Würzburg (/ˈvɜːrtsbɜːrɡ, ˈwɜːrtsbɜːrɡ/; German
pronunciation: [ˈvʏɐ̯tsbʊɐ̯k] ( listen);
Main-Franconian: Wörtzburch) is a city in the region of Franconia,
northern Bavaria, Germany. Located on the Main River, it is the
capital of the
Regierungsbezirk of Lower Franconia. The regional
dialect is East Franconian.
Würzburg lies about equidistant from
Frankfurt am Main and Nuremberg
(each about 120 kilometers or 75 miles away). Although the city of
Würzburg is not part of the Landkreis Würzburg, (i.e., district of
Würzburg), it is the seat of the district's administration. The city
has a population of around 124,000 people.
1.1 Early and medieval history
1.2 Modern history
2.1 City structure
5 Arts and culture
5.1 Main sights
5.2 Museums and galleries
7.2 Town twinning
8 Education and research
8.2 University of Applied Science
8.4 Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research
10.3 Health care
11 Notable people
12 See also
14 Further reading
15 External links
See also: Timeline of Würzburg
Early and medieval history
Impression of the city seal of 1319
Würzburg from the
Nuremberg Chronicle (1493)
Würzburg with castle Marienberg.
Matthäus Merian in
Cornelis Danckerts, "Historis", 1642.
A Bronze Age (Urnfield culture) refuge castle stood on the site of the
present Fortress Marienberg. The former Celtic territory was settled
Alamanni in the 4th or 5th century, and by the
Franks in the
6th to 7th.
Würzburg was the seat of a
Merovingian duke from about
650. It was Christianized in 686 by
Irish missionaries Kilian, Kolonat
and Totnan. The city is mentioned in a donation by Duke
Hedan II to
bishop Willibrord, dated 1 May 704, in castellum Virteburch. The
Ravenna Cosmography lists the city as Uburzis at about the same
time. The name is presumably of Celtic origin, but based on a folk
etymological connection to the German word Würze "herb, spice", the
name was Latinized as Herbipolis in the medieval period.
Beginning in 1237, the city seal depicted the cathedral and a portrait
of Saint Kilian, with the inscription SIGILLVM CIVITATIS
HERBIPOLENSIS. It shows a banner on a tilted lance, formerly in a blue
field, with the banner quarterly argent and gules (1532), later or and
gules (1550). This coat of arms replaced the older seal of the city,
showing Saint Kilian, from 1570.
The first diocese was founded by
Saint Boniface in 742 when he
appointed the first bishop of Würzburg, Saint Burkhard. The bishops
eventually created a duchy with its center in the city, which extended
in the 12th century to Eastern Franconia. The city was the seat of
several Imperial Diets, including the one of 1180, in which Henry the
Lion was banned from the Empire and his duchy was handed over to Otto
of Wittelsbach. Massacres of Jews took place in 1147 and 1298.
The first church on the site of the present
Würzburg Cathedral was
built as early as 788, and consecrated that same year by Charlemagne;
the current building was constructed from 1040 to 1225 in Romanesque
University of Würzburg
University of Würzburg was founded in 1402 and re-founded
in 1582. The citizens of the city revolted several times against the
In 1397, King
Wenceslaus IV of Bohemia
Wenceslaus IV of Bohemia had visited the city and
promised its people the status of a free Imperial City. However, the
German ruling princes forced him to withdraw these promises. In 1400,
the citizenry was decisively defeated by the troops of the bishop in
the Schlacht von Bergtheim (de), and the city fell under his
control permanently until the dissolution of the fiefdom.:41
Würzburg witch trials, which occurred between 1626 and 1631, are
one of the largest peace-time mass trials. In Würzburg, under Bishop
Philip Adolf an estimated number between 600 and 900 alleged witches
were burnt. In 1631, Swedish King Gustaf Adolf invaded the town and
plundered the castle.
In 1720, the foundations of the
Würzburg Residence were laid. In
Battle of Würzburg
Battle of Würzburg between
Habsburg Austria and the First
French Republic took place. The city passed to the Electorate of
Bavaria in 1803, but two years later, in the course of the Napoleonic
Wars, it became the seat of the Electorate of
September 1806), the later Grand Duchy of Würzburg. In 1814, the town
became part of the Kingdom of
Bavaria and a new bishopric was created
seven years later, as the former one had been secularized in 1803 (see
Friedrich Koenig and Andreas Bauer founded
Schnellpressenfabrik Koenig & Bauer (the world's first printing
press manufacturer).
In the early 1930s, around 2,000 Jews had lived in Würzburg, which
was also a rabbinic center. Between November 1941 and June 1943 Jews
from the city were sent to the
Nazi concentration camps
Nazi concentration camps in Eastern
On 16 March 1945, about 90% of the city was destroyed in 17 minutes by
fire bombing from 225 British Lancaster bombers during a World War II
air raid, despite the presence of 40 hospitals and the absence of any
major armament producer.
Würzburg became a target for its role as a
traffic hub and to break the spirit of the population.:19
All of the city's churches, cathedrals, and other monuments were
heavily damaged or destroyed. The city center, which mostly dated from
medieval times, was totally destroyed in a firestorm in which 5,000
Main article: Bombing of
Würzburg in World War II
Over the next 20 years, the buildings of historical importance were
painstakingly and accurately reconstructed. The citizens who rebuilt
the city immediately after the end of the war were mostly women –
Trümmerfrauen ("rubble women") – because the men were either dead
or still prisoners of war. On a relative scale,
destroyed to a larger extent than was
Dresden in a firebombing the
On 3 April 1945,
Würzburg was occupied by the U.S. 12th Armored
Division and U.S. 42nd Infantry Division in a series of frontal
assaults masked by smokescreens. The battle continued until the final
Wehrmacht resistance was defeated on 5 April 1945.
2016 Würzburg train attack
2016 Würzburg train attack took place at the
Würzburg-Heidingsfeld railway station on 18 July.
Würzburg with Fortress Marienberg
Würzburg is located on both banks of the river Main in the region of
Lower Franconia in Bavaria, Germany. The main body of the town is on
the eastern (right) bank of the river. The town is completely enclosed
by the Landkreis Würzburg, but is not a part of it.
Würzburg covers an area of 87.6 square-kilometres and lies at an
altitude of around 177 metres. 
Of the total municipal area, in 2007, building area accounted for 30%,
followed by agricultural land (27.9%), forestry/wood (15.5%), green
spaces (12.7%), traffic (5.4%), water (1.2%) and others (7.3%).
The centre of
Würzburg is surrounded by hills. To the west lies the
266 metre Marienberg and the Nikolausberg (359 m) to the south of it.
The Main flows through
Würzburg from the south-east to the
Würzburg is divided into 13 Stadtbezirke which are additionally
structured into 25 boroughs. In the following overview, the boroughs
and their numbers are allocated to the 13 municipals.
Innere Pleich (04)
Äussere Pleich (06)
Würzburg had 128,538 inhabitants as of 31 December 2016.
Largest groups of foreign residents
Würzburg is mainly known as an administrative center. Its largest
employers are the Julius-Maximilians-University and the municipality.
The largest private employers are
Brose Fahrzeugteile followed by
Koenig & Bauer, a maker of printing machines.
Würzburg is also
the capital of the German wine region
Franconia which is famous for
its mineralic dry white wines especially from the
Würzburger Hofbräu brewery also locally produces a well-known
Würzburg is home of the oldest Pizzeria in Germany. Nick di Camillo
opened his restaurant named Bier- und Speisewirtschaft Capri on 24
March 1952. Mr Camillo received the honor of the Italian Order of
In 2015 (latest data available) the GDP per inhabitant was €59,478.
This places the district 12th out of 96 districts (rural and urban) in
Bavaria (overall average: €42,950).
Following World War II,
Würzburg was host to the U.S. Army's 1st and
3rd Infantry Divisions as well as an army hospital and various other
U.S. military units that maintained a presence in Germany. The last
troops were withdrawn from
Würzburg in 2008, thus concluding more
than 60 years of U.S. presence there.
Arts and culture
Notable artists who lived in
Würzburg include poet Walther von der
Vogelweide (12th and 13th centuries), philosopher
Albertus Magnus and
painter Mathias Grünewald. Sculptor Tilman Riemenschneider
(1460–1531) served as mayor and participated in the German Peasants'
Some of the city's "100 churches" survived intact. In style they range
from Romanesque (
Würzburg Cathedral), Gothic (Marienkapelle),
Renaissance (Neubaukirche (de)), Baroque (Stift Haug
Kirche (de)) to modern (St. Andreas).
Major festivals include the Africa Festival in May, the Mozart
Festival in June/July and the Kiliani Volksfest in mid-July.
Residence (front view).
Würzburger Residenz: A
UNESCO World Heritage Site, the vast compound
near the center of the town was commissioned by two prince-bishops,
the brothers Johann Philipp Franz and Friedrich Karl von Schönborn.
Several architects, including
Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt
Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt and
Maximilian von Welsch, supervised the construction between 1720 and
1744, but it is mainly associated with the name of Balthasar Neumann,
the creator of its famous Baroque staircase. The palace suffered
severe damage in the British bombing of March 1945, but has been
completely rebuilt. The main attractions are:
Hofkirche: The church interior is richly decorated with paintings,
sculptures and stucco ornaments. The altars were painted by Giovanni
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo created the largest fresco
in the world, which adorns the vault over the staircase designed by
Kaisersaal: The "Imperial Hall", the centerpiece of the palace,
testifies to the close relationship between
Würzburg and the Holy
Festung Marienberg is a fortress on Marienberg, the hill to the west
of the city centre, overlooking the whole town area as well as the
surrounding hills. Most current structures date to the Renaissance and
Baroque periods, but the foundations of the chapel go back to the 8th
Alte Mainbrücke (de) (Old Main Bridge) was built 1473–1543 to
replace the destroyed Romanesque bridge dated from 1133. In two
phases, beginning in 1730, the bridge was adorned with twelve 4.5
meter statues of saints and historically important figures like John
of Nepomuk, Mary and Saint Joseph,
Charlemagne and Pepin the Short.
The bridge was damaged by explosives in the final days of World War
II. US troops threw the original Pepin into the river to make way for
an anti-aircraft gun.:32
The Rathaus or city hall of
Würzburg differs from those of most
Imperial Cities in that it was not a sumptuous edifice purpose-built
in Renaissance style. Rather, the motley collection of buildings and
wings reflects the fact that after 1400 the city was permanently under
the control of the bishop who did not allow a representative new
building. The Rathaus consists of parts dating from 1339 (chapel),
1453 (tower with the town's first public clock), 1544 (southwest
oriel), 1659/60 (Roter Bau). In 1822 the three-winged structure of the
neighbouring Karmeliterkloster (monastery of the Carmelites) was added
to the city hall. The "Renaissance" row on Karmeliterstrasse was built
only in 1898.:41
Among Würzburg's many notable churches are the Käppele, a small
Baroque/Rococo chapel by Balthasar Neumann, perched on a hill facing
the fortress, and the Dom (
Würzburg Cathedral). The Baroque
Schönbornkapelle, a side-chapel of the cathedral, has interior
decoration of (artificial) human bones and skulls. Also in the
cathedral are two of Tilman Riemenschneider's most famous works, the
tomb stones of Rudolf II von Scherenberg (1466–1495) and Lorenz von
Bibra (1495–1519). At the entrance to the Marienkapelle (on the
market square) stand replicas of the statues of Adam and Eve by
Riemenschneider. The Neumünster (de) is a Romanesque minster
church with a Baroque façade and dome. Its crypt (Kiliansgruft)
houses the relics of Kilian, Totnan and Kolonat. There are also two
stone sarcophagi from the 8th century, the tombs of the first and
second Bishop of Würzburg, Burkard and Megingaud. The latter's tomb
features the oldest post-Roman monumental inscription in
Franconia.:45 Next to the Neumünster is the
Lusamgärtchen (de). It contains a memorial from 1930 to Walther
von der Vogelweide, who very likely was buried here in 1230.:47
Only the church remains of the town's oldest abbey, St Burchard's
Abbey founded around 750. It was transformed into a collegiate church
in 1464 and dissolved in 1803. Among the Baroque churches in the
centre of the city are Stift Haug, St. Michael (de), St.
Stephan (de) and St. Peter.
The Juliusspital is a Baroque hospital with a courtyard and a church
originally established by prince-bishop
Julius Echter in 1576. The 160
m long northern wing was added by Italian architect Antonio
Petrini (it) in 1700-4. Beneath it lies the similarly-sized wine
cellar, which (together with those of the
Würzburg Residence and the
Bürgerspital) offers a chance to taste the local Frankenwein in a
special environment. The Juliussital is the second largest winery in
Germany, growing wine on 1.68 square kilometres (1 square
The Haus zum Falken (de) on Marktplatz, next to the
Marienkapelle, with its ornate stucco façade, is an achievement of
Würzburg Rococo period. In the past it served as an inn and a
public library. Today, it houses the tourist information office.:62
The Stift Haug (formally the Stiftskirche St. Johannis im Haug,
John the Baptist
John the Baptist and John the Evangelist) was built in
the years 1670–1691 as the first Baroque church in Franconia. It was
designed by Antonio Petrini. The former church had been demolished as
it was in the way of new city fortifications built by Johann Philipp
von Schönborn. In 1945 most of the church's interior was destroyed.
Works of art include a crucifixion by
Tintoretto loaned by the
Bavarian State Painting Collections.:59–60
Würzburger Stein vineyard just outside the city is one of
Germany's oldest and largest vineyards.
Museums and galleries
Kulturspeicher at night.
Black-figure Etruscan amphora in the Martin-von-Wagner-Museum.
The Museum für Franken (formerly the Mainfränkisches
Museum (de)) in the fortress is home to the world's largest
collection of works by Tilman Riemenschneider. In a space of
5,400 m2 (58,125 sq ft), art by regional artists is
exhibited. Exhibitions include a pre-historic collection, artifacts of
the Franconian wine culture and an anthropological collection with
Fürstenbaumuseum: Also in the fortress, the restored Fürstenbau
(former residence of the prince-bishops) houses not only the renovated
living quarters, but also an exhibit on the history of Würzburg.
Another exhibit features ecclesial gold jewelry and a collection of
liturgical vestments. The museum also displays two models of the city:
Würzburg in 1525 and
Würzburg in 1945.
Museum im Kulturspeicher, housed in a historic grain storage building
combined with modern architecture, has more than 3,500 m² of
exhibit space. Collections include the "Peter C. Ruppert Collection",
Concrete art after 1945 from artists such as Max Bill
and Victor Vasarely; works from the Age of Romanticism, the
Biedermeier period, Impressionism,
Expressionism as well as
Museum am Dom (Museum at the Cathedral), opened in 2003. It features
about 700 pieces of art spanning the past 1000 years. The 1,800 m²
exhibit contrasts contemporary art with older works.
Shalom Europe, a Jewish museum. Built around 1,504 tombstones
discovered and excavated in the old city, the museum uses modern
information technology to portray present and traditional Jewish
lifestyles and their survival over the past 900 years in Würzburg.
Martin von Wagner Museum, with objects from ancient Egypt, Greece, and
Rome. It is housed in the south wing of the Residence and displays
ancient marble statues and burial objects. There are also ten
exhibition halls with art from the 14th to the 19th centuries.
Siebold-Museum, which houses permanent and temporary exhibits,
including the estate of the 19th-century local physician and Japan
researcher Philipp Franz von Siebold.
Röntgen Memorial Site
Röntgen Memorial Site in Würzburg,
Germany is dedicated to the
work of the German physicist
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (1845–1923) and
his discovery of X-rays, for which he was granted the Nobel Prize in
physics. It contains an exhibition of historical instruments, machines
Dirk Nowitzki grew up in Würzburg. Nowitzki and
numerous other German national team players started their careers at
Baskets Würzburg club that plays in the Basketball
Bundesliga as of 2016[update]. In the past, the club played at
international competitions such as the Eurocup.
Würzburg is also home to the football teams Würzburger Kickers
playing in the
3. Liga and
Würzburger FV playing in the
Würzburg 05 is a swimming and water polo club, active in the
German Water Polo League.
Würzburg is the administrative seat of the
Franconia. The administration of the Landkreis
Würzburg (district) is
also located in the town.
Since April 2014, the mayor of
Würzburg has been Christian
Schuchardt (de) (CDU).
Würzburg is twinned with:
Dundee, Scotland, since 1962
Caen, France, since 1962
Rochester, New York, U.S., since 1964
Mwanza, Tanzania, since 1966
Otsu, Japan, since 1979
Salamanca, Spain, since 1980
Suhl, Germany, since 1988
Umeå, Sweden, since 1992
Bray, Ireland, since 2000
Czech Republic since 2008
Faribault, U.S., since 1949
Nagasaki, Japan, since 2013
Education and research
Würzburg has several internationally recognized institutions in
science and research:
Alte Universität, the old Renaissance building of Würzburg
University of Würzburg
University of Würzburg (official name
Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg) was founded in 1402 and is
one of the oldest universities in Germany.
Academic disciplines are astronomy, biology, Catholic theology,
chemistry, computer science, culture, economics, educational and
social sciences, geography, history, languages and linguistics, law,
literature, mathematics, medicine (human medicine, dentistry and
biomedicine), pharmacy, philosophy, physics, political science,
psychology and sociology.
Today, the ten faculties are spread throughout the city. The
university currently enrolls approximately 29,000 students, out of
which more than 1,000 come from other countries.
Wilhelm Röntgen's original laboratory, where he discovered X-rays in
1895, is at the University of Würzburg.
The University awarded
Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell an honorary
Ph.D for his
pioneering scientific work.
Botanischer Garten der Universität Würzburg
Botanischer Garten der Universität Würzburg is the university's
University of Applied Science
University of Applied Sciences Würzburg-Schweinfurt
University of Applied Sciences Würzburg-Schweinfurt main building in
the city centre
University of Applied Sciences Würzburg-Schweinfurt
University of Applied Sciences Würzburg-Schweinfurt was founded
in 1971 as an institute of technology with departments in Würzburg
and Schweinfurt. Academic disciplines are architecture, business
economics, business informatics, civil engineering, computational
engineering, computer science, electrical engineering, engineering
management, geodesy, graphic design, logistics, mechanical
engineering, media, nursing theory, plastics engineering, social work.
With nearly 8,000 students it is the second largest university of
applied science in Franconia.
The Conservatory of
Würzburg is an institution with a long tradition
as well as an impressive success story of more than 200 years. It was
founded in 1797 as Collegium musicum academicum and is Germany’s
oldest conservatory. Nowadays it is known as University of Music
Würzburg. After the commutation from conservatory to university of
music in the early 1970s, science and research were added to
complement music education.
Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research
This section contains content that is written like an advertisement.
Please help improve it by removing promotional content and
inappropriate external links, and by adding encyclopedic content
written from a neutral point of view. (April 2015) (Learn how and when
to remove this template message)
The "Fraunhofer ISC" in
Würzburg is part of the Fraunhofer Society,
Europe’s largest application-oriented research organization. It
develops materials for tomorrow’s products, offering cooperation to
small and medium-sized enterprises and to large-scale industrial
Würzburg is home to the daily newspaper Main-Post (de). Radio
stations like Antenne Bayern (de) and state broadcaster
Bayerischer Rundfunk have local studios. The latter also maintains a
large broadcasting station at Frankenwarte (de) on the
Nikolausberg. The private stations Radio Gong (de) and Radio
Charivari (de) are based in Würzburg. The TV branch of
Bayerischer Rundfunk has its Studio Mainfranken in the town. TV
touring (de) is a local private TV station.
Due to its central position
Würzburg is an important traffic hub.
Here is the interchange of
Autobahn highways A3 (
Cologne – Frankfurt
Würzburg – Nuremberg) and A7 (
Hanover – Kassel
Würzburg – Ulm) as well as the start of A81 (
Heilbronn – Stuttgart). Furthermore,
Bundesstraße highways B8, B13,
B19 and B27 pass through the city.
The city's main station is a central hub for long-distance and
Würzburg lies at the southern end of the
Hanover-Würzburg high-speed rail line
Hanover-Würzburg high-speed rail line and offers with
InterCity frequent connections to cities such as
Cologne, Frankfurt, Hanover, Hamburg, Munich,
Nuremberg and Vienna. In
addition to main station there are the two regional stations
Würzburg Main station
Hanover – Hamburg
Frankfurt (Main) –
Cologne – Wuppertal
Hagen – Dortmund
Würzburg – Frankfurt (Main) –
Düsseldorf – Essen
High-speed rail line
Hanover crossing the river Main
north of Würzburg
Kitzingen – Neustadt (Aisch) –
Hanau – Frankfurt (Main)
Ludwigsburg – Stuttgart
Bamberg – Lichtenfels –
Fürth – Nuremberg
Schweinfurt – Bad Kissingen / – Münnerstadt
Bad Neustadt –
Suhl – Arnstadt
Schlüchtern – Jossa – Gemünden (Main) –
Schweinfurt – Bamberg
Karlstadt – Würzburg– Steinach –
Ansbach – Treuchtlingen
Würzburg – Kitzingen
Würzburg – Bad Mergentheim –
Weikersheim – Crailsheim
Main article: Trams in Würzburg
Würzburg tram crosses the river Main on the Löwenbrücke
Würzburg has a tram network of five lines with a length of 19.7
kilometres (12.2 miles).
Grombühl – Sanderau
Hauptbahnhof (Main station) – Zellerau
Hauptbahnhof (Main Station) – Heuchelhof
Sanderau – Zellerau
Grombühl – Rottenbauer
The proposed Line 6 from Hauptbahnhof (Main Station) to Hubland
university campus via Residenz is scheduled to be completed after
27 bus lines connect several parts of the city and the inner suburbs.
25 bus lines connect the Landkreis
Würzburg to the city.
The Main river flows into the
Rhine and is connected to the
Danube Canal. This makes it part of a trans-European
waterway connecting the
North Sea to the Black Sea.
Designated bicycle paths are located throughout the city and the
Main-Radweg long-distance bicycle trail passes through the old town.
The local public utility is Würzburger Versorgungs- und
Verkehrs-GmbH (de) supplying power, natural gas and water as well
as public transportation and parking services. It also owns a majority
stake in the port and runs local garbage collection/recycling.
Heizkraftwerk Würzburg (de) is owned by the utility.
Universitätsklinikum Würzburg (de) provides health care
services, with over 5,300 employees and over 1,400 hospital beds.
Juliusspital also offers hospital services with 342 beds.
Joseph Friedrich Abert (1879-1959), historian and archivist
Heinrich Albert (1870–1950), classical guitarist and composer
Yehuda Amichai ("Ludwig Pfeuffer"; 1924–2000), Israeli poet
Thomas Bach (born 1953), Olympic gold medalist in fencing & IOC
President since 2013
Frank Baumann (born 1975), footballer
Fritz Bayerlein (1899–1970),
World War II
World War II general
Mark Bloch (born 1956), American artist
Oskar Dirlewanger (1895–1945), war criminal and S.S. leader of the
Björn Emmerling (born 1975), field hockey player
Gottfried Feder (1883–1941), economist, anti-capitalist and national
Leonhard Frank (1882–1961), expressionist writer
Werner Heisenberg (1901–1976), theoretical physicist
Alfred Jodl (1890–1946),
World War II
World War II general
Klaus Iohannis (born 1959), President of Romania, elected 2014
Cage Kennylz (born 1973), American hip-hop artist
Friederich von Kleudgen
Friederich von Kleudgen (1856-1924), painter
Maximilian Kleber (born January 29, 1993), basketball player
Joseph Küffner (1776–1856), composer
Luitpold, Prince Regent of
Ernst Mayr (1904–2005), evolutionary biologist
Waltraud Meier (born 1956), opera singer
Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn (1545–1617), Prince-Bishop of
Würzburg and leader Counter Reformation
Balthasar Neumann (1687–1753), architect and military
Dirk Nowitzki (born 1978), basketball player
Franz Oberthür (1745–1831), theologian
Tilman Riemenschneider (c. 1460–1531), German sculptor and
Emy Roeder (1890–1971), expressionist sculptress and artist
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (1845–1923), physicist, discovered X-rays
Philipp Franz von Siebold
Philipp Franz von Siebold (1797–1866), physician and botanist, among
the first Westerners to visit and work in Japan
Philipp Stöhr (1849–1911), anatomist
Lorenz von Bibra
Lorenz von Bibra (1459–1519), Prince-Bishop of
Würzburg from 1495
Stephanie Wehner (born 1977), quantum physicist and computer
Bishopric of Würzburg
Würzburg train attack
^ "Fortschreibung des Bevölkerungsstandes". Bayerisches Landesamt
für Statistik und Datenverarbeitung (in German). January 2018.
^ J. C. Wells. Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, see
^ Norbert Wagner, 'Uburzis-Wirziburg "Würzburg"'
^ Heinz Willner, Der Name Würzburg, Frankenland 1/1999.
^ Stephanie Heyl, Stadt
Würzburg (Haus der Bayerischen Geschichte).
Siebmachers Wappenbuch (1605), plate 9.
^ a b c d e f g h i Dettelbacher, Werner (1974). Franken - Kunst,
Geschichte und Landschaft (German). Dumont Verlag.
^ Wolfgang Behringer, Witchcraft in Bavaria: Popular Magik, Religious
Zealotry, and Reason of State in Early Modern Europe, (Cambridge
University Press, 1997. Much info given on this in footnote 38.
^ The Story of the Jewish Community in
Würzburg an online exhibition
by Yad Vashem
^ Stanton, Shelby,
World War II
World War II Order of Battle: An Encyclopedic
Reference to U.S. Army Ground Forces from Battalion through Division,
1939–1946 (Revised Edition, 2006), Stackpole Books, p. 65, 129.
^ Seite 777, see also Chapter XVIII
^ "VGR der Länder, Kreisergebnisse für Deutschland -
Bruttoinlandsprodukt, Bruttowertschöpfung in den kreisfreien Städten
und Landkreisen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 2000 bis 2015
(German)". Statistische Ämter der Länder und des Bundes. Retrieved 1
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 12 February 2013.
Retrieved 15 November 2013.
^ "National Commission for Decentralised cooperation". Délégation
pour l’Action Extérieure des Collectivités Territoriales
(Ministère des Affaires étrangères) (in French). Retrieved
See also: Bibliography of the history of Würzburg
Congress – Tourismus – Wirtschaft (A municipal enterprise of the
City of Würzburg): Würzburg. Visitors' Guide.
Würzburg 2007. A
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Würzburg.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Würzburg.
Official website (in German)
"Würzburg". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.
The Story of the Jewish Community in
Würzburg - on the Yad Vashem
Germany by population
Freiburg im Breisgau
Mülheim an der Ruhr
Offenbach am Main
cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants
Urban and rural districts in the Free State of
Neustadt (Aisch)-Bad Windsheim
Neustadt an der Waldnaab