WADE–GILES (/ˌweɪd ˈdʒaɪlz/ ), sometimes abbreviated WADE, is a Romanization system for Mandarin Chinese . It developed from a system produced by Thomas Wade , during the mid-19th century, and was given completed form with Herbert A. Giles 's Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892.
Wade–Giles was the system of transcription in the English-speaking
world for most of the 20th century, used in standard reference books
and in English language books published before 1979. It replaced the
Nanking dialect -based romanization systems that had been common until
the late 19th century, such as the
Postal Romanization (still used in
some place-names). In mainland China it has been entirely replaced by
Hanyu Pinyin system approved in 1958. Outside mainland China, it
has mostly been replaced by Pīnyīn, even though
* 1 History
* 2 Initials and finals
* 2.1 Initials * 2.2 Finals * 2.3 Syllables that begin with a medial
* 3 System features
* 3.1 Consonants and initial symbols
* 3.2 Vowels and final symbols
* 3.2.1 Syllabic consonants * 3.2.2 Vowel o
* 3.3 Tones * 3.4 Punctuation
* 4 Comparison with other systems
* 4.1 Pīnyīn * 4.2 Chart
* 5 Intuitiveness issues
* 6 Adaptations
* 6.1 Mathews
* 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links
Wade–Giles was developed by
Thomas Francis Wade , a scholar of
Chinese and a British ambassador in China who was the first professor
of Chinese at
INITIALS AND FINALS
The tables below show the Wade–Giles representation of each Chinese sound (in bold type), together with the corresponding IPA phonetic symbol (in square brackets), and equivalent representations in Zhùyīn Fúhào (Bōpōmōfō) and Hànyǔ Pīnyīn .
BILABIAL LABIODENTAL DENTAL /ALVEOLAR RETROFLEX ALVEOLO-PALATAL VELAR
VOICELESS VOICED VOICELESS VOICELESS VOICED VOICELESS VOICED VOICELESS VOICELESS
M ㄇ m
N ㄋ n
PLOSIVE UNASPIRATED P ㄅ b
T ㄉ d
K ㄍ g
ASPIRATED Pʻ ㄆ p
Tʻ ㄊ t
Kʻ ㄎ k
TS ㄗ z CH ㄓ zh CH ㄐ j
TSʻ ㄘ c CHʻ ㄔ ch CHʻ ㄑ q
F ㄈ f S ㄙ s SH ㄕ sh HS ㄒ x H ㄏ h
L ㄌ l J ㄖ r
Instead of ts, tsʻ and s, Wade–Giles writes tz, tzʻ and ss before ŭ (see below ).
∅ /I/ /U/ /N/ /ŋ/ /ɻ/
MEDIAL ∅ IH/ŭ
ㄭ -i ê/O
ㄜ e A
ㄚ a EI
ㄟ ei AI
ㄞ ai OU
ㄡ ou AO
ㄠ ao êN
ㄣ en AN
ㄢ an UNG
ㄨㄥ ong êNG
ㄥ eng ANG
ㄤ ang êRH
ㄧ i IEH
ㄧㄝ ie IA
ㄧㄡ iu IAO
ㄧㄠ iao IN
ㄧㄣ in IEN
ㄧㄢ ian IUNG
ㄩㄥ iong ING
ㄧㄥ ing IANG
ㄨ u O/UO
ㄛ/ㄨㄛ o/uo UA
ㄨㄚ ua UI/UEI
ㄨㄟ ui UAI
ㄨㄣ un UAN
ㄩ ü üEH
ㄩㄣ ün üAN
Wade–Giles writes -uei after kʻ and k, otherwise -ui: kʻuei, kuei, hui, shui, chʻui.
It writes as -o after kʻ, k and h, otherwise -ê: kʻo, ko, ho, shê, chʻê. When forms a syllable on its own, it is written ê or o depending on the character.
Wade–Giles writes as -uo after kʻ, k, h and sh, otherwise -o: kʻuo, kuo, huo, shuo, chʻo.
For -ih and -ŭ, see below .
Giles's A Chinese-English Dictionary also includes the syllables chio, chʻio, hsio, yo, which are now pronounced like chüeh, chʻüeh, hsüeh, yüeh.
SYLLABLES THAT BEGIN WITH A MEDIAL
∅ /I/ /U/ /N/ /ŋ/
MEDIAL /J/ I/YI
ㄧ yi YEH
ㄧㄝ ye YA
ㄧㄚ ya YAI
ㄧㄞ yai YU
ㄧㄡ you YAO
ㄧㄠ yao YIN
ㄧㄣ yin YEN
ㄧㄢ yan YUNG
ㄩㄥ yong YING
ㄧㄥ ying YANG
ㄨ wu WO
ㄨㄛ wo WA
ㄨㄚ wa WEI
ㄨㄟ wei WAI
ㄨㄣ wen WAN
ㄨㄢ wan WêNG
ㄨㄥ weng WANG
ㄩ yu YüEH
ㄩㄣ yun YüAN
Wade–Giles writes the syllable as i or yi depending on the character.
CONSONANTS AND INITIAL SYMBOLS
A feature of the Wade–Giles system is the representation of the unaspirated-aspirated stop consonant pairs using left apostrophes : p, pʻ, t, tʻ, k, kʻ, ch, chʻ. The use of apostrophes preserves b, d, g, and j for the romanization of Chinese varieties containing voiced consonants, such as Shanghainese (which has a full set of voiced consonants) and Min Nan (Hō-ló-oē) whose century-old Pe̍h-ōe-jī (POJ, often called Missionary Romanization) is similar to Wade–Giles. POJ, Legge romanization , Simplified Wade , and EFEO Chinese transcription use the letter ⟨h⟩ instead of an apostrophe to indicate aspiration (this is similar to the superscript ʰ used in IPA since the revisions of the 1970s ). The convention of an apostrophe or ⟨h⟩ to denote aspiration is also found in romanizations of other Asian languages, such as McCune–Reischauer for Korean and ISO 11940 for Thai .
People unfamiliar with Wade–Giles often ignore the apostrophes, sometimes omitting them when copying texts, unaware that they represent vital information. Hànyǔ Pīnyīn addresses this issue by employing the Latin letters customarily used for voiced stops, unneeded in Mandarin, to represent the unaspirated stops: b, p, d, t, g, k, j, q, zh, ch.
Partly because of the popular omission of the apostrophe, the four sounds represented in Hànyǔ Pīnyīn by j, q, zh, and ch often all become ch, including in many proper names. However, if the apostrophes are kept, the system reveals a symmetry that leaves no overlap:
VOWELS AND FINAL SYMBOLS
Wade–Giles shows precisions not found in other major Romanizations in regard to the rendering of the two types of syllabic consonant (simplified Chinese : 空韵; traditional Chinese : 空韻; pinyin : kōngyùn):
IPA ʈ͡ʂɻ̩ ʈ͡ʂʰɻ̩ ʂɻ̩ ɻɻ̩ t͡sɹ̩ t͡sʰɹ̩ sɹ̩
WADE–GILES chih chʻih shih jih tzŭ tzʻŭ ssŭ
ZHùYīN ㄓ ㄔ ㄕ ㄖ ㄗ ㄘ ㄙ
PīNYīN zhi chi shi ri zi ci si
Final o in Wade–Giles has two pronunciations in modern Mandarin: and .
What is pronounced today as a close-mid back unrounded vowel is written usually as ê, but sometimes as o, depending on historical pronunciation (at the time Wade–Giles was developed). Specifically, after velar initials k, kʻ and h (and a historical ng, which had been dropped by the time Wade–Giles was developed), o is used; for example, "哥" is ko1 ( Pīnyīn gē) and "刻" is kʻo4 (Pīnyīn kè). By modern Mandarin, o after velars (and what used to be ng) have shifted to , thus they are written as ge, ke, he and e in Pīnyīn. When forms a syllable on its own, Wade–Giles writes ê or o depending on the character. In all other circumstances, it writes ê.
What is pronounced today as is usually written as o in Wade–Giles, except for wo, shuo (e.g. "說" shuo1) and the three syllables of kuo, kʻuo, and huo (as in 過, 霍, etc.), which contrast with ko, kʻo, and ho that correspond to Pīnyīn ge, ke, and he. This is because characters like 羅, 多, etc. (Wade–Giles: lo2, to1; Pīnyīn: luó, duō) did not originally carry the medial . By modern Mandarin, the phonemic distinction between o and -uo/wo has been lost (except in interjections when used alone), and the medial is added in front of -o, creating the modern .
IPA pwo pʰwo mwo fwo two tʰwo nwo lwo kɤ kʰɤ xɤ ʈʂwo ʈʂʰwo ʐwo ʦwo ʦʰwo swo ɤ wo
WADE–GILES po pʻo mo fo to tʻo no lo ko kʻo ho cho chʻo jo tso tsʻo so o/ê wo
ZHùYīN ㄅㄛ ㄆㄛ ㄇㄛ ㄈㄛ ㄉㄨㄛ ㄊㄨㄛ ㄋㄨㄛ ㄌㄨㄛ ㄍㄜ ㄎㄜ ㄏㄜ ㄓㄨㄛ ㄔㄨㄛ ㄖㄨㄛ ㄗㄨㄛ ㄘㄨㄛ ㄙㄨㄛ ㄜ ㄨㄛ
PīNYīN bO pO mO fO dUO tUO nUO lUO gE kE hE zhUO chUO rUO zUO cUO sUO E WO
Note that Zhùyīn and Pīnyīn write as ㄛ -o after ㄅ b, ㄆ p, ㄇ m and ㄈ f, and as ㄨㄛ -uo after all other initials.
Tones are indicated in Wade–Giles using superscript numbers (1–4) placed after the syllable. This contrasts with the use of diacritics to represent the tones in Pīnyīn. For example, the Pīnyīn qiàn (fourth tone) has the Wade–Giles equivalent chʻien4.
If a syllable is not the first in a word, its first letter is not capitalized , even if it is part of a proper noun . The use of apostrophes, hyphens, and capitalization is frequently not observed in place names and personal names. For example, the majority of overseas Taiwanese write their given names like "Tai Lun" or "Tai-Lun", whereas the Wade–Giles is actually "Tai-lun". (See also Chinese name .)
COMPARISON WITH OTHER SYSTEMS
* Wade–Giles chose the French -like j (implying a sound like IPA's ) to represent a Northern Mandarin pronunciation of what is represented as r in Pīnyīn. * Ü always has an umlaut above, while Pīnyīn only employs it in the cases of nü, lü, nüe and lüe, while leaving it out after j, q, x and y as a simplification because u cannot otherwise appear after those letters. Because yü (as in 玉 "jade") must have an umlaut in Wade–Giles, the umlaut-less yu in Wade–Giles is freed up for what corresponds to you (有) in Pinyin. * The Pīnyīn cluster -ong is -ung in Wade–Giles. (Compare kung1-fu to gōngfu as an example.) * After a consonant, both Wade–Giles and Pīnyīn use -iu and -un instead of the complete syllables: -iou and -uên/-uen.
Vowels a, e, o IPA A ɔ ɛ ɤ AI EI AU OU AN əN Aŋ əŋ ʊŋ Aɚ
PINYIN a o ê e ai ei ao ou an en ang eng ong er
TONGYONG PINYIN a o e e ai ei ao ou an en ang eng ong er
WADE–GILES a o eh ê/o ai ei ao ou an ên ang êng ung êrh
ZHUYIN ㄚ ㄛ ㄝ ㄜ ㄞ ㄟ ㄠ ㄡ ㄢ ㄣ ㄤ ㄥ ㄨㄥ ㄦ
EXAMPLE 阿 哦 呗 俄 艾 黑 凹 偶 安 恩 昂 冷 中 二
Vowels i, u, y IPA I JE JOU JɛN IN Iŋ Jʊŋ U WO WEI WəN Wəŋ Y ɥE ɥɛN YN
PINYIN yi ye you yan yin ying yong wu wo/o wei wen weng yu yue yuan yun
TONGYONG PINYIN yi ye you yan yin ying yong wu wo/o wei wun wong yu yue yuan yun
WADE–GILES i/yi yeh yu yen yin ying yung wu wo/o wei wên wêng yü yüeh yüan yün
ZHUYIN ㄧ ㄧㄝ ㄧㄡ ㄧㄢ ㄧㄣ ㄧㄥ ㄩㄥ ㄨ ㄨㄛ/ㄛ ㄨㄟ ㄨㄣ ㄨㄥ ㄩ ㄩㄝ ㄩㄢ ㄩㄣ
EXAMPLE 一 也 又 言 音 英 用 五 我 位 文 翁 玉 月 元 云
Non-sibilant consonants IPA P Pʰ M Fəŋ TJOU TWEI TWəN Tʰɤ NY LY Kɤɚ Kʰɤ Xɤ
PINYIN b p m feng diu dui dun te nü lü ger ke he
TONGYONG PINYIN b p m fong diou duei dun te nyu lyu ger ke he
WADE–GILES p pʻ m fêng tiu tui tun tʻê nü lü kor kʻo ho
ZHUYIN ㄅ ㄆ ㄇ ㄈㄥ ㄉㄧㄡ ㄉㄨㄟ ㄉㄨㄣ ㄊㄜ ㄋㄩ ㄌㄩ ㄍㄜㄦ ㄎㄜ ㄏㄜ
EXAMPLE 玻 婆 末 封 丟 兌 顿 特 女 旅 歌儿 可 何
PINYIN jian jiong qin xuan zhe zhi che chi she shi re ri ze zuo zi ce ci se si
TONGYONG PINYIN jian jyong cin syuan jhe jhih che chih she shih re rih ze zuo zih ce cih se sih
WADE–GILES chien chiung chʻin hsüan chê chih chʻê chʻih shê shih jê jih tsê tso tzŭ tsʻê tzʻŭ sê ssŭ
ZHUYIN ㄐㄧㄢ ㄐㄩㄥ ㄑㄧㄣ ㄒㄩㄢ ㄓㄜ ㄓ ㄔㄜ ㄔ ㄕㄜ ㄕ ㄖㄜ ㄖ ㄗㄜ ㄗㄨㄛ ㄗ ㄘㄜ ㄘ ㄙㄜ ㄙ
EXAMPLE 件 窘 秦 宣 哲 之 扯 赤 社 是 惹 日 仄 左 字 策 次 色 斯
TONES IPA MA˥˥ MA˧˥ MA˨˩˦ MA˥˩ MA
PINYIN mā má mǎ mà ma
TONGYONG PINYIN ma má mǎ mà må
WADE–GILES ma1 ma2 ma3 ma4 ma
ZHUYIN ㄇㄚ ㄇㄚˊ ㄇㄚˇ ㄇㄚˋ ˙ㄇㄚ
EXAMPLE (TRADITIONAL /SIMPLIFIED ) 媽/妈 麻/麻 馬/马 罵/骂 嗎/吗
Note: In Hànyǔ Pīnyīn, the so-called neutral tone is written leaving the syllable with no diacritic mark at all. In Tongyòng Pinyin, a ring is written over the vowel.
Due to the system's use of an apostrophe to distinguish aspirated and unaspirated consonants , such as in pʻa and pa respectively, rather than using separate letters like in Pīnyīn and many other Romanizations, such as in pa and ba respectively, many people have omitted the apostrophe in transcribing Chinese words and names, assuming that it was an optional diacritic.
There are several adaptations of Wade–Giles.
* It uses the right apostrophe: pʼ, tʼ, kʼ, chʼ, tsʼ, tzʼŭ; while Wade–Giles uses the left apostrophe, similar to the aspiration diacritic used in the International Phonetic Alphabet before the revisions of the 1970s : pʻ, tʻ, kʻ, chʻ, tsʻ, tzʻŭ. * It consistently uses i for the syllable , while Wade–Giles uses i or yi depending on the character. * It uses o for the syllable , while Wade–Giles uses ê or o depending on the character. * It offers the choice between ssŭ and szŭ, while Wade–Giles requires ssŭ. * It does not use the spellings chio, chʻio, hsio, yo, replacing them with chüeh, chʻüeh, hsüeh, yüeh in accordance with their modern pronunciations. * It uses an underscored 3 to denote a second tone which comes from an original third tone, but only if the following syllable has the neutral tone and the tone sandhi is therefore not predictable: hsiao3•chieh. * It denotes the neutral tone by placing a dot (if the neutral tone is compulsory) or a circle (if the neutral tone is optional) before the syllable. The dot or circle replaces the hyphen.
* China portal * Languages portal
* ^ Kaske, Elisabeth (2008). The Politics of Language in Chinese Education: 1895 - 1919. BRILL. p. 68. ISBN 90-04-16367-0 . * ^ "Chinese Language Transliteration Systems – Wade–Giles". UCLA film and television archive. Archived from the original on 2007-01-28. Retrieved 2007-08-04. (Web archive) * ^ A Chinese-English Dictionary . * ^ A Chinese-English Dictionary , p. 761. * ^ Mathews\' Chinese-English Dictionary .
* Chinese Romanization Converter – Convert between Hànyǔ Pīnyīn, Wade–Giles, Gwoyeu Romatzyh and other known or (un-)common Romanization systems. * Wade–Giles → Zhùyīn → Pīnyīn → Word list * A conversion table of Chinese provinces and cities from Wade–Giles to Pīnyīn * Pinyin4j: Java library supporting Chinese to Wade–Giles – Support Simplified and Traditional Chinese; Support most popular Romanization systems, including Hànyŭ Pīnyīn, Tongyòng Pinyin, Wade–Giles, MPS2, Yale and Gwoyeu Romatzyh; Support multiple pronunciations of a single character; Support customized output, such as ü or tone marks. * Chinese without a teacher, Chinese phrasebook by Herbert Giles with Romanization * Chinese Phonetic Conversion Tool – Converts between Wade–Giles and other formats * Wade–Giles Annotation – Wade–Giles pronunciation and English definitions for Chinese text snippets or web pages. * 國語拼音對照表
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