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VULPES is a genus of the Canidae . The members of this genus are colloquially referred to as true foxes, meaning they form a proper clade . The word "fox " occurs on the common names of species. True foxes are distinguished from members of the genus Canis
Canis
, such as dogs , wolves , coyotes , and jackals , by their smaller size (5–11 kg) and flatter skulls. They have black, triangular markings between their eyes and noses, and the tips of their tails are often a different color from the rest of their pelts. The typical lifespan for this genus is between two and four years, but can reach up to a decade.

For animals commonly known as "foxes", but which are not true foxes, see Fox#Classification
Fox#Classification
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Extant species * 2 Fossil
Fossil
species * 3 Early history

* 4 Distribution

* 4.1 V. bengalensis * 4.2 V. cana * 4.3 V. chama * 4.4 V. corsac * 4.5 V. ferrilata * 4.6 V. lagopus * 4.7 V. macrotis * 4.8 V. pallida * 4.9 V. rueppellii * 4.10 V. velox * 4.11 V. vulpes * 4.12 V. zerda

* 5 Anatomy * 6 Diet

* 7 Habitat

* 7.1 Predators

* 8 Behavior

* 8.1 General overview * 8.2 Reproduction * 8.3 After birth

* 9 Domestication
Domestication
* 10 Fox
Fox
hunting * 11 Vulpes
Vulpes
in culture and literature * 12 References

EXTANT SPECIES

Within Vulpes, 12 separate and distinct extant species and four fossil species are described:

* Arctic fox (V. lagopus) * Bengal fox (V. bengalensis) * Blanford\'s fox (V. cana) * Cape fox (V. chama) * Corsac fox (V. corsac) * Fennec fox
Fennec fox
(V. zerda) * Kit fox (V. macrotis) * Pale fox (V. pallida) * Rüppell\'s fox (V. rueppellii) * Red fox
Red fox
(V. vulpes) (includes silver fox and cross fox ) * Swift fox (V. velox) * Tibetan sand fox (V. ferrilata)

The Arctic fox is sometimes included in this genus as Vulpes
Vulpes
lagopus based on the definitive mammal taxonomy list, as well as genetic evidence.

Foxes of this group (including the fennec and Arctic
Arctic
foxes) possess eyes with pupils that retract into vertical slits in bright light.

The red fox, Ruppell's fox, and Tibetan sand fox possess white-tipped tails. The Arctic
Arctic
fox's tail-tip is of the same color as the rest of the tail (white or blue-gray) Blanford's fox usually possesses a black-tipped tail, but a small number of specimens (2% in Israel, 24% in the United Arab Emirates) possess a light-tipped tail. The other foxes in this group (Bengal, Cape, corsac, fennec, kit, pale, and swift) all possess black-tipped or dark-tipped tails. Red fox
Red fox

FOSSIL SPECIES

* † Vulpes
Vulpes
hassani * † Vulpes
Vulpes
praeglacialis - Kormos (found in Petralona Cave , Greece ) * † Vulpes qiuzhudingi (2014) * † Vulpes riffautae - Late Miocene * † Vulpes skinneri * † Vulpes
Vulpes
stenognathus

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to: VULPES

Wikimedia Commons has media related to VULPES .

EARLY HISTORY

The oldest known fossil species within Vulpes
Vulpes
is V. riffautae, dating back to the late Miocene of Chad
Chad
, which is within the Neogene
Neogene
. The deposits where these fossils are found are about 7 million years old, which might make them the earliest Canidae in the Old World. They are estimated to have weighed between 1.5 and 3.5 lb. V. skinneri, from the Malapa fossil site from South Africa
South Africa
, is younger than V. riffautae by roughly 5 million years, and shows up in the early Pleistocene.

Two other extinct, less documented fossils are known: V. praeglacialis and V. hassani. V. praeglacialis was discovered in the Petralona Cave in Chalkidiki
Chalkidiki
, Greece. The age of the deposits (Early Pleistocene
Pleistocene
) makes it the earliest occurrence of Vulpes
Vulpes
in Europe. V. hassani is found in a Miocene-Pliocene deposit in northwestern Africa.

In the Pleistocene, Vulpes
Vulpes
had a fairly wide distribution, with eight species found in North America. Of these eight, six are not fossil, and three species still remain in North America (V. velox, V. macrotis, and V. chama). The remaining three moved on to sections of Africa over time. V. stenognathus is extinct, but has extant sister taxa including V. chama, V. rueppellii, V. velox, and V. vulpes, which fits with these species all evolving together in North America.

DISTRIBUTION

V. BENGALENSIS

V. bengalensis's distribution

Bengal foxes are endemic to India and live throughout the subcontinent , and have not been placed on the endangered species list, but have become threatened by lack of native habitat due to human expansion.

V. CANA

V. cana distribution

Blanford's fox dwells in section of the Middle East including Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, Egypt
Egypt
, Turkestan
Turkestan
, Iran, Pakistan, and Israel. This species prefers semiarid environments.

V. CHAMA

V. chama distribution

The Cape fox is only found in the south of Africa, including Zimbabwe , Botswana
Botswana
, and South Africa
South Africa
. They thrive in semiarid and arid environments with rich grasslands .

V. CORSAC

V. corsac distribution

Corsac foxes live in central Asia. Like V. chama and V. cana, they do best in semiarid deserts. This fox is within the holarctic clade of foxes. This clade also contains the Arctic
Arctic
fox, swift fox, and red fox. Their possible ancestor is V. praecorsac, meaning they may have had a much wider distribution in the past (Europe and Crimea
Crimea
).

V. FERRILATA

V. ferrilata distribution

The Tibetan sand fox, as the name suggests, is endemic to the Tibetan and Ladakh
Ladakh
plateau in Nepal
Nepal
, China
China
, Sikkim
Sikkim
, and Bhutan
Bhutan
. This species lives at altitudes up to 5300 m and semideserts.

V. LAGOPUS

Vulpes
Vulpes
lagopus distribution

Arctic
Arctic
foxes inhabit all of the Arctic
Arctic
( Greenland
Greenland
, Russia
Russia
, Canada
Canada
, Alaska
Alaska
, Svalbard ), Iceland
Iceland
, and parts of Scandinavia
Scandinavia
, and hold the title of being the only native land mammal in all of Iceland. This fox arrived in Iceland
Iceland
during the climax of the last ice age , when the seas were frozen solid enough to walk across. Two extant subpopulations of this species are alive today. The Arctic fox is most closely related to kit (V. macrotis) and corsac foxes (V. corsac).

V. MACROTIS

V. macrotis distribution

Kit foxes are an arid area-dwelling North American species. They are found in Oregon
Oregon
, Colorado
Colorado
, Nevada
Nevada
, Utah
Utah
, California
California
, New Mexico , and Texas
Texas
. They also have a population in Mexico
Mexico
.

V. PALLIDA

V. pallida distribution

The pale fox lives in upper middle Africa and is an arid area-dwelling species.

V. RUEPPELLII

V. reuppellii distribution

Ruppel's foxes are specific to northern Africa and sections of the Middle East.

V. VELOX

V. velox distribution

The swift fox is found in the western grasslands of North America, specifically Montana
Montana
, Colorado, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas, as well as some sections of Canada. This species is most closely related to the kit fox, but lives in a different section of North America. The two can interbreed .

V. VULPES

V. vulpes distribution

The red fox is the most abundant and most widely distributed species of Vulpes. They currently live in most sections of the Northern Hemisphere. They also are present in Australia
Australia
, though were brought there by humans for fox hunting in the 1830s and are considered an invasive species . This species’ ancestor (either V. alopecoides or the related Chinese V. chikushanensi) originated in the Early Pleistocene
Pleistocene
and are most closely related to Ruppell’s fox (V. rueppellii).

V. ZERDA

V. zerda distribution

The fennec fox lives in the northernmost sections of Africa. It was not previously within Vulpes, but genetic evidence shows its close relation with Blanford's fox, making it a true fox.

ANATOMY

Vulpes
Vulpes
has a very similar bone structure to its canid relatives, but does have some modifications. Although canid limbs are designed specifically for running quickly on land to catch prey, Vulpes
Vulpes
species avoid rapid sprints, excluding being chased, and have become more specialized for leaping and grasping prey.

The adaptions for leaping, grasping, and climbing include the lengthening of hind limbs in relation to fore limbs, as well as overall slenderizing of both hind and fore limbs. Muscles are also emphasized along the axis of limbs.

DIET

This genus is omnivorous and prone to scavenging. The foods of choice for Vulpes
Vulpes
consist of invertebrates , a variety of small vertebrates , grasses , and some angiosperms . The typical intake per day is about 1 kg. True foxes exhibit hoarding behavior or caching where they store away food for another day out of sight from other animals.

HABITAT

These foxes can dwell in a number of habitats, including alpine , forest , desert , coastal , farm , and urban areas , but thrive in environments rich in food and shelter. They can be found in great numbers in suburban /residential regions. For the most part, this coexistence is agreeable for both fox and man, but can sometimes result in house pet (cat) disappearances.

PREDATORS

Predators are dependent on location, but commonly include humans , bears , and large birds of prey, such as eagles .

BEHAVIOR

GENERAL OVERVIEW

Though this varies in intensity from species to species, foxes operate within a hierarchical society, where dominance is established early in life. Dominant kits receive more food and are subsequently larger. If a dispute in the hierarchy occurs, dominance is determined by fighting. The loser may be subjected to rejection from its social group, as well as serious injuries. These social groups usually consist of three or four adults and have not been documented to surpass 10 adults. Vulpes
Vulpes
species are usually nocturnal, but do occasionally hunt and scavenge in daylight during winter.

REPRODUCTION

A male is referred to as a dog, and the female as a vixen . They are very similar in appearance, though dogs have larger heads. Mating occurs in late winter. This mating process starts when the vixen digs out an undisclosed number of potential breeding dens and begins to release a mating scent. Gestation takes 7–8 weeks, putting typical birth occurrence in March, and on average, kits begin to emerge in late April. The parents work as a unit in the upbringing of their offspring, but do not mate for life.

AFTER BIRTH

Born deaf and blind, kits or cubs require their mother’s milk and complete supervision for the first four to five weeks out of the womb, but begin to be progressively weaned after the first month. Once fully weaned, kits seek out various insects. The parents supplement this diet with a variety of mammals and birds. During early to middle July, the kits are able to hunt on their own and soon move away from their parents.

DOMESTICATION

Though rare, domestication has been documented. The most notable case documented is the domestication of the silver fox in Novosibirsk
Novosibirsk
, Russia
Russia
, at the Siberian Institute of Cytology and Genetics. In this study, generations of silver foxes were divided into those with friendly traits and those with unfriendly traits. After 50 years, the friendly foxes developed “dog-like” domesticated traits such as spots, tail wagging, enjoyment of human touch, and barking.

FOX HUNTING

Main article: Fox
Fox
hunting

Fox
Fox
hunting was started in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in the 16th century that involves tracking, chasing, and killing a fox with the aid of foxhounds and horses. It has since then spread to Europe, the United States, and Australia.

VULPES IN CULTURE AND LITERATURE

Main article: Foxes in culture

REFERENCES

* ^ A B Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal
Mammal
Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 532–628. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0 . OCLC
OCLC
62265494 . * ^ A B Macdonald, David (1984). The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Fun Facts on File. P. 31. ISBN 0-87196-871-1 * ^ Bininda-Emonds, ORP; JL Gittleman; A Purvis (1999). "Building large trees by combining phylogenetic information: a complete phylogeny of the extant Carnivora (Mammalia)" (PDF). Biol. Rev. 74 (2): 143–175. PMID 10396181 . doi :10.1017/S0006323199005307 . Retrieved 2008-07-30. * ^ Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio; Hoffman, Michael; and MacDonald David W. Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals, and Dogs: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN; 2004. p213 * ^ Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio; Hoffman, Michael; and MacDonald David W. Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals, and Dogs: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN; 2004. p161 * ^ Burt, William Henry. A Field Guide to the Mammals of North America North of Mexico. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt; 1998. pp75 and Plate 7 * ^ Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio; Hoffman, Michael; and MacDonald David W. Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals, and Dogs: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN; 2004. p206 * ^ Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio; Hoffman, Michael; and MacDonald David W. Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals, and Dogs: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN; 2004.pp202,231,205,211,155,122,117 * ^ Likius, S., MacKaye, A., Vignaud, H., Brunet, P. (2007). "The oldest African fox ( Vulpes riffautae n. sp., Canidae, Carnivora) recovered in late Miocene deposits of the Djurab desert, Chad". Naturwissenschaften 94 (7): 575–580. doi :10.1007/s00114-007-0230-6 . PMID 17361401 . Retrieved 2008-05-06. * ^ De Bonis et al. (2007) "The oldest African fox (Vulpes riffautae n. sp., Canidae, Carnivora) recovered in late Miocene deposits of the Djurab desert, Chad". Naturwissenschaften 94 (7): 575-580. * ^ D. E. Savage. 1941. American Midland Naturalist 25 * ^ Vanak, A.T. (2005). "Distribution and status of the Indian fox Vulpes
Vulpes
bengalensis in southern India".Canid News 8 (1). * ^ "Blanford's fox". Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife. 29 August 2007. Retrieved 31 August 2010. * ^ Zrzavý, J. & Řicánková, R. (1999). "Phylogeny of Recent Canidae (Mammalia, Carnivora): relative reliability and utility of morphological and molecular datasets.".Zoologica Scripta 33 (4): 311–333. doi :10.1111/j.0300-3256.2004.00152.x * ^ Schaller, G.B., Ginsberg, J.R. & Harris, R. (2008). Vulpes ferrilata. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 22 March 2009. * ^ "Wildlife". Iceland
Iceland
Worldwide. iww.is. 2000. Archived from the original on 14 April 2010. Retrieved 22 April 2010. * ^ “ Vulpes
Vulpes
pallida” "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-10-28. Retrieved 2011-10-24. . Canid Specialist Group * ^ Wozencraft, W. C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal
Mammal
Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. * ^ Dragoo, J. W., Choate, J. R., Yates, T. L., Mikkelsen, TS; Karlsson, EK; Jaffe, DB; Kamal, M; Clamp, M; Chang, JL et al. (2005). “Genome sequence, comparative analysis and haplotype structure of the domestic dog”. Nature 438 (7069): 803-819. doi :10.1038/nature04338 . PMID 16341006 . * ^ Fedriani, J.M.; T. K. Fuller, R. M. Sauvajot, E. C. York (2000-07-05). “Competition and intraguild predation amount three sympatric carnivores”. Oecologia 125 (2) 258-270. doi :10.1007/s004420000448 . * ^ “History and biology”. Feral Scan/ Fox
Fox
Scan. www.feralscan.org.au/foxscan/pagecontent.aspx?page=fox_historyandbiology. Retrieved 2014-04-01. * ^ A B C Harris, Steven (2010). “Understand fox behavior”. Discoverwildlife.com/british-wildlife/understand-fox-behavior. Retrieved 2014-03-23. * ^ Trut, Lyudmila (1999). “Early Canid Domestication: The Farm- Fox
Fox
Experiment.” American Scientist 87 (2): 160. doi :10.1511/1999.2.160 . * ^ “ Fox
Fox
hunting worldwide”. BBC News. 1999-09-16. Retrieved 2014-03-29

* v * t * e

Extant Carnivora species

* Kingdom: Animalia * Phylum: Chordata * Class: Mammalia * Infraclass: Eutheria * Superorder: Laurasiatheria
Laurasiatheria

SUBORDER FELIFORMIA

NANDINIIDAE

NANDINIA

* African palm civet (N. binotata)

Herpestidae (Mongooses)

ATILAX

* Marsh mongoose (A. paludinosus)

BDEOGALE

* Bushy-tailed mongoose (B. crassicauda) * Jackson\'s mongoose (B. jacksoni) * Black-footed mongoose (B. nigripes)

CROSSARCHUS

* Alexander\'s kusimanse (C. alexandri) * Angolan kusimanse (C. ansorgei) * Common kusimanse (C. obscurus) * Flat-headed kusimanse (C. platycephalus)

CYNICTIS

* Yellow mongoose
Yellow mongoose
(C. penicillata)

DOLOGALE

* Pousargues\'s mongoose (D. dybowskii)

GALERELLA

* Angolan slender mongoose (G. flavescens) * Black mongoose (G. nigrata) * Somalian slender mongoose (G. ochracea) * Cape gray mongoose (G. pulverulenta) * Slender mongoose (G. sanguinea)

HELOGALE

* Ethiopian dwarf mongoose (H. hirtula) * Common dwarf mongoose (H. parvula)

HERPESTES

* Short-tailed mongoose (H. brachyurus) * Indian gray mongoose (H. edwardsii) * Indian brown mongoose (H. fuscus) * Egyptian mongoose (H. ichneumon) * Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose
(H. javanicus) * Long-nosed mongoose (H. naso) * Collared mongoose (H. semitorquatus) * Ruddy mongoose (H. smithii) * Crab-eating mongoose
Crab-eating mongoose
(H. urva) * Stripe-necked mongoose (H. vitticollis)

ICHNEUMIA

* White-tailed mongoose (I. albicauda)

LIBERIICTUS

* Liberian mongoose (L. kuhni)

MUNGOS

* Gambian mongoose (M. gambianus) * Banded mongoose (M. mungo)

PARACYNICTIS

* Selous\' mongoose (P. selousi)

RHYNCHOGALE

* Meller\'s mongoose (R. melleri)

SURICATA

* Meerkat (S. suricatta)

Hyaenidae (Hyenas)

CROCUTA

* Spotted hyena (C. crocuta)

HYAENA

* Brown hyena (H. brunnea) * Striped hyena (H. hyaena)

PROTELES

* Aardwolf
Aardwolf
(P. cristatus)

FELIDAE Large family listed below

VIVERRIDAE Large family listed below

EUPLERIDAE Small family listed below

FAMILY FELIDAE

FELINAE

ACINONYX

* Cheetah (A. jubatus)

CARACAL

* Caracal
Caracal
(C. caracal) * African golden cat
African golden cat
(C. aurata)

CATOPUMA

* Bay cat
Bay cat
(C. badia) * Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii)

FELIS

* Chinese mountain cat (F. bieti) * Domestic cat (F. catus) * Jungle cat (F. chaus) * Sand cat (F. margarita) * Black-footed cat (F. nigripes) * Wildcat (F. silvestris)

LEOPARDUS

* Pantanal cat (L. braccatus) * Colocolo (L. colocolo) * Geoffroy\'s cat (L. geoffroyi) * Kodkod (L. guigna) * Southern tigrina (L. guttulus) * Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
(L. jacobita) * Pampas cat (L. pajeros) * Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis) * Oncilla
Oncilla
(L. tigrinus) * Margay
Margay
(L. wiedii)

LEPTAILURUS

* Serval (L. serval)

LYNX

* Canadian lynx (L. canadensis) * Eurasian lynx (L. lynx) * Iberian lynx (L. pardinus) * Bobcat (L. rufus)

OTOCOLOBUS

* Pallas\'s cat (O. manul)

PARDOFELIS

* Marbled cat (P. marmorata)

PRIONAILURUS

* Leopard cat (P. bengalensis) * Flat-headed cat (P. planiceps) * Rusty-spotted cat (P. rubiginosus) * Fishing cat (P. viverrinus)

PUMA

* Cougar (P. concolor) * Jaguarundi (P. yagouaroundi)

PANTHERINAE

PANTHERA

* Lion
Lion
(P. leo) * Jaguar
Jaguar
(P. onca) * Leopard
Leopard
(P. pardus) * Tiger
Tiger
(P. tigris) * Snow leopard
Snow leopard
(P. uncia)

NEOFELIS

* Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(N. nebulosa) * Sunda clouded leopard (N. diardi)

FAMILY VIVERRIDAE (INCLUDES CIVETS )

PARADOXURINAE

ARCTICTIS

* Binturong (A. binturong)

ARCTOGALIDIA

* Small-toothed palm civet (A. trivirgata)

MACROGALIDIA

* Sulawesi palm civet (M. musschenbroekii)

PAGUMA

* Masked palm civet (P. larvata)

PARADOXURUS

* Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) * Asian palm civet (P. hermaphroditus) * Jerdon\'s palm civet (P. jerdoni) * Golden palm civet (P. zeylonensis)

HEMIGALINAE

CHROTOGALE

* Owston\'s palm civet (C. owstoni)

CYNOGALE

* Otter civet (C. bennettii)

DIPLOGALE

* Hose\'s palm civet (D. hosei)

HEMIGALUS

* Banded palm civet (H. derbyanus)

Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs)

PRIONODON

* Banded linsang (P. linsang) * Spotted linsang (P. pardicolor)

VIVERRINAE

CIVETTICTIS

* African civet (C. civetta)

Genetta (Genets)

* Abyssinian genet (G. abyssinica) * Angolan genet (G. angolensis) * Bourlon\'s genet (G. bourloni) * Crested servaline genet (G. cristata) * Common genet (G. genetta) * Johnston\'s genet (G. johnstoni) * Rusty-spotted genet (G. maculata) * Pardine genet (G. pardina) * Aquatic genet (G. piscivora) * King genet (G. poensis) * Servaline genet (G. servalina) * Haussa genet (G. thierryi) * Cape genet (G. tigrina) * Giant forest genet (G. victoriae)

POIANA

* African linsang (P. richardsonii) * Leighton\'s linsang (P. leightoni)

VIVERRA

* Malabar large-spotted civet (V. civettina) * Large-spotted civet (V. megaspila) * Malayan civet (V. tangalunga) * Large Indian civet (V. zibetha)

VIVERRICULA

* Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet
(V. indica)

FAMILY EUPLERIDAE

EUPLERINAE

CRYPTOPROCTA

* Fossa (C. ferox)

EUPLERES

* Eastern falanouc (E. goudotii) * Western falanouc (E. major)

FOSSA

* Malagasy civet (F. fossana)

GALIDIINAE

GALIDIA

* Ring-tailed mongoose (G. elegans)

GALIDICTIS

* Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose (G. fasciata) * Grandidier\'s mongoose (G. grandidieri)

MUNGOTICTIS

* Narrow-striped mongoose (M. decemlineata)

SALANOIA

* Brown-tailed mongoose (S. concolor) * Durrell\'s vontsira (S. durrelli)

SUBORDER CANIFORMIA (CONT. BELOW)

Ursidae (Bears)

AILUROPODA

* Giant panda (A. melanoleuca)

HELARCTOS

* Sun bear (H. malayanus)

MELURSUS

* Sloth bear
Sloth bear
(M. ursinus)

TREMARCTOS

* Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
(T. ornatus)

URSUS

* American black bear (U. americanus) * Brown bear
Brown bear
(U. arctos) * Polar bear
Polar bear
(U. maritimus) * Asian black bear (U. thibetanus)

Mephitidae (Skunks)

Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks)

* Molina\'s hog-nosed skunk (C. chinga) * Humboldt\'s hog-nosed skunk (C. humboldtii) * American hog-nosed skunk (C. leuconotus) * Striped hog-nosed skunk (C. semistriatus)

MEPHITIS

* Hooded skunk (M. macroura) * Striped skunk
Striped skunk
(M. mephitis)

MYDAUS

* Sunda stink badger (M. javanensis) * Palawan stink badger (M. marchei)

Spilogale (Spotted skunks)

* Southern spotted skunk (S. angustifrons) * Western spotted skunk (S. gracilis) * Eastern spotted skunk (S. putorius) * Pygmy spotted skunk (S. pygmaea)

PROCYONIDAE

Bassaricyon (Olingos)

* Eastern lowland olingo (B. alleni) * Northern olingo (B. gabbii) * Western lowland olingo (B. medius) * Olinguito (B. neblina)

BASSARISCUS

* Ring-tailed cat (B. astutus) * Cacomistle (B. sumichrasti)

Nasua (Coatis inclusive)

* White-nosed coati (N. narica) * South American coati (N. nasua)

Nasuella (Coatis inclusive)

* Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) * Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)

POTOS

* Kinkajou (P. flavus)

PROCYON

* Crab-eating raccoon
Crab-eating raccoon
(P. cancrivorus) * Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) * Cozumel raccoon (P. pygmaeus)

AILURIDAE

AILURUS

* Red panda
Red panda
(A. fulgens)

SUBORDER CANIFORMIA (CONT. ABOVE)

Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions ) ( Pinniped inclusive)

ARCTOCEPHALUS

* South American fur seal (A. australis) * Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) * Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal
(A. galapagoensis) * Antarctic fur seal (A. gazella) * Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal
(A. philippii) * Brown fur seal (A. pusillus) * Guadalupe fur seal (A. townsendi) * Subantarctic fur seal (A. tropicalis)

CALLORHINUS

* Northern fur seal (C. ursinus)

EUMETOPIAS

* Steller sea lion (E. jubatus)

NEOPHOCA

* Australian sea lion (N. cinerea)

OTARIA

* South American sea lion (O. flavescens)

PHOCARCTOS

* New Zealand sea lion (P. hookeri)

ZALOPHUS

* California
California
sea lion (Z. californianus) * Galápagos sea lion (Z. wollebaeki)

Odobenidae ( Pinniped inclusive)

ODOBENUS

* Walrus
Walrus
(O. rosmarus)

Phocidae (Earless seals) ( Pinniped inclusive)

CYSTOPHORA

* Hooded seal
Hooded seal
(C. cristata)

ERIGNATHUS

* Bearded seal (E. barbatus)

HALICHOERUS

* Gray seal (H. grypus)

HISTRIOPHOCA

* Ribbon seal (H. fasciata)

HYDRURGA

* Leopard
Leopard
seal (H. leptonyx)

LEPTONYCHOTES

* Weddell seal (L. weddellii)

LOBODON

* Crabeater seal
Crabeater seal
(L. carcinophagus)

Mirounga (Elephant seals)

* Northern elephant seal (M. angustirostris) * Southern elephant seal (M. leonina)

MONACHUS

* Mediterranean monk seal (M. monachus) * Hawaiian monk seal (M. schauinslandi)

OMMATOPHOCA

* Ross seal (O. rossi)

PAGOPHILUS

* Harp seal
Harp seal
(P. groenlandicus)

PHOCA

* Spotted seal (P. largha) * Harbor seal (P. vitulina)

PUSA

* Caspian seal (P. caspica) * Ringed seal (P. hispida) * Baikal seal (P. sibirica)

CANIDAE Large family listed below

MUSTELIDAE Large family listed below

FAMILY CANIDAE (INCLUDES DOGS )

ATELOCYNUS

* Short-eared dog (A. microtis)

CANIS

* Side-striped jackal (C. adustus) * African golden wolf (C. anthus) * Golden jackal
Golden jackal
(C. aureus) * Coyote
Coyote
(C. latrans) * Gray wolf (C. lupus) * Black-backed jackal (C. mesomelas) * Red wolf (C. rufus) * Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
(C. simensis)

CERDOCYON

* Crab-eating fox
Crab-eating fox
(C. thous)

CHRYSOCYON

* Maned wolf
Maned wolf
(C. brachyurus)

CUON

* Dhole (C. alpinus)

LYCALOPEX

* Culpeo (L. culpaeus) * Darwin\'s fox (L. fulvipes) * South American gray fox (L. griseus) * Pampas fox (L. gymnocercus) * Sechuran fox (L. sechurae) * Hoary fox (L. vetulus)

LYCAON

* African wild dog
African wild dog
(L. pictus)

NYCTEREUTES

* Raccoon
Raccoon
dog (N. procyonoides)

OTOCYON

* Bat-eared fox (O. megalotis)

SPEOTHOS

* Bush dog
Bush dog
(S. venaticus)

UROCYON

* Gray fox
Gray fox
(U. cinereoargenteus) * Island fox (U. littoralis)

Vulpes (Foxes )

* Bengal fox (V. bengalensis) * Blanford\'s fox (V. cana) * Cape fox (V. chama) * Corsac fox (V. corsac) * Tibetan sand fox (V. ferrilata) * Arctic fox (V. lagopus) * Kit fox (V. macrotis) * Pale fox (V. pallida) * Rüppell\'s fox (V. rueppelli) * Swift fox (V. velox) * Red fox
Red fox
(V. vulpes) * Fennec fox
Fennec fox
(V. zerda)

FAMILY MUSTELIDAE

Lutrinae (Otters)

AONYX

* African clawless otter (A. capensis) * Oriental small-clawed otter (A. cinerea)

ENHYDRA

* Sea otter
Sea otter
(E. lutris)

HYDRICTIS

* Spotted-necked otter (H. maculicollis)

LONTRA

* North American river otter (L. canadensis) * Marine otter (L. felina) * Neotropical otter (L. longicaudis) * Southern river otter (L. provocax)

LUTRA

* Eurasian otter (L. lutra) * Hairy-nosed otter (L. sumatrana)

LUTROGALE

* Smooth-coated otter (L. perspicillata)

PTERONURA

* Giant otter (P. brasiliensis)

Mustelinae
Mustelinae
(including badgers )

ARCTONYX

* Hog badger (A. collaris)

EIRA

* Tayra
Tayra
(E. barbara)

GALICTIS

* Lesser grison (G. cuja) * Greater grison
Greater grison
(G. vittata)

GULO

* Wolverine (G. gulo)

ICTONYX

* Saharan striped polecat (I. libyca) * Striped polecat
Striped polecat
(I. striatus)

LYNCODON

* Patagonian weasel (L. patagonicus)

Martes (Martens)

* American marten
American marten
(M. americana) * Yellow-throated marten (M. flavigula) * Beech marten (M. foina) * Nilgiri marten (M. gwatkinsii) * European pine marten (M. martes) * Japanese marten (M. melampus) * Fisher (M. pennanti) * Sable
Sable
(M. zibellina)

MELES

* Japanese badger (M. anakuma) * Asian badger (M. leucurus) * European badger (M. meles)

MELLIVORA

* Honey badger (M. capensis)

Melogale (Ferret-badgers)

* Bornean ferret-badger (M. everetti) * Chinese ferret-badger
Chinese ferret-badger
(M. moschata) * Javan ferret-badger (M. orientalis) * Burmese ferret-badger (M. personata)

Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets )

* Amazon weasel (M. africana) * Mountain weasel (M. altaica) * Stoat (M. erminea) * Steppe polecat (M. eversmannii) * Colombian weasel (M. felipei) * Long-tailed weasel (M. frenata) * Japanese weasel (M. itatsi) * Yellow-bellied weasel (M. kathiah) * European mink
European mink
(M. lutreola) * Indonesian mountain weasel (M. lutreolina) * Black-footed ferret (M. nigripes) * Least weasel (M. nivalis) * Malayan weasel (M. nudipes) * European polecat (M. putorius) * Siberian weasel (M. sibirica) * Back-striped weasel (M. strigidorsa) * Egyptian weasel (M. subpalmata)

Neovison (Minks )

* American mink (N. vison)

POECILOGALE

* African striped weasel (P. albinucha)

TAXIDEA

* American badger
American badger
(T. taxus)

VORMELA

* Marbled polec