VULNERABILITY refers to the inability (of a system or a unit) to withstand the effects of a hostile environment. A WINDOW OF VULNERABILITY (WoV) is a time frame within which defensive measures are diminished, compromised or lacking.
* 1 Common applications * 2 Research
* 3 Types
* 3.1 Social * 3.2 Cognitive * 3.3 Military
* 4 Invulnerability * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links
In relation to hazards and disasters , vulnerability is a concept that links the relationship that people have with their environment to social forces and institutions and the cultural values that sustain and contest them. “The concept of vulnerability expresses the multi-dimensionality of disasters by focusing attention on the totality of relationships in a given social situation which constitute a condition that, in combination with environmental forces, produces a disaster”.
It's also the extent to which changes could harm a system, or to which the community can be affected by the impact of a hazard or exposed to the possibility of being attacked or harmed, either physically or emotionally: "we were in a vulnerable position".
Within the body of literature related to vulnerability, major
research streams include questions of methodology , such as: measuring
and assessing vulnerability, including finding appropriate indicators
for various aspects of vulnerability, up- and down scaling methods,
and participatory methods.
Vulnerability research covers a complex,
multidisciplinary field including development and poverty studies,
public health , climate studies, security studies, engineering ,
geography, political ecology , and disaster risk management . This
research is of importance and interest for organizations trying to
reduce vulnerability – especially as related to poverty and other
Millennium Development Goals
In its sense, social vulnerability is one dimension of vulnerability to multiple stressors (agent responsible for stress) and shocks , including abuse , social exclusion and natural hazards . Social vulnerability refers to the inability of people, organizations, and societies to withstand adverse impacts from multiple stressors to which they are exposed. These impacts are due in part to characteristics inherent in social interactions, institutions, and systems of cultural values.
Main article: Cognitive vulnerability
A cognitive vulnerability, in cognitive psychology , is an erroneous belief, cognitive bias , or pattern of thought that is believed to predispose the individual to psychological problems. It is in place before the symptoms of psychological disorders start to appear, such as high neuroticism, and after the individual encounters a stressful experience, the cognitive vulnerability shapes a maladaptive response that may lead to a psychological disorder. In psychopathology , cognitive vulnerability is constructed from schema models, hopelessness models, and attachment theory. Attentional bias is one mechanism leading to faulty cognitive bias that leads to cognitive vulnerability. Allocating a danger level to a threat depends on the urgency or intensity of the threshold. Anxiety is not associated with selective orientation.
See also: Paul Nitze
In military terminology, vulnerability is a subset of survivability , the others being susceptibility and recoverability. Vulnerability is defined in various ways depending on the nation and service arm concerned, but in general it refers to the near-instantaneous effects of a weapon attack. In aviation it is defined as the inability of an aircraft to withstand the damage caused by the man-made hostile environment. In some definitions, recoverability (damage control, firefighting, restoration of capability) is included in vulnerability. Some military services develop their own concept of vulnerability.
Invulnerability is a common feature found in video games . It makes the player impervious to pain, damage or loss of health. It can be found in the form of "power-ups " or cheats ; when activated via cheats, it is often referred to as "god mode ". Generally, it does not protect the player from certain instant-death hazards, most notably "bottomless" pits from which, even if the player were to survive the fall, they would be unable to escape. As a rule, invulnerability granted by power-ups is temporary, and wears off after a set amount of time, while invulnerability cheats, once activated, remain in effect until deactivated, or the end of the level is reached. Depending on the game in question, invulnerability to damage may or may not protect the player from non-damage effects, such as being immobilized or sent flying.
In comic books , some superheroes are considered invulnerable, though
this usually only applies up to a certain level. (e.g.
This feature is also prominent in the manga , webcomic and anime
In mythology talismans charms and amulets were created by magic users for the purpose of making the wearer immune to injury from both mystic and mundane weapons.
* War portal
* ^ Bankoff, Greg; et al. (2004). Mapping Vulnerability: Disasters,
Development and People. London: Earth scan.
* ^ Villagran, Juan Carlos. "“Vulnerability: A conceptual and
methodological review." SOURCE. No. 2/2006. Bonn, Germany.
* ^ Birkmann, Joern (editor). 2006. Measuring
Natural Hazards – Towards Disaster Resilient Societies. UNU Press.
* ^ Wolters, M., Kuenzer, C., 2015:
Vulnerability Assessments of
Coastal River Deltas – Categorization and Review. Journal of Coastal
Conservation, DOI 10.1007/s11852-015-0396-6
* ^ Luis Flores Ballesteros. "What determines a disaster?" 54 Pesos
May. 2008:54 Pesos 11 Sep 2008.
* ^ See also Daniel R. Curtis, 'Pre-industrial societies and
strategies for the exploitation of resources. A theoretical framework
for understanding why some settlements are resilient and some
settlements are vulnerable to crisis',
* ^ A B Riskind, John H.; Black, David (2005). "Cognitive
Vulnerability". In Freeman, Arthur; Felgoise, Stephanie H.; et al.
Encyclopedia of Cognitive Behavior Therapy. New York: Springer. pp.
122–26. ISBN 9781429411738 .
* ^ Jeronimus B.F.; Kotov, R.; Riese, H.; Ormel, J. (2016).
"Neuroticism\'s prospective association with mental disorders halves
after adjustment for baseline symptoms and psychiatric history, but
the adjusted association hardly decays with time: a meta-analysis on
59 longitudinal/prospective studies with 443 313 participants".
Psychological Medicine. 46 (14): 2883–2906. PMID 27523506 . doi
* ^ Ingram, Rick (February 2003). "Origins of Cognitive
Vulnerability to Depression" (PDF). Cognitive Therapy and Research. 27
(1): 77–88. ISSN 0147-5916 . doi :10.1023/a:1022590730752 .
* ^ Mathews, Andrew; MacLeod, Colin (1 April 2005). "Cognitive
Vulnerability to Emotional Disorders". Annual Review of Clinical
Psychology. 1 (1): 167–195. doi
* ^ Ball, Robert (2003). The Fundamentals of Aircraft Combat