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William Averell Harriman (November 15, 1891 – July 26, 1986) was an American Democratic politician, businessman, and diplomat. The son of railroad baron E. H. Harriman, he served as Secretary of Commerce under President Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
and later as the 48th Governor of New York. He was a candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1952 and 1956, as well as a core member of the group of foreign policy elders known as "The Wise Men". While attending Groton School
Groton School
and Yale University, he made contacts that led to creation of a banking firm that eventually merged into Brown Brothers Harriman
Brown Brothers Harriman
& Co.. He owned parts of various other companies, including Union Pacific Railroad, Merchant Shipping Corporation, and Polaroid Corporation. During the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harriman served in the National Recovery Administration and on the Business Advisory Council before moving into foreign policy roles. After helping to coordinate the Lend-Lease program, Harriman served as the ambassador to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and attended the major World War II conferences. After the war, he became a prominent advocate of George F. Kennan's policy of containment. He also served as Secretary of Commerce, and coordinated the implementation of the Marshall Plan. In 1954, Harriman defeated Republican Senator Irving Ives to become the Governor of New York. He served a single term before his defeat by Nelson Rockefeller
Nelson Rockefeller
in the 1958 election. Harriman unsuccessfully sought the presidential nomination at the 1952 Democratic National Convention and the 1956 Democratic National Convention. Though Harriman had Truman's backing at the 1956 convention, the Democrats nominated Adlai Stevenson II
Adlai Stevenson II
in both elections. After his gubernatorial defeat, Harriman became a widely respected foreign policy elder within the Democratic Party. He helped negotiate the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
during President John F. Kennedy's administration and was deeply involved in the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
during the Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
administrations. After Johnson left office in 1969, Harriman affiliated with various organizations, including the Club of Rome
Club of Rome
and the Council on Foreign Relations.

Contents

1 Early life and education 2 Career

2.1 Business affairs 2.2 Politics 2.3 Thoroughbred racing 2.4 War seizures controversy 2.5 World War II diplomacy 2.6 Statesman of foreign and domestic affairs 2.7 Vietnamese coup d'état 2.8 Later years

3 Personal life

3.1 Legacy and Honors

4 Summary of career 5 See also 6 References

6.1 Primary sources

7 External links

Early life and education[edit] Better known as Averell Harriman, he was born in New York City, the son of railroad baron Edward Henry Harriman and Mary Williamson Averell. He was the brother of E. Roland Harriman and Mary Harriman Rumsey. Harriman was a close friend of Hall Roosevelt, the brother of Eleanor Roosevelt. During the summer of 1899, Harriman's father organized the Harriman Alaska
Alaska
Expedition, a philanthropic-scientific survey of coastal Alaska and Russia
Russia
that attracted 25 of the leading scientific, naturalist, and artist luminaries of the day, including John Muir, John Burroughs, George Bird Grinnell, C. Hart Merriam, Grove Karl Gilbert, and Edward Curtis, along with 100 family members and staff, aboard the steamship George Elder. Young Harriman would have his first introduction to Russia, a nation on which he would spend a significant amount of attention in his later life in public service. He attended Groton School
Groton School
in Massachusetts before going on to Yale where he joined the Skull and Bones
Skull and Bones
society.[1]:127,150–1 He graduated in 1913. After graduating, he inherited the largest fortune in America and became Yale's youngest Crew coach. Career[edit] Business affairs[edit] Using money from his father he established W.A. Harriman & Co banking business in 1922. In 1927 his brother Roland joined the business and the name was changed to Harriman Brothers & Company. In 1931, it merged with Brown Bros. & Co. to create the highly successful Wall Street
Wall Street
firm Brown Brothers Harriman
Brown Brothers Harriman
& Co. Notable employees included George Herbert Walker
George Herbert Walker
and his son-in-law Prescott Bush. Harriman's main properties included Brown Brothers & Harriman & Co, Union Pacific Railroad, Merchant Shipping Corporation, and venture capital investments that included the Polaroid Corporation. Harriman's associated properties included the Southern Pacific Railroad (including the Central Pacific Railroad), Illinois Central Railroad, Wells Fargo & Co., the Pacific Mail Steamship Co., American Ship & Commerce, Hamburg-Amerikanische Packetfahrt-Aktiengesellschaft (HAPAG), the American Hawaiian Steamship Co., United American Lines, the Guaranty Trust Company, and the Union Banking Corporation. He served as Chairman of The Business Council, then known as the Business Advisory Council for the United States Department of Commerce in 1937 and 1939.[2] Politics[edit] Harriman's older sister, Mary Rumsey, encouraged Averell to leave his finance job and work with her and their friends, the Roosevelts, to advance the goals of the New Deal. Averell joined the NRA National Recovery Administration, the first government consumer rights group, marking the beginning of his political career. Thoroughbred racing[edit] Following the death of August Belmont, Jr., in 1924, Harriman, George Walker, and Joseph E. Widener
Joseph E. Widener
purchased much of Belmont's thoroughbred breeding stock. Harriman raced under the name of Arden Farms. Among his horses, Chance Play
Chance Play
won the 1927 Jockey Club Gold Cup. He also raced in partnership with Walker under the name Log Cabin Stable before buying him out. U.S. Racing Hall of Fame inductee Louis Feustel, trainer of Man o' War, trained the Log Cabin horses until 1926.[3] Of the partnership's successful runners purchased from the August Belmont estate, Ladkin is best remembered for defeating the European star Epinard
Epinard
in the International Special. War seizures controversy[edit] Harriman's banking business was the main Wall Street
Wall Street
connection for German companies and the varied U.S. financial interests of Fritz Thyssen; who was a financial backer of the Nazi party until 1938. The Trading With the Enemy Act (enacted on October 6, 1917)[4] classified any business transactions for profit with enemy nations as illegal, and any funds or assets involved were subject to seizure by the U.S. government. The declaration of war on the U.S. by Hitler led to the U.S. government order on October 20, 1942 to seize German interests in the U.S. which included Harriman's operations in New York City. The Harriman business interests seized under the act in October and November 1942 included:[citation needed]

Union Banking Corporation (UBC) (from Thyssen and Brown Brothers Harriman) Holland-American Trading Corporation (from Harriman) Seamless Steel Equipment Corporation (from Harriman) Silesian-American Corporation (this company was partially owned by a German entity; during the war the Germans tried to take full control of Silesian-American. In response to that, the American government seized German-owned minority shares in the company, leaving the U.S. partners to carry on the portion of the business in the United States.)

The assets were held by the government for the duration of the war, then returned afterward; UBC was dissolved in 1951. World War II diplomacy[edit]

W. Averell Harriman
W. Averell Harriman
(center) with Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(right) and Vyacheslav Molotov
Vyacheslav Molotov
(left)

Main articles: Presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
and United Kingdom-United States relations in World War II Beginning in the spring of 1941, Harriman served President Franklin D. Roosevelt as a special envoy to Europe and helped coordinate the Lend-Lease
Lend-Lease
program. He was present at the meeting between FDR and Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
at Placentia Bay, in August 1941, which yielded the Atlantic Charter. It was a common declaration of principles of the United States and the UK; It was eventually endorsed by all of the Allies.[5] Harriman was subsequently dispatched to Moscow to negotiate the terms of the Lend-Lease
Lend-Lease
agreement with the Soviet Union. His promise of $1 billion in aid technically exceeded his brief. Determined to win over the doubtful American public, he used his own funds to purchase time on CBS radio to explain the program in terms of enlightened self-interest. This skepticism lifted with the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.[6] On November 25, 1941 (twelve days before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor), he noted that "The United States Navy
United States Navy
is shooting the Germans—German submarines and aircraft at sea".[7] In the summer of 1942, Harriman accompanied Churchill to the Moscow Conference to explain to Stalin why the western allies were carrying out operations in North Africa instead of opening the promised second front in France. Harriman was appointed as United States Ambassador to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1943.[6] At the Tehran Conference
Tehran Conference
in late 1943 Harriman was tasked with placating a suspicious Churchill while Roosevelt attempted to gain the confidence of Stalin. The conference highlighted the divisions between the United States and Britain about the postwar world. Churchill was intent on maintaining Britain's empire and carving the postwar world into spheres of influence while the United States upheld the principles of self-determination as laid out in the Atlantic Charter. Harriman mistrusted the Soviet leader's motives and intentions and opposed the spheres approach as it would give Stalin a free hand in eastern Europe.[6] Harriman also attended the Yalta Conference, where he encouraged taking a stronger line with the Soviet Union—especially on questions of Poland. After Roosevelt's death, he attended the final "Big Three" conference at Potsdam. Although the new president, Harry Truman, was receptive to Harriman's anti-Soviet hard line advice, the new secretary of state, James Byrnes, managed to sideline him. While in Berlin, he noted the tight security imposed by Soviet military authorities and the beginnings of a program of reparations by which the Soviets were stripping out German industry.[6] In 1945, while Ambassador to the Soviet Union, Harriman was presented with a Trojan Horse
Trojan Horse
gift. In 1952, the gift, a carved wood Great Seal of the United States, which had adorned "the ambassador's Moscow residential office" in Spaso House, was found to be bugged.[8][9] Statesman of foreign and domestic affairs[edit] See also: 1963 South Vietnamese coup, Arrest and assassination of Ngo Dinh Diem, Reaction to the 1963 South Vietnamese coup, Cable 243, Buddhist crisis, Krulak Mendenhall mission, and McNamara Taylor mission

Photographic portrait of Lord Beaverbrook
Lord Beaverbrook
(left) and Harriman

Harriman served as ambassador to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
until January 1946. When he returned to the United States, he worked hard to get George Kennan's Long Telegram into wide distribution.[6] Kennan's analysis, which generally lined up with Harriman's, became the cornerstone of Truman's Cold War strategy of containment. From April to October 1946, he was ambassador to Britain, but he was soon appointed to become United States Secretary of Commerce
United States Secretary of Commerce
under President Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
to replace Henry A. Wallace, a critic of Truman's foreign policies. In 1948, he was put in charge of the Marshall Plan. In Paris, he became friendly with the CIA
CIA
agent Irving Brown, who organised anti-communist unions and organisations.[10][11] Harriman was then sent to Tehran
Tehran
in July 1951 to mediate between Iran and Britain in the wake of the Iranian nationalization of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company.[12] In the 1954 race to succeed Republican Thomas E. Dewey
Thomas E. Dewey
as Governor of New York, Harriman defeated Dewey's protege, U.S. Senator Irving M. Ives, by a tiny margin. He served as governor for one term until Republican Nelson Rockefeller
Nelson Rockefeller
unseated him in 1958. As governor, he increased personal taxes by 11% but his tenure was dominated by his presidential ambitions. Harriman was a candidate for the Democratic Presidential Nomination in 1952, and again in 1956 when he was endorsed by Truman but lost (both times) to Illinois
Illinois
governor Adlai Stevenson. Despite the failure of his presidential ambitions, Harriman became a widely respected elder statesman of the party. In January 1961, he was appointed Ambassador at Large in the Kennedy administration, a position he held until November, when he became Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs. During this period he advocated U.S. support of a neutral government in Laos
Laos
and helped to negotiate the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
in 1963. In December 1961, Anatoliy Golitsyn defected from the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and accused Harriman of being a Soviet spy, but his claims were dismissed by the CIA
CIA
and Harriman remained in his position until April 1963, when he became Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs. He retained that position during the transition to the Johnson administration until March 1965 when he again became Ambassador at Large. He held that position for the remainder of Johnson's presidency. Harriman headed the U.S. delegation to the preliminary peace talks in Paris between the United States and North Vietnam
North Vietnam
(1968–69). Vietnamese coup d'état[edit] President-elect Kennedy appointed Harriman as ambassador-at-large, to operate "with the full confidence of the president and an intimate knowledge of all aspects of United States policy." But by 1963, Kennedy had come to suspect the loyalty of certain members on his national security team. According to Colonel William Corson, USMC, by 1963 Harriman was running "Vietnam without consulting the president or the attorney general.".[13] Corson said Kenny O'Donnell, JFK's appointments secretary, was convinced that the National Security Advisor, McGeorge Bundy, followed the orders of Harriman rather than the president. Corson also claimed that O'Donnell was particularly concerned about Michael Forrestal, a young White House staffer who handled liaison on Vietnam with Harriman.[13] Harriman certainly supported the coup against the South Vietnam president Ngo Dinh Diem
Ngo Dinh Diem
in 1963. However, it is alleged that the orders that ended in the deaths of Diem and his brother actually originated with Harriman and were carried out by Henry Cabot Lodge's military assistant.[14][15] The fundamental question about the murders was the sudden and unusual recall of Saigon Station Chief John "Jocko" Richardson by an unknown authority.[citation needed] Special Operations Army officer, John Michael Dunn, was sent to Vietnam in his stead. He followed the orders of Harriman and Forrestal rather than the CIA.[13] According to Corson, Dunn's role in the incident has never been made public but he was assigned to Ambassador Lodge for "special operations" with the authority to act without hindrance; and he was known to have access to the coup plotters. Corson speculated that with Richardson recalled the way was clear for Dunn to freely act.[13] Later years[edit] Harriman received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, with Distinction, in 1969 and West Point's Sylvanus Thayer Award
Sylvanus Thayer Award
in 1975. Furthermore, in 1983 he received the Freedom Medal. In 1973 he was interviewed in the now famous TV documentary series, The World at War, where he gives a recollection of his experiences as Roosevelt's Personal Representative in Britain along with his views on Cold War politics; in particular Poland and the Warsaw Pact; along with the exchanges he witnessed between Winston Churchill, Franklin Roosevelt, and Joseph Stalin. In one such recollection he describes Stalin as utterly cruel.[16] Harriman was appointed senior member of the US Delegation to the United Nations General Assembly's Special
Special
Session on Disarmament in 1978. He was also a member of the American Academy of Diplomacy Charter, Club of Rome, Council on Foreign Relations, Knights of Pythias, Skull and Bones
Skull and Bones
Society, Psi Upsilon
Psi Upsilon
Fraternity, and the Jupiter Island Club. Personal life[edit] His first marriage, two years after graduating from Yale, was to Kitty Lanier Lawrence.[17] Lawrence was the great-granddaughter of James Lanier, a co-founder of Winslow, Lanier & Co., and the granddaughter of Charles D. Lanier (1837-1926), a close friend of Pierpont Morgan[18] Before their divorce in 1928, and her death in 1936, Harriman and Lawrence had two daughters together: [19]

Mary Averell Harriman (1917-1996), who married Dr. Shirley C. Fisk[20] Kathleen Lanier Harriman (1917–2011), who married Stanley Grafton Mortimer Jr. (1913–1999),[21] who had previously been married to socialite Babe Paley
Babe Paley
(1915-1978)[22]

About a year after his divorce from Lawrence, he married Marie Norton Whitney (1903–1970), who had left her husband, Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney, to marry him. On their honeymoon in Europe, they purchased oil paintings by Van Gogh, Degas, Cézanne, Picasso, and Renoir.[23] She and her husband later donated many of the works she bought and collected, including those of the artist Walt Kuhn, to the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C.[24] They remained married until her death on September 26, 1970, at George Washington University Hospital in Washington, D.C.[25] In 1971, he married for the third and final time to Pamela Beryl Digby Churchill Hayward (1920–1997), the former wife of Winston Churchill's son Randolph, and widow of Broadway producer Leland Hayward. In 1993, she became the 58th United States Ambassador to France.[26] Harriman died on July 26, 1986 in Yorktown Heights, New York, at the age of 94. Averell and Pamela Harriman
Pamela Harriman
are buried at the Arden Farm Graveyard in Arden, New York. Legacy and Honors[edit]

External video

Forum on the 100th anniversary of the birth of Harriman, hosted by the Library of Congress, November 14, 1991. Participants include James H. Billington, McGeorge Bundy, Richard C. Holbrooke, Marshall Shulman, and Cyrus Vance.

The Harriman Hall at Stony Brook University
Stony Brook University
was named in his honor. The W. Averell Harriman State Office Building Campus
W. Averell Harriman State Office Building Campus
in Albany, NY also carries his name. Harriman State Park (Idaho)

For the state park in New York named after his parents, see Harriman State Park (New York). Harriman State Park is a state park in eastern Idaho, United States. It is located on an 11,000-acre (45 km2) wildlife refuge in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem
Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem
and is home to an abundance of elk, moose, sandhill cranes, trumpeter swans, and the occasional black or grizzly bear. Two-thirds of the trumpeter swans that winter in the contiguous United States spend the season in Harriman State Park. The land was deeded to Idaho
Idaho
for free in 1977 by Roland and W. Averell Harriman, whose insistence that the state have a professional park managing service helped prompt the creation of the Idaho Department of Parks and Recreation
Idaho Department of Parks and Recreation
in 1965. The park opened to the public in 1982. It is located in Fremont County, 3 miles (4.8 km) south of Island Park, Idaho. Henry's Fork, a fly-fishing stream, winds through the meadows of Harriman State Park. In winter, many of its roads and trails are groomed for cross country skiing. Summary of career[edit]

Vice President, Union Pacific Railroad
Union Pacific Railroad
Co., 1915–17 Director, Illinois Central Railroad
Illinois Central Railroad
Co., 1915–46 Member, Palisades Interstate Park Commission, 1915–54 Chairman, Merchant Shipbuilding Corp.,1917–25 Chairman, W. A. Harriman & Company, 1920–31 Partner, Soviet Georgian Manganese Concessions, 1925–28 Chairman, executive committee, Illinois
Illinois
Central Railroad, 1931–42 Senior partner, Brown Brothers Harriman
Brown Brothers Harriman
& Co., 1931–46 Chairman, Union Pacific Railroad, 1932–46 Co-founder, Today magazine with Vincent Astor, 1935–37 (merged with Newsweek
Newsweek
in 1937) Administrator and Special
Special
Assistant, National Recovery Administration, 1934–35 Founder, Sun Valley Ski Resort, Idaho, 1936 Chairman, Business Advisory Council, 1937–39 Chief, Materials Branch & Production Division, Office of Production Management, 1941 U.S. Ambassador & Special
Special
Representative to the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, 1941–43 Chairman, Ambassador & Special
Special
Representative of the U.S. President's Special
Special
Mission to the USSR, 1941–43 U.S. Ambassador to the USSR, 1943–46 U.S. Ambassador, Britain, 1946 U.S. Secretary of Commerce, 1946–48 United States Coordinator, European Recovery Program (Marshall Plan), 1948–50 Special
Special
Assistant to the U.S. President, 1950–52 U.S. Representative and Chairman, North Atlantic Commission on Defense Plans, 1951–52 Director, Mutual Security Agency, 1951–53 Candidate, Democratic nomination for U.S. President, 1952 Governor, State of New York, 1955–59 Candidate, Democratic nomination for U.S. President, 1956 U.S. Ambassador-at-large, 1961 United States Deputy Representative, International Conference on the Settlement of the Laotian, 1961–62 Assistant US Secretary of State, Far Eastern Affairs, 1961–63 Special
Special
Representative to the U.S. President, Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, 1963 Under Secretary of State, Political Affairs, 1963–65 U.S. Ambassador-at-large, 1965–69 Chairman, President's Commission of the Observance of Human Rights Year, 1968 Personal Representative of the U.S. President, Peace Talks with North Vietnam, 1968–69 Chairman, Foreign Policy Task Force, Democratic National Committee, 1976

See also[edit]

Florence Jaffray Harriman U.S. presidential election, 1952 U.S. presidential election, 1956

References[edit]

This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (September 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

^ Robbins, Alexandra (2002). Secrets of the Tomb: Skull and Bones, the Ivy League, and the Hidden Paths of Power. Boston: Little, Brown. ISBN 0-316-72091-7. ^ The Business Council, Official website, Background Archived March 3, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. ^ https://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F70F11FF34591B7A93C7A8178CD85F428285F9 ^ Trading with the Enemy Act of 1917 ^ Theodore A. Wilson, The First Summit: Roosevelt and Churchill at Placentia Bay, 1941 (1991). ^ a b c d e Cathal J. Nolan, Notable U.S. ambassadors since 1775: a biographical dictionary, 137-143. ^ Flynn, John. The Final Secret of Pearl Harbor (October 1945) ^ "National Cryptologic Museum - NSA/CSS". nsa.gov.  ^ "Congressional Record - 101st Congress (1989-1990) - THOMAS (Library of Congress)". loc.gov.  (INTRODUCTION TO 'EMBASSY MOSCOW: ATTITUDES AND ERRORS' – (BY HENRY J. HYDE, REPUBLICAN OF ILLINOIS) (Extension of Remarks - October 26, 1988) page [E3490]) ^ Harry Kelber, "AFL-CIO's Dark Past", 22 November 2004, on laboreducator.org ^ Frédéric Charpier, La CIA
CIA
en France. 60 ans d'ingérence dans les affaires françaises, Seuil, 2008, p. 40–43. See also Les belles aventures de la CIA
CIA
en France Archived 2007-04-20 at Archive.is, 8 January 2008, Bakchich. ^ http://www.bibliothecapersica.com/articles/v12f1/v12f1011.html ^ a b c d "The Secret History of the CIA." Joseph Trento. 2001, Prima Publishing. pp. 334–335. ^ "Presidential Recordings Program". whitehousetapes.org.  ^ "Presidential Recordings Program". whitehousetapes.org.  ^ "Pincers (August 1944 – March 1945)". The World at War. Episode 19. 20 March 1974. 21 minutes in. ITV. Stalin was very suspicious of the underground, but it was utterly cruel that he wouldn't even try to get supplies in. He refused to let our aeroplanes fly and try to drop supplies for several weeks. And that was a shock to all of us. I think it played a role in all our minds as to the heartlessness of the Russians. Averell Harriman U.S. Ambassador to Russia
Russia
1943-46  ^ Staff (July 3, 1915). "MISS LAWRANCE TO WED W. A. HARRIMAN Romance in Match of Late Railroad Magnate's Son and C. Lanier's Granddaughter. FIANCEE A SPORTS DEVOTEE Just Recovered from Injury Received While Horseback Riding with the Young Financier." The New York Times. Retrieved 7 April 2016.  ^ Vincent P. Carosso, Rose C. Carosso, "The Morgans" (Harvard University Press, 1987) p. 248 ^ "W.A. Harriman Wed to Mrs. C.V. Whitney". New York Times. February 22, 1930. Retrieved February 17, 2015.  ^ Saxon, Wolfgang (January 10, 1996). "Mary A. Fisk, 78, an Advocate Of Tutoring in Primary Grades". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 March 2016.  ^ Fox, Margalit (February 19, 2011). "Kathleen Mortimer, Rich and Adventurous, Dies at 93". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 March 2016.  ^ Nemy, Enid (July 7, 1978). "Barbara Cushing Paley Dies at 63; Style Pace-Setter in Three Decades; Symbol of Taste". New York Times. Retrieved 2010-03-21. Barbara Cushing Paley, the wife of William S. Paley, the chairman of the board of the Columbia Broadcasting System, died of cancer at their apartment in New York City
New York City
yesterday after a long illness. She was 63 years old.  ^ Isaacson, Walter; Thomas, Evan (1986). The Wise Men: Six Friends and the World They Made. Simon & Schuster. p. 106.  ^ "The Marie and Averell Harriman Collection". National Gallery of Art. Retrieved February 17, 2015.  ^ "Mrs. W. Averell Harriman
W. Averell Harriman
Dies; Former Governor's Wife Was 67". New York Times. September 27, 1970. Retrieved February 17, 2015.  ^ Berger, Marilyn (6 February 1997). " Pamela Harriman
Pamela Harriman
Is Dead at 76; An Ardent Political Personality". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 December 2016. 

Primary sources[edit]

W. Averell Harriman. America and Russia
Russia
in a changing world: A half century of personal observation (1971) W. Averell Harriman. Public papers of Averell Harriman, fifty-second governor of the state of New York, 1955–1959 (1960) Harriman, W. Averell and Abel, Elie. Special
Special
Envoy to Churchill and Stalin, 1941–1946. (1975). 595 pp.

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: W. Averell Harriman

Wikimedia Commons has media related to W. Averell Harriman.

Papers of W. Averell Harriman
W. Averell Harriman
at the Library of Congress W. Averell Harriman
W. Averell Harriman
has been interviewed as part of Frontline Diplomacy: The Foreign Affairs Oral History Collection of the Association for Diplomatic Studies and Training, a site at the Library of Congress. A film clip "Longines Chronoscope with Averell W. Harriman" is available at the Internet Archive A film clip "Longines Chronoscope with Averell Harriman (May 30, 1952)" is available at the Internet Archive A film clip "Longines Chronoscope with Averell Harriman (October 29, 1952)" is available at the Internet Archive

Diplomatic posts

Preceded by William Standley United States Ambassador to the Soviet Union 1943–1946 Succeeded by Walter Bedell Smith

Preceded by John Winant United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom 1946 Succeeded by Lewis Douglas

New office Director of the Mutual Security Agency 1951–1953 Succeeded by Harold Stassen

Preceded by Walter P. McConaughy Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs 1961–1963 Succeeded by Roger Hilsman

Preceded by George C. McGhee Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs 1963–1965 Succeeded by Eugene V. Rostow

Political offices

Preceded by Henry A. Wallace United States Secretary of Commerce 1946–1948 Succeeded by Charles Sawyer

Preceded by Thomas E. Dewey Governor of New York 1955–1958 Succeeded by Nelson Rockefeller

Party political offices

Preceded by Walter A. Lynch Democratic nominee for Governor of New York 1954, 1958 Succeeded by Robert M. Morgenthau

Awards

Preceded by Robert Daniel Murphy Recipient of the Sylvanus Thayer Award 1975 Succeeded by Gordon Gray

v t e

United States Secretaries of Commerce

Secretaries of Commerce and Labor

Cortelyou Metcalf Straus Nagel

Secretaries of Commerce

Redfield Alexander Hoover Whiting Lamont Chapin Roper Hopkins Jones Wallace Harriman Sawyer Weeks Strauss Mueller Hodges Connor Trowbridge Smith Stans Peterson Dent Morton Richardson Kreps Klutznick Baldrige Verity Mosbacher Franklin Brown Kantor Daley Mineta Evans Gutierrez Locke Bryson Pritzker Ross

v t e

Cabinet of President Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945–53)

Vice President

None (1945–49) Alben W. Barkley
Alben W. Barkley
(1949–53)

Secretary of State

Edward R. Stettinius Jr. (1945) James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
(1945–47) George C. Marshall (1947–49) Dean G. Acheson (1949–53)

Secretary of the Treasury

Henry Morgenthau Jr.
Henry Morgenthau Jr.
(1945) Fred M. Vinson
Fred M. Vinson
(1945–46) John W. Snyder (1946–53)

Secretary of War

Henry L. Stimson
Henry L. Stimson
(1945) Robert P. Patterson
Robert P. Patterson
(1945–47) Kenneth C. Royall (1947)

Secretary of Defense

James V. Forrestal (1947–49) Louis A. Johnson
Louis A. Johnson
(1949–50) George C. Marshall (1950–51) Robert A. Lovett
Robert A. Lovett
(1951–53)

Attorney General

Francis B. Biddle (1945) Tom C. Clark
Tom C. Clark
(1945–49) J. Howard McGrath
J. Howard McGrath
(1949–52) James P. McGranery (1952–53)

Postmaster General

Frank C. Walker (1945) Robert E. Hannegan
Robert E. Hannegan
(1945–47) Jesse Monroe Donaldson (1947–53)

Secretary of the Navy

James V. Forrestal (1945–47)

Secretary of the Interior

Harold L. Ickes
Harold L. Ickes
(1945–46) Julius A. Krug (1946–49) Oscar Littleton Chapman (1949–53)

Secretary of Agriculture

Claude Raymond Wickard (1945) Clinton P. Anderson (1945–48) Charles F. Brannan
Charles F. Brannan
(1948–53)

Secretary of Commerce

Henry A. Wallace
Henry A. Wallace
(1945–46) W. Averell Harriman
W. Averell Harriman
(1946–48) Charles Sawyer (1948–53)

Secretary of Labor

Frances Perkins
Frances Perkins
(1945) Lewis B. Schwellenbach
Lewis B. Schwellenbach
(1945–48) Maurice J. Tobin
Maurice J. Tobin
(1948–53)

v t e

United States Ambassadors to Russia
Russia

Ambassador to the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
(1780–1917)

Dana Short Adams Bayard Pinkney Campbell Middleton Randolph Buchanan Dickerson Wilkins Clay Dallas Cambreleng Todd Ingersoll Bagby Brown Seymour Pickens Appleton Clay Cameron Clay Dawson Smythe Curtin Orr Jewell Boker Stoughton Foster Hunt Sargent Taft Lawton Lothrop Tree Rice Smith White Breckinridge Hitchcock Tower McCormick Meyer Riddle Rockhill Guild Pindell Marye Francis

Ambassador to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(1933–1991)

Bullitt Davies Steinhardt Standley Harriman Smith Kirk Kennan Bohlen Thompson Kohler Thompson Beam Stoessel Toon Watson Hartman Matlock Strauss

Ambassador to the Russian Federation (1992–present)

Strauss Pickering Collins Vershbow Burns Beyrle McFaul Tefft Huntsman

v t e

Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs
Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs
of the United States of America

Robert Daniel Murphy Livingston T. Merchant George C. McGhee W. Averell Harriman Eugene V. Rostow U. Alexis Johnson William J. Porter Joseph J. Sisco Philip Habib David D. Newsom Walter John Stoessel Jr. Lawrence Eagleburger Michael Armacost Robert M. Kimmitt Arnold Kanter Peter Tarnoff Thomas R. Pickering Marc Grossman R. Nicholas Burns William Joseph Burns Wendy Sherman Thomas A. Shannon Jr.

v t e

Governors and Lieutenant Governors of New York

Governors

G. Clinton Jay G. Clinton Lewis Tompkins Tayler D. Clinton Yates D. Clinton Pitcher Van Buren Throop Marcy Seward Bouck Wright Young Fish Hunt Seymour Clark King Morgan Seymour Fenton Hoffman J. Adams Dix Tilden Robinson Cornell Cleveland Hill Flower Morton Black T. Roosevelt Odell Higgins Hughes White J. Alden Dix Sulzer Glynn Whitman Smith Miller Smith F. Roosevelt Lehman Poletti Dewey Harriman Rockefeller Wilson Carey M. Cuomo Pataki Spitzer Paterson A. Cuomo

Lieutenant Governors

Van Cortlandt S. Van Rensselaer J. Van Rensselaer Broome Tayler Clinton Tayler Swift Tayler Root Tallmadge Pitcher P. Livingston Dayan Throop Stebbins Oliver E. Livingston Tracy Bradish Dickinson Gardiner Lester Fish Patterson Church Raymond Selden Campbell Floyd-Jones Alvord Woodford Beach Robinson Dorsheimer Hoskins Hill McCarthy Jones Sheehan Saxton Woodruff Higgins Bruce Raines Chanler White Cobb Conway Glynn Wagner Schoeneck Walker Wood Lusk Lunn Lowman Corning Lehman Bray Poletti Hanley Wallace Hanley Moore Wicks Mahoney DeLuca Wilson Anderson Krupsak Cuomo DelBello Anderson Lundine McCaughey Donohue Paterson Bruno Skelos Smith Espada Ravitch Duffy Hochul

Italics indicate acting officeholders

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New York State Democratic Committee

Chairpersons

Schell Fowler Bingham Richmond Tilden Beach Magone Purcell Faulkner Manning O'Brien Walker Murphy Hinckley Danforth Campbell Meyer Conners Dix Huppuch Mack Palmer Osborn Harris Kellogg Farley Pell Corning Bray Farley Fitzpatrick Lynch Balch Prendergrast McKeon Burns Crangle Cunningham Baranello Hennessy Kirwan Marino Gordon Hope Farrell O'Neill Jacobs

Gubernatorial tickets

Smith/Fitts (1920) Smith/Lunn (1922, 1924) Smith/Corning 1st (1926) Roosevelt/Lehman (1928, 1930) Lehman/Bray (1932, 1934, 1936) Lehman/Poletti (1938) Bennett/Poletti (1942) Mead/Corning 2nd (1946) Lynch/Balch (1950) Harriman/DeLuca (1956, 1958) Morgenthau/Burns (1962) O'Connor/Samuels (1966) Goldberg/Paterson (1970) Carey/Krupsak (1974) Carey/M. Cuomo (1978) M. Cuomo/DelBello (1982) M. Cuomo/Lundine (1986, 1990, 1994) Vallone/Frankel (1998) McCall/Mehiel (2002) Spitzer/Paterson (2006) A. Cuomo/Duffy (2010) A. Cuomo/Hochul (2014)

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Ambassadors of the United States of America to the Court of St. James's

Ministers Plenipotentiary to the Court of St. James's 1785–1811

John Adams
John Adams
(1785–1788) Thomas Pinckney
Thomas Pinckney
(1792–1796) Rufus King
Rufus King
(1796–1803) James Monroe
James Monroe
(1803–1807) William Pinkney
William Pinkney
(1808–1811) Jonathan Russell
Jonathan Russell
(chargé d'affaires) (1811–1812)

Envoys Extraordinary and Ministers Plenipotentiary to the Court of St. James's 1815–1893

John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
(1815–1817) Richard Rush
Richard Rush
(1818–1825) Rufus King
Rufus King
(1825–1826) Albert Gallatin
Albert Gallatin
(1826–1827) James Barbour
James Barbour
(1828–1829) Louis McLane
Louis McLane
(1829–1831) Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren
(1831–1832) Aaron Vail (chargé d'affaires) (1832–1836) Andrew Stevenson
Andrew Stevenson
(1836–1841) Edward Everett
Edward Everett
(1841–1845) Louis McLane
Louis McLane
(1845–1846) George Bancroft
George Bancroft
(1846–1849) Abbott Lawrence
Abbott Lawrence
(1849–1852) Joseph R. Ingersoll (1852–1853) James Buchanan
James Buchanan
(1853–1856) George M. Dallas
George M. Dallas
(1856–1861) Charles Adams Sr. (1861–1868) Reverdy Johnson
Reverdy Johnson
(1868–1869) John Lothrop Motley
John Lothrop Motley
(1869–1870) Robert C. Schenck
Robert C. Schenck
(1871–1876) Edwards Pierrepont
Edwards Pierrepont
(1876–1877) John Welsh (1877–1879) James Russell Lowell
James Russell Lowell
(1880–1885) Edward J. Phelps (1885–1889) Robert Todd Lincoln
Robert Todd Lincoln
(1889–1893)

Ambassadors Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to the Court of St. James's 1893–present

Thomas F. Bayard
Thomas F. Bayard
Sr. (1893–1897) John Hay
John Hay
(1897–1898) Joseph Choate (1899–1905) Whitelaw Reid
Whitelaw Reid
(1905–1912) Walter Page (1913-1918) John W. Davis
John W. Davis
(1918–1921) George Harvey (1921–1923) Frank B. Kellogg
Frank B. Kellogg
(1924–1925) Alanson B. Houghton
Alanson B. Houghton
(1925–1929) Charles G. Dawes
Charles G. Dawes
(1929–1931) Andrew W. Mellon
Andrew W. Mellon
(1932–1933) Robert Bingham (1933–1937) Joseph P. Kennedy (1938–1940) John G. Winant (1941–1946) W. Averell Harriman
W. Averell Harriman
(1946) Lewis W. Douglas (1947–1950) Walter S. Gifford (1950–1953) Winthrop W. Aldrich
Winthrop W. Aldrich
(1953–1957) John Hay
John Hay
Whitney (1957–1961) David K. E. Bruce (1961–1969) Walter H. Annenberg (1969–1974) Elliot L. Richardson (1975–1976) Anne Armstrong (1976–1977) Kingman Brewster Jr. (1977–1981) John J. Louis Jr. (1981–1983) Charles H. Price II
Charles H. Price II
(1983–1989) Henry E. Catto Jr. (1989–1991) Raymond G. H. Seitz (1991–1994) William J. Crowe
William J. Crowe
(1994–1997) Philip Lader
Philip Lader
(1997–2001) William Stamps Farish III
William Stamps Farish III
(2001–2004) Robert H. Tuttle
Robert H. Tuttle
(2005–2009) Louis Susman
Louis Susman
(2009–2013) Matthew Barzun
Matthew Barzun
(2013–2017) Woody Johnson
Woody Johnson
(2017– )

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(1948 ←) United States presidential election, 1952
United States presidential election, 1952
(→ 1956)

Republican Party

Convention Primaries

Nominee

Dwight D. Eisenhower

VP nominee

Richard Nixon

Candidates

Riley A. Bender George Theodore Mickelson Harold Stassen Robert Taft Earl Warren

Democratic Party

Convention Primaries

Nominee

Adlai Stevenson

VP nominee

John Sparkman

Candidates

Alben W. Barkley Paul A. Dever W. Averell Harriman Hubert Humphrey Estes Kefauver Robert S. Kerr Richard Russell Jr.

Third party and independent candidates

Prohibition Party

Nominee

Stuart Hamblen

VP nominee

Enoch A. Holtwick

Progressive Party

Nominee

Vincent Hallinan

VP nominee

Charlotta Bass

Socialist Labor Party

Nominee

Eric Hass

Socialist Party

Nominee

Darlington Hoopes

VP nominee

Samuel H. Friedman

Socialist Workers Party

Nominee

Farrell Dobbs

VP nominee

Myra Tanner Weiss

Independents and other candidates

Edward Longstreet Bodin Henry B. Krajewski

Other 1952 elections: House Senate

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(1952 ←) United States presidential election, 1956
United States presidential election, 1956
(→ 1960)

Republican Party

Convention Primaries

Nominee

Dwight D. Eisenhower

VP nominee

Richard Nixon

Democratic Party

Convention Primaries

Nominee

Adlai Stevenson

VP nominee

Estes Kefauver

Candidates

John S. Battle Happy Chandler James C. Davis W. Averell Harriman Lyndon B. Johnson Frank Lausche George Bell Timmerman Jr.

Third party and independent candidates

American Vegetarian Party

Nominee

Herbert M. Shelton

VP nominee

Symon Gould

Prohibition Party

Nominee

Enoch A. Holtwick

VP nominee

Herbert C. Holdridge

Socialist Labor Party

Nominee

Eric Hass

VP nominee

Georgia Cozzini

Socialist Party

Nominee

Darlington Hoopes

VP nominee

Samuel H. Friedman

Socialist Workers Party

Nominee

Farrell Dobbs

VP nominee

Myra Tanner Weiss

Independents and other candidates

T. Coleman Andrews Gerald L. K. Smith

Other 1956 elections: House Senate

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Buddhist crisis

Events

Huế Phật Đản (Vesak) shootings Hue chemical attacks Self-immolation of Thích Quảng Đức Double Seven Day scuffle Xá Lợi Pagoda raids 1963 South Vietnamese coup
1963 South Vietnamese coup
(reaction) Arrest and assassination of Ngo Dinh Diem

Policy

Joint Communiqué Cable 243 Krulak–Mendenhall mission McNamara–Taylor mission

Political or religious figures

Bui Van Luong Bửu Hội Thích Quảng Đức Michael Forrestal W. Averell Harriman Roger Hilsman Thich Thien Hoa John F. Kennedy Thich Tinh Khiet Victor H. Krulak Henry Cabot Lodge
Henry Cabot Lodge
Jr. Robert McNamara Joseph Mendenhall Ngô Đình Cẩn Ngô Đình Diệm Ngô Đình Nhu Ngô Đình Thục Nguyễn Ngọc Thơ Nguyễn Đình Thuận Madame Nhu Frederick Nolting Thích Trí Quang Maxwell D. Taylor Trần Văn Chương William Trueheart Vũ Văn Mẫu

Military figures

Lucien Conein Đỗ Cao Trí Đỗ Mậu Dương Văn Minh Huỳnh Văn Cao Lê Quang Tung Lê Văn Kim Nguyễn Hữu Có Nguyễn Khánh Nguyễn Văn Nhung Nguyễn Văn Thiệu Phạm Ngọc Thảo Tôn Thất Đính Trần Kim Tuyến Trần Thiện Khiêm Trần Văn Đôn

Journalists

Peter Arnett Malcolm Browne David Halberstam Marguerite Higgins Neil Sheehan

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 15242309 LCCN: n50057502 ISNI: 0000 0001 0872 9232 GND: 118546104 SELIBR: 59438 SUDOC: 079742548 BNF: cb11562952m (data) NLA: 35737071 NDL: 00442

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