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Vulpes
Vulpes
is a genus of the Canidae. The members of this genus are colloquially referred to as true foxes, meaning they form a proper clade. The word "fox" occurs on the common names of species. True foxes are distinguished from members of the genus Canis, such as dogs, wolves, coyotes, and jackals, by their smaller size (5–11 kg) and flatter skulls.[2] They have black, triangular markings between their eyes and noses, and the tips of their tails are often a different color from the rest of their pelts. The typical lifespan for this genus is between two and four years, but can reach up to a decade.[2] For animals commonly known as "foxes", but which are not true foxes, see Fox#Classification.

Contents

1 Extant species 2 Fossil
Fossil
species 3 Early history 4 Anatomy 5 Diet 6 Habitat

6.1 Predators

7 Behavior

7.1 General overview 7.2 Reproduction 7.3 After birth

8 Domestication 9 Fox
Fox
hunting 10 Vulpes
Vulpes
in culture and literature 11 References

Extant species[edit] Within Vulpes, 12 separate and distinct extant species and four fossil species are described:

Image Scientific name Common Name Distribution Distribution map

V. lagopus Arctic
Arctic
fox Arctic
Arctic
foxes inhabit all of the Arctic
Arctic
(Greenland, Russia, Canada, Alaska, Svalbard), Iceland, and parts of Scandinavia, and hold the title of being the only native land mammal in all of Iceland. This fox arrived in Iceland
Iceland
during the climax of the last ice age, when the seas were frozen solid enough to walk across. Two extant subpopulations of this species are alive today.[3] The Arctic fox
Arctic fox
is most closely related to kit (V. macrotis) and corsac foxes (V. corsac).

V. bengalensis Bengal fox Bengal foxes are endemic to India and live throughout the subcontinent, and have not been placed on the endangered species list, but have become threatened by lack of native habitat due to human expansion.[4]

V. cana Blanford's fox Blanford's fox
Blanford's fox
dwells in section of the Middle East including Iran and Israel, as well as Afghanistan, Egypt, Turkestan, Iran, Pakistan, and Israel. This species prefers semiarid environments.[5]

V. chama Cape fox The Cape fox
Cape fox
is only found in the south of Africa, including Zimbabwe, Botswana, and South Africa. They thrive in semiarid and arid environments with rich grasslands.

V. corsac Corsac fox Corsac foxes live in central Asia. Like V. chama and V. cana, they do best in semiarid deserts. This fox is within the holarctic clade of foxes. This clade also contains the Arctic
Arctic
fox, swift fox, and red fox. Their possible ancestor is V. praecorsac, meaning they may have had a much wider distribution in the past (Europe and Crimea).[6]

V. zerda Fennec fox The fennec fox lives in the northernmost sections of Africa. It was not previously within Vulpes, but genetic evidence shows its close relation with Blanford's fox, making it a true fox.[7]

V. macrotis Kit fox Kit foxes are an arid area-dwelling North American species. They are found in Oregon, Colorado, Nevada, Utah, California, New Mexico, and Texas. They also have a population in Mexico.

V. pallida Pale fox The pale fox lives in upper middle Africa and is an arid area-dwelling species.[8]

V. rueppellii Rüppell's fox Ruppel's foxes are specific to northern Africa and sections of the Middle East.[9]

V. vulpes Red fox, silver fox and cross fox The red fox is the most abundant and most widely distributed species of Vulpes. They currently live in most sections of the Northern Hemisphere. They also are present in Australia, though were brought there by humans for fox hunting in the 1830s and are considered an invasive species. This species’ ancestor (either V. alopecoides or the related Chinese V. chikushanensi) originated in the Early Pleistocene
Pleistocene
and are most closely related to Ruppell’s fox (V. rueppellii).[10]

V. velox Swift fox The swift fox is found in the western grasslands of North America, specifically Montana, Colorado, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas, as well as some sections of Canada. This species is most closely related to the kit fox, but lives in a different section of North America. The two can interbreed.[11]

V. ferrilata Tibetan sand fox The Tibetan sand fox, as the name suggests, is endemic to the Tibetan and Ladakh
Ladakh
plateau in Nepal, China, Sikkim, and Bhutan. This species lives at altitudes up to 5300 m and semideserts.[12]

The Arctic fox
Arctic fox
is sometimes included in this genus as Vulpes
Vulpes
lagopus based on the definitive mammal taxonomy list, as well as genetic evidence.[1][13] Foxes of this group (including the fennec and Arctic
Arctic
foxes) possess eyes with pupils that retract into vertical slits in bright light. The red fox, Ruppell's fox,[14] and Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox
[15] possess white-tipped tails. The Arctic
Arctic
fox's tail-tip is of the same color as the rest of the tail (white or blue-gray)[16] Blanford's fox
Blanford's fox
usually possesses a black-tipped tail, but a small number of specimens (2% in Israel, 24% in the United Arab Emirates) possess a light-tipped tail.[17] The other foxes in this group (Bengal, Cape, corsac, fennec, kit, pale, and swift) all possess black-tipped or dark-tipped tails.[18]

Red fox

Fossil
Fossil
species[edit]

Vulpes
Vulpes
hassani † Vulpes
Vulpes
praeglacialis - Kormos (found in Petralona Cave, Greece) † Vulpes qiuzhudingi (2014) † Vulpes riffautae - Late Miocene † Vulpes
Vulpes
skinneri † Vulpes
Vulpes
stenognathus

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Vulpes

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vulpes.

Early history[edit] The oldest known fossil species within Vulpes
Vulpes
is V. riffautae, dating back to the late Miocene of Chad, which is within the Neogene. The deposits where these fossils are found are about 7 million years old, which might make them the earliest Canidae
Canidae
in the Old World. They are estimated to have weighed between 1.5 and 3.5 lb. V. skinneri, from the Malapa fossil site from South Africa, is younger than V. riffautae by roughly 5 million years, and shows up in the early Pleistocene.[19] Two other extinct, less documented fossils are known: V. praeglacialis and V. hassani. V. praeglacialis was discovered in the Petralona Cave in Chalkidiki, Greece. The age of the deposits (Early Pleistocene) makes it the earliest occurrence of Vulpes
Vulpes
in Europe. V. hassani is found in a Miocene-Pliocene deposit in northwestern Africa.[20] In the Pleistocene, Vulpes
Vulpes
had a fairly wide distribution, with eight species found in North America. Of these eight, six are not fossil, and three species still remain in North America (V. velox, V. macrotis, and V. chama). The remaining three moved on to sections of Africa over time. V. stenognathus is extinct, but has extant sister taxa including V. chama, V. rueppellii, V. velox, and V. vulpes, which fits with these species all evolving together in North America.[21] Anatomy[edit] Vulpes
Vulpes
has a very similar bone structure to its canid relatives, but does have some modifications. Although canid limbs are designed specifically for running quickly on land to catch prey, Vulpes
Vulpes
species avoid rapid sprints, excluding being chased, and have become more specialized for leaping and grasping prey. The adaptions for leaping, grasping, and climbing include the lengthening of hind limbs in relation to fore limbs, as well as overall slenderizing of both hind and fore limbs. Muscles are also emphasized along the axis of limbs. Diet[edit] This genus is omnivorous and prone to scavenging. The foods of choice for Vulpes
Vulpes
consist of invertebrates, a variety of small vertebrates, grasses, and some angiosperms. The typical intake per day is about 1 kg. True foxes exhibit hoarding behavior or caching where they store away food for another day out of sight from other animals.[22] Habitat[edit] These foxes can dwell in a number of habitats, including alpine, forest, desert, coastal, farm, and urban areas, but thrive in environments rich in food and shelter. They can be found in great numbers in suburban/residential regions. For the most part, this coexistence is agreeable for both fox and man, but can sometimes result in house pet (cat) disappearances.[23] Predators[edit] Predators are dependent on location, but commonly include humans, bears, and large birds of prey, such as eagles. Behavior[edit] General overview[edit] Though this varies in intensity from species to species, foxes operate within a hierarchical society, where dominance is established early in life. Dominant kits receive more food and are subsequently larger. If a dispute in the hierarchy occurs, dominance is determined by fighting. The loser may be subjected to rejection from its social group, as well as serious injuries. These social groups usually consist of three or four adults and have not been documented to surpass 10 adults.[24] Vulpes
Vulpes
species are usually nocturnal, but do occasionally hunt and scavenge in daylight during winter. Reproduction[edit] A male is referred to as a dog, and the female as a vixen. They are very similar in appearance, though dogs have larger heads. Mating occurs in late winter. This mating process starts when the vixen digs out an undisclosed number of potential breeding dens and begins to release a mating scent. Gestation takes 7–8 weeks, putting typical birth occurrence in March, and on average, kits begin to emerge in late April. The parents work as a unit in the upbringing of their offspring, but do not mate for life.[24] After birth[edit] Born deaf and blind, kits or cubs require their mother’s milk and complete supervision for the first four to five weeks out of the womb, but begin to be progressively weaned after the first month. Once fully weaned, kits seek out various insects. The parents supplement this diet with a variety of mammals and birds. During early to middle July, the kits are able to hunt on their own and soon move away from their parents.[24] Domestication[edit] Though rare, domestication has been documented. The most notable case documented is the domestication of the silver fox in Novosibirsk, Russia, at the Siberian Institute of Cytology and Genetics.[25] In this study, generations of silver foxes were divided into those with friendly traits and those with unfriendly traits. After 50 years, the friendly foxes developed “dog-like” domesticated traits such as spots, tail wagging, enjoyment of human touch, and barking. Fox
Fox
hunting[edit] Main article: Fox
Fox
hunting Fox
Fox
hunting was started in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in the 16th century that involves tracking, chasing, and killing a fox with the aid of foxhounds and horses. It has since then spread to Europe, the United States, and Australia.[26] Vulpes
Vulpes
in culture and literature[edit] Main article: Foxes in culture

References[edit]

^ a b Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal
Mammal
Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 532–628. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.  ^ a b Macdonald, David (1984). The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Fun Facts on File. P. 31. ISBN 0-87196-871-1 ^ "Wildlife". Iceland
Iceland
Worldwide. iww.is. 2000. Archived from the original on 14 April 2010. Retrieved 22 April 2010. ^ Vanak, A.T. (2005). "Distribution and status of the Indian fox Vulpes
Vulpes
bengalensis in southern India".Canid News 8 (1). ^ "Blanford's fox". Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife. 29 August 2007. Retrieved 31 August 2010. ^ Zrzavý, J. & Řicánková, R. (1999). "Phylogeny of Recent Canidae
Canidae
(Mammalia, Carnivora): relative reliability and utility of morphological and molecular datasets.".Zoologica Scripta 33 (4): 311–333. doi:10.1111/j.0300-3256.2004.00152.x ^ Linblad-Th, K., Wade, CM; Mikkelsen, TS; Karlsson, EK; Jaffe, DB; Kamal, M; Clamp, M; Chang, JL et al. (2005). “Genome sequence, comparative analysis and haplotype structure of the domestic dog”. Nature 438 (7069): 803-819. doi:10.1038/nature04338. PMID 16341006. ^ “ Vulpes
Vulpes
pallida” "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-10-28. Retrieved 2011-10-24. . Canid Specialist Group ^ Wozencraft, W. C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal
Mammal
Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. ^ Kurtén 1980, pp. 96, 174 ^ Dragoo, J. W., Choate, J. R., Yates, T. L., & O'Farrell, T. P. (1990). "Evolutionary and taxonomic relationships among North American arid-land foxes". Journal of Mammalogy (American Society of Mammalogists) 71 (3): 318–332. doi:10.2307/1381942. JSTOR 1381942 ^ Schaller, G.B., Ginsberg, J.R. & Harris, R. (2008). Vulpes ferrilata. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 22 March 2009. ^ Bininda-Emonds, ORP; JL Gittleman; A Purvis (1999). "Building large trees by combining phylogenetic information: a complete phylogeny of the extant Carnivora
Carnivora
(Mammalia)" (PDF). Biol. Rev. 74 (2): 143–175. doi:10.1017/S0006323199005307. PMID 10396181. Retrieved 2008-07-30. [dead link] ^ Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio; Hoffman, Michael; and MacDonald David W. Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals, and Dogs: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN; 2004. p213 ^ Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio; Hoffman, Michael; and MacDonald David W. Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals, and Dogs: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN; 2004. p161 ^ Burt, William Henry. A Field Guide to the Mammals of North America North of Mexico. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt; 1998. pp75 and Plate 7 ^ Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio; Hoffman, Michael; and MacDonald David W. Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals, and Dogs: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN; 2004. p206 ^ Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio; Hoffman, Michael; and MacDonald David W. Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals, and Dogs: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN; 2004.pp202,231,205,211,155,122,117 ^ Likius, S., MacKaye, A., Vignaud, H., Brunet, P. (2007). "The oldest African fox ( Vulpes riffautae n. sp., Canidae, Carnivora) recovered in late Miocene deposits of the Djurab desert, Chad". Naturwissenschaften 94 (7): 575–580. doi:10.1007/s00114-007-0230-6. PMID 17361401. Retrieved 2008-05-06. ^ De Bonis et al. (2007) "The oldest African fox ( Vulpes riffautae n. sp., Canidae, Carnivora) recovered in late Miocene deposits of the Djurab desert, Chad". Naturwissenschaften 94 (7): 575-580. ^ D. E. Savage. 1941. American Midland Naturalist 25 ^ Fedriani, J.M.; T. K. Fuller, R. M. Sauvajot, E. C. York (2000-07-05). “Competition and intraguild predation amount three sympatric carnivores”. Oecologia 125 (2) 258-270. doi:10.1007/s004420000448. ^ “History and biology”. Feral Scan/ Fox
Fox
Scan. www.feralscan.org.au/foxscan/pagecontent.aspx?page=fox_historyandbiology. Retrieved 2014-04-01. ^ a b c Harris, Steven (2010). “Understand fox behavior”. Discoverwildlife.com/british-wildlife/understand-fox-behavior. Retrieved 2014-03-23. ^ Trut, Lyudmila (1999). “Early Canid Domestication: The Farm-Fox Experiment.” American Scientist 87 (2): 160. doi:10.1511/1999.2.160. ^ “ Fox
Fox
hunting worldwide”. BBC News. 1999-09-16. Retrieved 2014-03-29

v t e

Extant Carnivora
Carnivora
species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Feliformia

Nandiniidae

Nandinia

African palm civet
African palm civet
(N. binotata)

Herpestidae (Mongooses)

Atilax

Marsh mongoose
Marsh mongoose
(A. paludinosus)

Bdeogale

Bushy-tailed mongoose
Bushy-tailed mongoose
(B. crassicauda) Jackson's mongoose
Jackson's mongoose
(B. jacksoni) Black-footed mongoose
Black-footed mongoose
(B. nigripes)

Crossarchus

Alexander's kusimanse
Alexander's kusimanse
(C. alexandri) Angolan kusimanse
Angolan kusimanse
(C. ansorgei) Common kusimanse
Common kusimanse
(C. obscurus) Flat-headed kusimanse
Flat-headed kusimanse
(C. platycephalus)

Cynictis

Yellow mongoose
Yellow mongoose
(C. penicillata)

Dologale

Pousargues's mongoose
Pousargues's mongoose
(D. dybowskii)

Galerella

Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose
(G. flavescens) Black mongoose
Black mongoose
(G. nigrata) Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose
(G. ochracea) Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose
(G. pulverulenta) Slender mongoose
Slender mongoose
(G. sanguinea)

Helogale

Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
(H. hirtula) Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose
(H. parvula)

Herpestes

Short-tailed mongoose
Short-tailed mongoose
(H. brachyurus) Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose
(H. edwardsii) Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose
(H. fuscus) Egyptian mongoose
Egyptian mongoose
(H. ichneumon) Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose
(H. javanicus) Long-nosed mongoose
Long-nosed mongoose
(H. naso) Collared mongoose
Collared mongoose
(H. semitorquatus) Ruddy mongoose
Ruddy mongoose
(H. smithii) Crab-eating mongoose
Crab-eating mongoose
(H. urva) Stripe-necked mongoose
Stripe-necked mongoose
(H. vitticollis)

Ichneumia

White-tailed mongoose
White-tailed mongoose
(I. albicauda)

Liberiictus

Liberian mongoose
Liberian mongoose
(L. kuhni)

Mungos

Gambian mongoose
Gambian mongoose
(M. gambianus) Banded mongoose
Banded mongoose
(M. mungo)

Paracynictis

Selous' mongoose
Selous' mongoose
(P. selousi)

Rhynchogale

Meller's mongoose
Meller's mongoose
(R. melleri)

Suricata

Meerkat
Meerkat
(S. suricatta)

Hyaenidae (Hyenas)

Crocuta

Spotted hyena
Spotted hyena
(C. crocuta)

Hyaena

Brown hyena
Brown hyena
(H. brunnea) Striped hyena
Striped hyena
(H. hyaena)

Proteles

Aardwolf
Aardwolf
(P. cristatus)

Felidae

Large family listed below

Viverridae

Large family listed below

Eupleridae

Small family listed below

Family Felidae

Felinae

Acinonyx

Cheetah
Cheetah
(A. jubatus)

Caracal

Caracal
Caracal
(C. caracal) African golden cat
African golden cat
(C. aurata)

Catopuma

Bay cat
Bay cat
(C. badia) Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii)

Felis

European wildcat
European wildcat
(F. silvestris) African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. lybica) Jungle cat
Jungle cat
(F. chaus) Black-footed cat
Black-footed cat
(F. nigripes) Sand cat
Sand cat
(F. margarita) Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat
(F. bieti) Domestic cat (F. catus)

Leopardus

Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis) Margay
Margay
(L. wiedii) Pampas cat
Pampas cat
(L. colocola) Geoffroy's cat
Geoffroy's cat
(L. geoffroyi) Kodkod
Kodkod
(L. guigna) Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
(L. jacobita) Oncilla
Oncilla
(L. tigrinus) Southern tigrina
Southern tigrina
(L. guttulus)

Leptailurus

Serval
Serval
(L. serval)

Lynx

Canadian lynx (L. canadensis) Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
(L. lynx) Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
(L. pardinus) Bobcat
Bobcat
(L. rufus)

Otocolobus

Pallas's cat
Pallas's cat
(O. manul)

Pardofelis

Marbled cat
Marbled cat
(P. marmorata)

Prionailurus

Fishing cat
Fishing cat
(P. viverrinus) Leopard cat
Leopard cat
(P. bengalensis) Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis) Flat-headed cat
Flat-headed cat
(P. planiceps) Rusty-spotted cat
Rusty-spotted cat
(P. rubiginosus)

Puma

Cougar
Cougar
(P. concolor)

Herpailurus

Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
(H. yagouaroundi)

Pantherinae

Panthera

Lion
Lion
(P. leo) Jaguar
Jaguar
(P. onca) Leopard
Leopard
(P. pardus) Tiger
Tiger
(P. tigris) Snow leopard
Snow leopard
(P. uncia)

Neofelis

Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(N. nebulosa) Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard
(N. diardi)

Family Viverridae
Viverridae
(includes Civets)

Paradoxurinae

Arctictis

Binturong
Binturong
(A. binturong)

Arctogalidia

Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet
(A. trivirgata)

Macrogalidia

Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet
(M. musschenbroekii)

Paguma

Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet
(P. larvata)

Paradoxurus

Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet
(P. hermaphroditus) Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni) Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet
(P. zeylonensis)

Hemigalinae

Chrotogale

Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet
(C. owstoni)

Cynogale

Otter civet
Otter civet
(C. bennettii)

Diplogale

Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet
(D. hosei)

Hemigalus

Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet
(H. derbyanus)

Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs)

Prionodon

Banded linsang
Banded linsang
(P. linsang) Spotted linsang
Spotted linsang
(P. pardicolor)

Viverrinae

Civettictis

African civet
African civet
(C. civetta)

Genetta (Genets)

Abyssinian genet
Abyssinian genet
(G. abyssinica) Angolan genet
Angolan genet
(G. angolensis) Bourlon's genet
Bourlon's genet
(G. bourloni) Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet
(G. cristata) Common genet
Common genet
(G. genetta) Johnston's genet
Johnston's genet
(G. johnstoni) Rusty-spotted genet
Rusty-spotted genet
(G. maculata) Pardine genet
Pardine genet
(G. pardina) Aquatic genet
Aquatic genet
(G. piscivora) King genet
King genet
(G. poensis) Servaline genet
Servaline genet
(G. servalina) Haussa genet
Haussa genet
(G. thierryi) Cape genet
Cape genet
(G. tigrina) Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet
(G. victoriae)

Poiana

African linsang
African linsang
(P. richardsonii) Leighton's linsang
Leighton's linsang
(P. leightoni)

Viverra

Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet
(V. civettina) Large-spotted civet
Large-spotted civet
(V. megaspila) Malayan civet
Malayan civet
(V. tangalunga) Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet
(V. zibetha)

Viverricula

Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet
(V. indica)

Family Eupleridae

Euplerinae

Cryptoprocta

Fossa (C. ferox)

Eupleres

Eastern falanouc
Eastern falanouc
(E. goudotii) Western falanouc (E. major)

Fossa

Malagasy civet
Malagasy civet
(F. fossana)

Galidiinae

Galidia

Ring-tailed mongoose
Ring-tailed mongoose
(G. elegans)

Galidictis

Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
(G. fasciata) Grandidier's mongoose
Grandidier's mongoose
(G. grandidieri)

Mungotictis

Narrow-striped mongoose
Narrow-striped mongoose
(M. decemlineata)

Salanoia

Brown-tailed mongoose
Brown-tailed mongoose
(S. concolor) Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. below)

Ursidae (Bears)

Ailuropoda

Giant panda
Giant panda
(A. melanoleuca)

Helarctos

Sun bear
Sun bear
(H. malayanus)

Melursus

Sloth bear
Sloth bear
(M. ursinus)

Tremarctos

Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
(T. ornatus)

Ursus

American black bear
American black bear
(U. americanus) Brown bear
Brown bear
(U. arctos) Polar bear
Polar bear
(U. maritimus) Asian black bear
Asian black bear
(U. thibetanus)

Mephitidae

Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks)

Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
(C. chinga) Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
(C. humboldtii) American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk
(C. leuconotus) Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk
(C. semistriatus)

Mephitis

Hooded skunk
Hooded skunk
(M. macroura) Striped skunk
Striped skunk
(M. mephitis)

Mydaus

Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger
(M. javanensis) Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger
(M. marchei)

Spilogale (Spotted skunks)

Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk
(S. angustifrons) Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk
(S. gracilis) Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk
(S. putorius) Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk
(S. pygmaea)

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon (Olingos)

Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo
(B. alleni) Northern olingo
Northern olingo
(B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo
(B. medius) Olinguito
Olinguito
(B. neblina)

Bassariscus

Ring-tailed cat
Ring-tailed cat
(B. astutus) Cacomistle
Cacomistle
(B. sumichrasti)

Nasua (Coatis inclusive)

White-nosed coati
White-nosed coati
(N. narica) South American coati
South American coati
(N. nasua)

Nasuella (Coatis inclusive)

Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)

Potos

Kinkajou
Kinkajou
(P. flavus)

Procyon

Crab-eating raccoon
Crab-eating raccoon
(P. cancrivorus) Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) Cozumel raccoon
Cozumel raccoon
(P. pygmaeus)

Ailuridae

Ailurus

Red panda
Red panda
(A. fulgens)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. above)

Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Arctocephalus

South American fur seal
South American fur seal
(A. australis) Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal
(A. galapagoensis) Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal
(A. gazella) Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal
(A. philippii) Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal
(A. pusillus) Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal
(A. townsendi) Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal
(A. tropicalis)

Callorhinus

Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal
(C. ursinus)

Eumetopias

Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion
(E. jubatus)

Neophoca

Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(N. cinerea)

Otaria

South American sea lion
South American sea lion
(O. flavescens)

Phocarctos

New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion
(P. hookeri)

Zalophus

California
California
sea lion (Z. californianus) Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion
(Z. wollebaeki)

Odobenidae ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Odobenus

Walrus
Walrus
(O. rosmarus)

Phocidae (Earless seals) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Cystophora

Hooded seal
Hooded seal
(C. cristata)

Erignathus

Bearded seal
Bearded seal
(E. barbatus)

Halichoerus

Gray seal (H. grypus)

Histriophoca

Ribbon seal
Ribbon seal
(H. fasciata)

Hydrurga

Leopard
Leopard
seal (H. leptonyx)

Leptonychotes

Weddell seal
Weddell seal
(L. weddellii)

Lobodon

Crabeater seal
Crabeater seal
(L. carcinophagus)

Mirounga (Elephant seals)

Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal
(M. angustirostris) Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal
(M. leonina)

Monachus

Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal
(M. monachus) Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal
(M. schauinslandi)

Ommatophoca

Ross seal
Ross seal
(O. rossi)

Pagophilus

Harp seal
Harp seal
(P. groenlandicus)

Phoca

Spotted seal
Spotted seal
(P. largha) Harbor seal
Harbor seal
(P. vitulina)

Pusa

Caspian seal
Caspian seal
(P. caspica) Ringed seal
Ringed seal
(P. hispida) Baikal seal
Baikal seal
(P. sibirica)

Canidae

Large family listed below

Mustelidae

Large family listed below

Family Canidae
Canidae
(includes dogs)

Atelocynus

Short-eared dog
Short-eared dog
(A. microtis)

Canis

Side-striped jackal
Side-striped jackal
(C. adustus) African golden wolf
African golden wolf
(C. anthus) Golden jackal
Golden jackal
(C. aureus) Coyote
Coyote
(C. latrans) Gray wolf
Gray wolf
(C. lupus) Black-backed jackal
Black-backed jackal
(C. mesomelas) Red wolf
Red wolf
(C. rufus) Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
(C. simensis)

Cerdocyon

Crab-eating fox
Crab-eating fox
(C. thous)

Chrysocyon

Maned wolf
Maned wolf
(C. brachyurus)

Cuon

Dhole
Dhole
(C. alpinus)

Lycalopex

Culpeo
Culpeo
(L. culpaeus) Darwin's fox
Darwin's fox
(L. fulvipes) South American gray fox
South American gray fox
(L. griseus) Pampas fox
Pampas fox
(L. gymnocercus) Sechuran fox
Sechuran fox
(L. sechurae) Hoary fox
Hoary fox
(L. vetulus)

Lycaon

African wild dog
African wild dog
(L. pictus)

Nyctereutes

Raccoon
Raccoon
dog (N. procyonoides)

Otocyon

Bat-eared fox
Bat-eared fox
(O. megalotis)

Speothos

Bush dog
Bush dog
(S. venaticus)

Urocyon

Gray fox
Gray fox
(U. cinereoargenteus) Island fox
Island fox
(U. littoralis)

Vulpes (Foxes)

Bengal fox
Bengal fox
(V. bengalensis) Blanford's fox
Blanford's fox
(V. cana) Cape fox
Cape fox
(V. chama) Corsac fox
Corsac fox
(V. corsac) Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox
(V. ferrilata) Arctic fox
Arctic fox
(V. lagopus) Kit fox
Kit fox
(V. macrotis) Pale fox
Pale fox
(V. pallida) Rüppell's fox
Rüppell's fox
(V. rueppelli) Swift fox
Swift fox
(V. velox) Red fox
Red fox
(V. vulpes) Fennec fox
Fennec fox
(V. zerda)

Family Mustelidae

Lutrinae (Otters)

Aonyx

African clawless otter
African clawless otter
(A. capensis) Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter
(A. cinerea)

Enhydra

Sea otter
Sea otter
(E. lutris)

Hydrictis

Spotted-necked otter
Spotted-necked otter
(H. maculicollis)

Lontra

North American river otter
North American river otter
(L. canadensis) Marine otter
Marine otter
(L. felina) Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
(L. longicaudis) Southern river otter
Southern river otter
(L. provocax)

Lutra

Eurasian otter
Eurasian otter
(L. lutra) Hairy-nosed otter
Hairy-nosed otter
(L. sumatrana)

Lutrogale

Smooth-coated otter
Smooth-coated otter
(L. perspicillata)

Pteronura

Giant otter
Giant otter
(P. brasiliensis)

Mustelinae (including badgers)

Arctonyx

Hog badger
Hog badger
(A. collaris)

Eira

Tayra
Tayra
(E. barbara)

Galictis

Lesser grison
Lesser grison
(G. cuja) Greater grison
Greater grison
(G. vittata)

Gulo

Wolverine
Wolverine
(G. gulo)

Ictonyx

Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat
(I. libyca) Striped polecat
Striped polecat
(I. striatus)

Lyncodon

Patagonian weasel
Patagonian weasel
(L. patagonicus)

Martes (Martens)

American marten
American marten
(M. americana) Yellow-throated marten
Yellow-throated marten
(M. flavigula) Beech marten
Beech marten
(M. foina) Nilgiri marten
Nilgiri marten
(M. gwatkinsii) European pine marten
European pine marten
(M. martes) Japanese marten
Japanese marten
(M. melampus) Sable
Sable
(M. zibellina)

Pekania

Fisher (P. pennanti)

Meles

Japanese badger
Japanese badger
(M. anakuma) Asian badger
Asian badger
(M. leucurus) European badger
European badger
(M. meles)

Mellivora

Honey badger
Honey badger
(M. capensis)

Melogale (Ferret-badgers)

Bornean ferret-badger
Bornean ferret-badger
(M. everetti) Chinese ferret-badger
Chinese ferret-badger
(M. moschata) Javan ferret-badger
Javan ferret-badger
(M. orientalis) Burmese ferret-badger
Burmese ferret-badger
(M. personata)

Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets)

Amazon weasel
Amazon weasel
(M. africana) Mountain weasel
Mountain weasel
(M. altaica) Stoat
Stoat
(M. erminea) Steppe polecat
Steppe polecat
(M. eversmannii) Colombian weasel
Colombian weasel
(M. felipei) Long-tailed weasel
Long-tailed weasel
(M. frenata) Japanese weasel
Japanese weasel
(M. itatsi) Yellow-bellied weasel
Yellow-bellied weasel
(M. kathiah) European mink
European mink
(M. lutreola) Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel
(M. lutreolina) Black-footed ferret
Black-footed ferret
(M. nigripes) Least weasel
Least weasel
(M. nivalis) Malayan weasel
Malayan weasel
(M. nudipes) European polecat
European polecat
(M. putorius) Siberian weasel
Siberian weasel
(M. sibirica) Back-striped weasel
Back-striped weasel
(M. strigidorsa) Egyptian weasel
Egyptian weasel
(M. subpalmata)

Neovison (Minks)

American mink
American mink
(N. vison)

Poecilogale

African striped weasel
African striped weasel
(P. albinucha)

Taxidea

American badger
American badger
(T. taxus)

Vormela

Marbled polecat
Marbled polecat
(V. peregusna)

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q185194 ADW: Vulpes EoL: 19076 EPPO: 1VULPG Fauna Europaea: 305292 Fossilworks: 41248 ITIS: 180603 MSW: 14000865 NCBI:

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