefield
has good access to the motorway system, with the intersection of the M1 and M62 motorways, junctions 42/29, lying to the north west, whilst the M1 to the west is accessed at junctions 39, 40 and 41. The A1(M) is to the east of the district. Wakefield
Wakefield
is crossed by the A61, A638, and A642 roads and is the starting point of the A636 and A650 roads. The Council is working with Metro, the other four West Yorkshire district councils and transport operators to provide an integrated transport system for the district through the implementation of the West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
Local Transport Plan.[84] A network of local buses, coordinated by West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
Passenger Transport Executive and departing from the bus station in the town centre, serves Wakefield and district. Buses are operated by Arriva Yorkshire, B L Travel, Poppletons, Stagecoach Yorkshire
Stagecoach Yorkshire
and National Express.[85] Wakefield
Wakefield
Kirkgate was opened by the Manchester
Manchester
and Leeds
Leeds
Railway in 1840. Wakefield
Wakefield
Kirkgate is unstaffed and operated by Northern who operate trains to Barnsley, Meadowhall Interchange, Sheffield, Normanton, Pontefract, Knottingley, Leeds, Castleford
Castleford
and Nottingham.[86] The station serves the Hallam Line, Huddersfield
Huddersfield
Line and the Pontefract
Pontefract
Line of the MetroTrain network. Grand Central operating between London
London
King's Cross and Bradford Interchange
Bradford Interchange
stop at Kirkgate. In 2009 CCTV
CCTV
was installed at the station, but it has acquired a reputation for being one of the country's worst stations.[87] It is undergoing extensive renovation (2014). Wakefield
Wakefield
Westgate opened in 1867 on the Doncaster
Doncaster
to Leeds
Leeds
line. It has connections to the East Coast Main Line, trains to Leeds, Doncaster, and stations towards London
London
King's Cross. CrossCountry trains go to Newcastle upon Tyne, Edinburgh, Birmingham
Birmingham
and the South West. East Midlands Trains
East Midlands Trains
also run a limited service via Sheffield, Derby and Leicester
Leicester
to St Pancras International. Wakefield
Wakefield
Westgate is on the Wakefield Line
Wakefield Line
of the MetroTrain network.[88] The line was electrified in 1989. Wakefield
Wakefield
is served by inter-city express trains from both its railway stations. London
London
can be reached in less than two hours. The nearest airport is Leeds
Leeds
Bradford
Bradford
International Airport, 19 miles (31 km) to the north of the city at Yeadon. The Aire and Calder Navigation
Aire and Calder Navigation
is 33 miles (53 km) from Leeds
Leeds
to Goole, and 7.5 miles (12.1 km) from Wakefield
Wakefield
to Castleford, and was created by Act of Parliament in 1699. It was opened to Leeds
Leeds
in 1704 and to Wakefield
Wakefield
in 1706, enabling craft carrying 100 tons to reach Wakefield
Wakefield
from the Humber.[3] It is still used by a small amount of commercial traffic and leisure craft.[89] The Calder and Hebble Navigation was created by Act of Parliament in 1758 with the intention of making the Calder navigable to Sowerby Bridge. The route was originally surveyed by John Smeaton, remains open and is used by leisure craft.[90] The Barnsley
Barnsley
Canal, a broad canal with 20 locks, opened in 1799 connecting Barnsley
Barnsley
to the Aire and Calder Navigation at Wakefield
Wakefield
and was abandoned in 1953.[91] Education[edit]

The original Queen Elizabeth Grammar School on Brook Street

See also: List of schools in Wakefield Wakefield's oldest surviving school is Queen Elizabeth Grammar School, a boys-only school established in 1591 by Queen Elizabeth I by Royal Charter. The original building in Brook Street is now the 'Elizabethan Gallery'. QEGS moved to Northgate in 1854.[20] The school was administered by the Governors of Wakefield
Wakefield
Charities who opened Wakefield
Wakefield
Girls High School WGHS on Wentworth Street in 1878.[92] These two schools today are independent schools. National schools were opened by the Church of England
England
including St Mary's in the 1840s and St John's in 1861.[93] The original St Austin's Catholic School opened about 1838.[94] A Methodist School was opened in Thornhill Street in 1846.[95] Pinders Primary School, originally Eastmoor School is the only school opened as a result of the Education Act 1870 which remains open today.[96] Wakefield College
Wakefield College
has its origins in the School of Art and Craft of 1868[97] and today is the major provider of 6th form and further education in the area, with around 3,000 full-time and 10,000 part-time students,[98] and campuses in the city and surrounding towns. In 2007 Wakefield
Wakefield
City Council and Wakefield College
Wakefield College
announced plans to establish a University Centre of Wakefield
Wakefield
but a bid for funding failed in 2009.[99][100] Other schools with sixth forms include: QEGS, Wakefield
Wakefield
Girls High School, and Cathedral
Cathedral
High School, which is now a Performing Arts College
Performing Arts College
for ages 11 to 18.[101] Religion[edit]

Religion in Wakefield
Wakefield
2001[102]

UK Census 2001 Wakefield Yorkshire England

Christian 78.21% 73.07% 71.74%

No religion 11.74% 14.09% 14.59%

Muslim 1.14% 3.81% 3.1%

Buddhist 0.10% 0.14% 0.28%

Hindu 0.20% 0.32% 1.11%

Jewish 0.04% 0.23% 0.52%

Sikh 0.08% 0.38% 0.67%

Other religions 0.18% 0.19% 0.29%

Religion not stated 7.57% 7.77% 7.69%

Wakefield's oldest church is All Saints, now Wakefield
Wakefield
Cathedral, a 14th-century parish church built on the site of earlier Saxon and Norman churches, restored by Sir George Gilbert Scott
George Gilbert Scott
in the 19th century, and raised to cathedral status in 1888. The first Bishop of Wakefield
Wakefield
was William Walsham How. In 1356 the Chantry Chapel of St Mary the Virgin on Wakefield
Wakefield
bridge was built originally in wood, and later in stone. This chapel is one of four chantry chapels built around Wakefield
Wakefield
and the oldest and most ornate of the four surviving in England.[20][103] Wakefield
Wakefield
is also known for the Wakefield
Wakefield
Cycle, a collection of 32 mystery plays, dating from the 14th century, which were performed as part of the summertime religious festival of Corpus Christi and revived in recent times.[104] St John's Church was built in 1795 in the Georgian style. Three new Anglican Commissioners' churches, partly financed by the "Million Fund" were built as chapels of ease in the surrounding districts and were St Peter at Stanley in 1824, St Paul at Alverthorpe
Alverthorpe
in 1825, and St James at Thornes in 1831.[105][106] Holy Trinity in George Street was built in 1838-9.[107] St Andrew's Church opened on Peterson Road in 1846 and St Mary's Church on Charles Street was consecrated in 1864. St Michael's was consecrated in 1861.[108] The Westgate Unitarian Chapel dates from 1752. In the 19th century Wesleyan, Primitive and Independent Methodist chapels were opened and the Baptists opened a chapel in George Street in 1844.[109][110] St John the Divine was built at Calder Grove in 1892.[111][112] The Church of England
England
diocese of Wakefield
Wakefield
covered parishes mainly in West Yorkshire, parts of South Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and five parishes in North Yorkshire.[113] It was dissolved on Easter Sunday 2014.[114] Stephen Platten was the 12th and last Bishop of Wakefield. The Diocese
Diocese
of Leeds[115] now covers Wakefield. Wakefield
Wakefield
has two Catholic parishes - in the north St Martin de Porres incorporates the churches of St Austin's, Wentworth Terrace, opened in 1828, and English Martyrs, opened in 1932, on Dewsbury
Dewsbury
Road, Lupset,[116] and in the south, St Peter and St Paul's off Standbridge Lane which has a modern church built in 1991. Wakefield
Wakefield
is in the Roman Catholic Diocese
Diocese
of Leeds.[117] Agbrigg
Agbrigg
Muslim Association have a Zakaria Masjid Mosque in Wakefield.[118] Culture[edit]

The ruins of Sandal Castle

The ruins of Sandal Castle
Sandal Castle
and its visitor centre are open to the public.[119] The Theatre Royal Wakefield
Wakefield
on Westgate, designed by architect Frank Matcham opened in 1894 and currently presents a programme of entertainment including musicals, drama, live music, stand up comedy and dance.[120] Wakefield's two central libraries closed and moved into the £31 million Wakefield
Wakefield
One in October 2012. The new library was officially opened by singer Jarvis Cocker
Jarvis Cocker
on 10 November 2012.[121] Wakefield Museum
Wakefield Museum
moved from the former Mechanics' Institute on Wood Street to Wakefield
Wakefield
One at the same time. The museum was officially opened by Sir David Attenborough
David Attenborough
on 9 March 2013.[122] Balne Lane library managed a regional collection of more than 500,000 items of music and 90,000 copies of plays for Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Libraries & Information (YLI).[123] The Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Music and Drama Library at Balne Lane closed on 31 March 2012 when the music section moved to Huddersfield
Huddersfield
and the drama section to Leeds.[124]

The Hepworth Wakefield
The Hepworth Wakefield
and the River Calder

In May 2011 The Hepworth Wakefield
The Hepworth Wakefield
gallery opened on the south bank of the River Calder near Wakefield
Wakefield
Bridge, displaying work by local artists Barbara Hepworth
Barbara Hepworth
and Henry Moore
Henry Moore
and other British and international artists. The gallery is thought to be the largest purpose-built gallery to open in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
since 1968.[125] The West Riding Registry of Deeds on Newstead Road is the headquarters of the West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
Archive Service, housing records from the former West Riding and West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
counties, and is the record office for the Wakefield
Wakefield
Metropolitan District.[126] Wakefield's three contiguous parks have a history dating back to 1893 when Clarence Park opened on land near Lawe Hill. The adjacent Holmefield Estate was acquired in 1919, followed by Thornes House in 1924, making a large park to the south west of the city.[127] Clarence Park Music Festival is held annually in Clarence Park, promoting local bands.[128] Two children's nursery rhymes with Wakefield
Wakefield
connections are "Here We Go Round the Mulberry Bush" which may have been sung by women inmates at Wakefield
Wakefield
prison.[129] and "The Grand Old Duke of York" which may allude to the Battle of Wakefield
Battle of Wakefield
in 1460, referring to Richard Plantagenet, the 3rd Duke of York.[20] The lyrics of the popular hymn "Onward Christian Soldiers" were written at St Peter's Church in nearby Horbury.[130] Wakefield
Wakefield
is known as the capital of the Rhubarb
Rhubarb
Triangle, an area notable for growing early forced rhubarb. In July 2005 a sculpture was erected to celebrate this facet of Wakefield, and there is an annual ' Wakefield
Wakefield
Festival of Food, Drink and Rhubarb" which takes place over the last weekend in February.[131][132][133] Wakefield's newspaper, the Wakefield
Wakefield
Express,[134] was founded in 1852. Another newspaper, the Wakefield
Wakefield
Guardian was established in 2007, but has ceased publishing.[135] Wakefield
Wakefield
has a radio station, Ridings FM.[136] In 1913 Albert Winstanley opened the Picture House cinema in Westgate. Shortly after opening it was renamed the Playhouse, and by 1972 it was part of the Classic cinema chain. It is now a nightclub.[137] In 1935 Associated British Cinemas
Associated British Cinemas
(ABC) opened the Regal Cinema in Kirkgate. The Art Deco
Art Deco
building was renamed the ABC in 1962 and became a Cannon in 1986. Cineworld's first purpose-built multiplex in Britain opened in Wakefield
Wakefield
in December 1996. The ABC closed in 1997 and has remained derelict, but there have been successive proposals to redevelop or demolish it.[138] The National Coal Mining Museum for England
England
(an Anchor Point of ERIH, The European Route of Industrial Heritage), the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Sculpture Park and Nostell Priory[139] are within the Wakefield
Wakefield
metropolitan area, as is Walton Hall, a Georgian mansion set in what was the world's first nature reserve, created by the explorer Charles Waterton; the house is now a hotel. A small part of the 1977 BBC film The Price of Coal was filmed in Wakefield
Wakefield
with the Mines Rescue Team based in the city. The end credits of the film give special thanks to the team. Sport[edit] Wakefield Trinity
Wakefield Trinity
is a Rugby League club currently playing in the Super League. The club, founded in 1873, was one of the initial founders of the Northern Union after the split from the Rugby Football Union in 1895. The club plays at Belle Vue.[140] Several local teams play in different leagues of the British Amateur Rugby League Association, BARLA. They include Wakefield
Wakefield
City, Westgate Wolves, Crigglestone All Blacks, Kettlethorpe and Eastmoor Dragons.[141] Rugby Union Football is played at Sandal RUFC[142] and was played by Wakefield RFC
Wakefield RFC
at College Grove from 1901 to 2004 when the club ceased to play. Wakefield
Wakefield
briefly had a football team when Emley F.C.
Emley F.C.
moved to play at Belle Vue, the ground of Wakefield Trinity
Wakefield Trinity
Wildcats. After moving ground first to College Grove and then briefly to share with Ossett Town, Wakefield
Wakefield
FC folded in June 2014.[143] Emley A.F.C.
Emley A.F.C.
was founded to restore the club's original links with the village of Emley.[144] Wakefield
Wakefield
Sports Club at College Grove also has the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Regional Hockey Academy, Wakefield
Wakefield
Bowls Club and Wakefield
Wakefield
Squash Club on the same site.[145] The Wakefield
Wakefield
Archers meet at QEGS in Wakefield
Wakefield
or at Slazengers Sports Club, Horbury
Horbury
and has archers shooting Olympic re-curve bows, compound bows and longbows.[146] Thornes Park Athletics Stadium is home to Wakefield
Wakefield
Harriers A.C. Members Martyn Bernard
Martyn Bernard
and Emily Freeman competed in the Beijing Olympics.[147] Local teams Newton Hill and Wakefield
Wakefield
Thornes are members of the Leeds-West Riding Cricket League.[148] There is a 100-acre (0.40 km2) watersports lake at Pugneys Country Park catering for non-powered watersports such as canoeing, sailing and windsurfing.[149] Golf clubs include the municipal course at Lupset and the private Wakefield
Wakefield
Golf Club at Sandal.[150] Public services[edit] Wakefield
Wakefield
Prison, originally built as a house of correction in 1594, is a maximum security prison.[151] Wakefield
Wakefield
is policed by the West Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Police force and is within the DA, Wakefield
Wakefield
division, which covers the whole district.[152] Wakefield
Wakefield
is also the location of the West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
Police Force Headquarters, located on Laburnam Road. The statutory emergency fire and rescue service is provided by the West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
Fire and Rescue Service, from Wakefield
Wakefield
fire station.[153] Hospital services are provided by the Mid Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust and community health services, including GPs, district and community nurses, dentists and pharmacists, are co-ordinated by Wakefield
Wakefield
District Primary Care Trust.[154][155] Waste management is co-ordinated by the local authority. Wakefield's Distribution Network Operator
Distribution Network Operator
for electricity is CE Electric via Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Electricity. Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Water manages Wakefield's drinking and waste water.[156] Notable people[edit] Further information: List of people from Wakefield Novelist George Gissing
George Gissing
was born in Wakefield
Wakefield
in 1857; his childhood home in Thompson's Yard is maintained by The Gissing Trust.[157] Sculptor Barbara Hepworth
Barbara Hepworth
was born in Wakefield
Wakefield
in 1903.[158] David Storey born in Wakefield
Wakefield
in 1933 was a novelist and playwright who in 1960 wrote This Sporting Life, which was made into a film in 1963 and shot largely on location in the city.[159] Former Archbishop of York, David Hope The Rt Revd and Rt Hon The Lord Hope of Thornes KCVO PC, was born in 1940 in Thornes.[160] Twin cities[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in the United Kingdom Wakefield
Wakefield
is twinned with:[161]

Alfeld
Alfeld
(Leine), Germany Belgorod, Russia Castres, France[162] Castrop-Rauxel, Germany

Girona, Spain Hénin-Beaumont, France[162] Herne, Germany Konin, Poland

See also[edit]

The Jolly Pinder of Wakefield

References[edit] Notes

^ "A very lively market town and suitably large, well served with fish and meat both from sea and by rivers... so that all food is very good and cheap there. A right honest man shall eat well for 2d a meal. There is plenty coal in the area around Wakefield."[3] ^ Wakefield's thorpes are: Alverthorpe, Chapelthorpe, Gawthorpe, Hollingthorpe, Kettlethorpe, Kirkthorpe, Milnthorpe, Ouchthorpe, Painthorpe, Snapethorpe, Woodthorpe, Wrenthorpe. Flanshaw, Kirkhamgate, Carrgate and Lupset have Old Norse
Old Norse
origins.[8]

Footnotes

^ a b https://www.nomisweb.co.uk/census/2011/ks101ew Census 2011 table KS101EW Usual resident population, West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
- Wakefield
Wakefield
BUASD, code E35000474 ^ Lupton 1864, p. 46 ^ a b c d Old Wakefield, oldtowns.co.uk, retrieved 21 November 2009  ^ Reaney 1964, p. 161 ^ Mills 1998, p. 361 ^ Walker 1966, p. 3 ^ Walker 1966, p. 24 ^ Walker 1966, p. 238 ^ EarlyHistory, wakefield.gov.uk, retrieved 16 November 2009  ^ Mills 1998, p. 403 ^ Mills 1998, p. 405 ^ Walker 1966, p. 43 ^ Manor, midgleywebpages.com, retrieved 16 November 2009  ^ The Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Archaeological Journal, 1886. Google Books. 30 July 2007. Retrieved 5 August 2011.  ^ Butler 1991, p. 1 ^ Creighton 2004, p. 32 ^ Holt 1997, p. 19 ^ Dodsworth's Yorkshire
Yorkshire
notes, the wapentake of Agbrigg, Roger Dodsworth, 1884. Google Books. 20 April 2007. Retrieved 5 August 2011.  ^ Lupton 1864, p. 10 ^ a b c d e 1066–1600, wakefield.gov.uk, retrieved 17 November 2009  ^ Walker 1966, p. 114 ^ Walker 1966, p. 414 ^ Civil War Yorkshire, british-civil-wars.co.uk, retrieved 17 November 2009  ^ a b 1600-1800, wakefield.gov.uk, retrieved 18 November 2009  ^ St Johns Church, St John's Church, retrieved 20 November 2009  ^ Taylor 2008, p. 7 ^ a b c d Lewis, Samuel (1848), " Wakefield
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(All Saints)", A Topographical Dictionary of England, British History Online, pp. 432–436, retrieved 14 December 2012  ^ Taylor 2008, p. 89 ^ Taylor 2008, p. 73 ^ Taylor 2008, p. 92 ^ a b 1800-1900, wakefield.gov.uk, retrieved 20 November 2009  ^ Galloway 1971, p. 76 ^ Taylor 2008, pp. 80,81 ^ a b Taylor 2008, p. 43 ^ Taylor 2008, p. 10 ^ Prison, retrieved 25 November 2009  ^ The Workhouse in Wakefield, Yorkshire, W. Riding, retrieved 7 November 2011  ^ Taylor 2008, p. 60 ^ St John's Conservation Area (PDF), Wakefield
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(ONS), 5 August 2004, archived from the original on 7 September 2009, retrieved 20 November 2009  ^ "2001 Census: Key Statistics: Household Composition (KS20): Area: Wakefield
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RSD: Total Population, Vision of Britain, retrieved 25 November 2009  ^ Wakefield
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MB/CB: Total Population, Vision of Britain, retrieved 25 November 2009  ^ KS09a Economic activity - all people: Census 2001, Key Statistics for urban areas, National Statistics, archived from the original on 5 June 2011, retrieved 13 December 2009  ^ Index of Multiple Deprivation 2015 - File
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in Depth 2005 (PDF), Learning and Skills Council West Yorkshire, p. 12, retrieved 17 November 2009  ^ KS11a Industry of Employment: Census 2001, Key Statistics for urban areas, National Statistics, archived from the original on 5 August 2009, retrieved 5 December 2009  ^ Leeds
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City Region Development Programme (PDF), The City Region Partnership, November 2006, p. 13, archived from the original (PDF) on 7 October 2011, retrieved 22 November 2009  ^ "Work begins on major city centre development", Wakefield
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Bibliography

Beckett, J. V. (2005), City status in the British Isles,1830-2002, Ashgate Publishing, ISBN 0-7546-5067-7  Bell, Richard (2009), Walks in the Rhubarb
Rhubarb
Triangle, Willow Island Editions, ISBN 978-1-902467-18-4  Butler, Lawrence (1991), Sandal Castle
Sandal Castle
Wakefield, Wakefield
Wakefield
Historical Publications, ISBN 0-901869-31-7  Creighton, O. H. (2004), Castles and landscapes, Equinox Publishing Ltd, ISBN 1-904768-67-9  Freeman, T. W. (1966), The Conurbations of Great Britain, Manchester University Press  Galloway, Robert L. (1971), Annals of Coal Mining and the Coal Trade Vol. 1,1898, David & Charles, ISBN 0-7153-4980-5  Holt, J.C. (1997), Colonial England, 1066-1215, Continuum International Publishing Group, ISBN 1-85285-140-6  Lupton, Joseph Hirst (1864), Wakefield
Wakefield
Worthies, biographical sketches, London  Mills, A. D. (1998), Dictionary of English Place-Names, Oxford, ISBN 0-19-280074-4  Reaney, P.H. (1964), The origin of English place-names (corrected 3rd pr.), Routledge and Kegan Paul, ISBN 0-19-280074-4  Saunders, John (1848), The People's journal, Volume 4, John Saunders  Taylor, Kate (2008), The Making of Wakefield
Wakefield
1801-1900, Wharncliffe, ISBN 978-1-84563-078-2  WakefieldMDC (2008), List of Listed Buildings, Scheduled Ancient Monuments and Buildings of Local Interest (PDF), wakefield.gov.uk  Walker, J.W. (1966), Wakefield
Wakefield
its History and People Vol.1&2 3rd Edn, S.R. Publishers 

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