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The Vulgate
Vulgate
(/ˈvʌlɡeɪt, -ɡət/) is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible
Bible
that became the Catholic Church's officially promulgated Latin
Latin
version of the Bible
Bible
during the 16th century. The translation was largely the work of St Jerome, who in 382 had been commissioned by Pope Damasus I
Pope Damasus I
to revise the Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
("Old Latin") Gospels
Gospels
then in use by the Roman Church. Jerome, on his own initiative, extended this work of revision and translation to include most of the Books of the Bible, and once published, the new version was widely adopted and eventually eclipsed the Vetus Latina; so that by the 13th century, it took over from the former version the appellation of "versio vulgata" [1] (the "version commonly used") or vulgata for short, and in Greek as βουλγάτα ("Voulgata"). The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
affirmed the Vulgate
Vulgate
as its official Latin
Latin
Bible at the Council of Trent
Council of Trent
(1545–63), though there was no authoritative edition at that time.[2] The Clementine edition of the Vulgate
Vulgate
of 1592 became the standard Bible
Bible
text of the Roman Rite
Roman Rite
of the Roman Catholic Church and remained so until 1979 when the Nova Vulgata was promulgated.

Contents

1 Authorship

1.1 Translation 1.2 Critical value 1.3 Prologues

2 Relation with the Old Latin
Latin
Bible 3 Influence on Western culture

3.1 The Reformation 3.2 The Council of Trent 3.3 Translations 3.4 Influence upon the English language

4 Texts

4.1 Manuscripts and early editions 4.2 Clementine Vulgate

4.2.1 Later printings

4.3 Modern critical editions

4.3.1 Wordsworth and White (Oxford) New Testament 4.3.2 Benedictine
Benedictine
(Rome) Old Testament 4.3.3 Weber-Gryson (Stuttgart) edition

4.4 Nova Vulgata

4.4.1 Novum Testamentum Latine

4.5 Electronic versions 4.6 Contents

5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Authorship[edit] The Vulgate
Vulgate
has a compound text that is not entirely the work of Jerome.[3] While Jerome
Jerome
revised all the Gospels
Gospels
of the Vetus Latina from the Greek, it is unknown who revised the rest of the New Testament and 3 Esdras
3 Esdras
of the Vetus Latina. Several unrevised books of the Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
were also included in the Vulgate. These are 1 and 2 Maccabees, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, the Letter of Jeremiah, the Prayer of Manasses, 4 Esdras
4 Esdras
and the Epistle
Epistle
to the Laodiceans. Jerome translated all the Hebrew books of the Jewish canon (including the book of Psalms
Psalms
from the Greek Hexapla
Hexapla
Septuagint), the books of Tobias and Judith from Aramaic, the additions to the book of Esther from the Common Septuagint
Septuagint
and the additions to the book of Daniel from the Greek of Theodotion. The Vulgate's components include:

Independent translation from the Hebrew by Jerome: the books of the Hebrew Bible, including a translation of the Psalms
Psalms
from the Hebrew which is found in early medieval Vulgate
Vulgate
manuscripts but is commonly supplanted by Jerome's Gallican version in later bibles. This was completed in 405. Free translation from a secondary Aramaic
Aramaic
version by Jerome: Tobias and Judith. Translation from the Greek of Theodotion
Theodotion
by Jerome: The three additions to the Book
Book
of Daniel; Song of the Three Children, Story of Susanna, and The Idol Bel and the Dragon. The Song of the Three Children was retained within the narrative of Daniel, Susanna was moved by Jerome
Jerome
from before the beginning of Daniel to the end of the book along with Bel and the Dragon. Translation from the Common Septuagint
Septuagint
by Jerome: the Rest of Esther. Jerome
Jerome
gathered all these additions together at the end of the Book
Book
of Esther. Translation from the Hexaplar Septuagint
Septuagint
by Jerome: his Gallican version of the Book
Book
of Psalms. Jerome's Hexaplaric revisions of other books of Old Testament
Old Testament
continued to circulate in Italy for several centuries, but only Job and fragments of other books survive; together with Jerome's prologues to the Hexaplar versions of Chronicles, Ecclesiastes
Ecclesiastes
and Song of Songs. Revision of the Old Latin: the Roman Psalter, undertaken prior to Jerome
Jerome
but continuing in liturgical use, and included in many medieval Vulgate
Vulgate
Old Testaments and liturgical psalters. Revision of the Old Latin
Latin
by Jerome: the Gospels, corrected with reference to the oldest Greek manuscripts available.[4] Revision of the Old Latin
Latin
by a person or persons unknown, contemporary with Jerome: 3 Esdras,[5] Acts, Pauline epistles, Catholic epistles and the Apocalypse. Old Latin, wholly unrevised: Epistle
Epistle
to the Laodiceans, Prayer of Manasses, 4 Esdras, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, and 1 and 2 Maccabees. The Book
Book
of Baruch and the Letter of Jeremiah
Letter of Jeremiah
were excluded by Jerome
Jerome
as non-canonical, but sporadically re-admitted into the Vulgate
Vulgate
tradition from the Additions to the Book
Book
of Jeremiah of the Old Latin
Latin
from the 9th century onwards.[6]

Translation[edit]

Saint Jerome
Jerome
in his study, by Domenico Ghirlandaio.

Jerome
Jerome
did not embark on the work with the intention of creating a new version of the whole Bible, but the changing nature of his program can be tracked in his voluminous correspondence. He had been commissioned by Damasus I
Damasus I
in 382 to revise the Old Latin
Latin
text of the four Gospels from the best Greek texts. By the time of Damasus' death in 384, Jerome
Jerome
had thoroughly completed this task, together with a more cursory revision from the Greek Common Septuagint
Septuagint
of the Old Latin text of the Psalms
Psalms
in the Roman Psalter, a version which he later disowned and is now believed to be lost.[7] How much of the rest of the New Testament
New Testament
he then revised is difficult to judge today,[8][9] but little of his work survived in the Vulgate
Vulgate
text of these books. Subsequent revision is the work of one or more other scholars; Rufinus of Aquileia has been suggested, as have Rufinus the Syrian (an associate of Pelagius) and Pelagius
Pelagius
himself, though without specific evidence for any of them.[10][11] This unknown reviser worked more thoroughly than Jerome
Jerome
had done, with access to older Greek manuscript sources of Alexandrian text-type, and had published a complete revised New Testament
New Testament
text by 410 at the latest, when Pelagius
Pelagius
quoted from it in his commentary on the letters of Paul.[12][13] In 385, Jerome
Jerome
was forced out of Rome
Rome
and eventually settled in Bethlehem. There he was able to use a surviving manuscript of the Hexapla, likely from the nearby Theological Library of Caesarea Maritima, a columnar comparison of the variant versions of the Old Testament undertaken 150 years before by Origen. Jerome
Jerome
then embarked on a second revision of the Psalms, translated from the revised Septuagint
Septuagint
Greek column of the Hexapla, which later came to be called the Gallican version. There are no indications that either these revisions from the Hexapla
Hexapla
or Jerome's later revised versions of the Old Testament
Old Testament
from the Hebrew were ever officially commissioned. He also appears to have undertaken further new translations into Latin from the Hexaplar Septuagint
Septuagint
column for other books, of which only that for Job survives. From 390 to 405, Jerome
Jerome
translated anew from the Hebrew all the books in the Hebrew Bible, including a further version of the Psalms. This new translation of the Psalms
Psalms
was labelled by him as "iuxta Hebraeos" (i.e. "close to the Hebrews", "immediately following the Hebrews") and was the version most commonly found in Vulgate
Vulgate
bibles until it was supplanted by his Gallican psalms beginning in the 9th century. Jerome
Jerome
lived 15 years after the completion of his Old Testament
Old Testament
text, during which he undertook extensive commentaries on the Prophetic Books. In these commentaries he generally took his translation from the Hebrew as his subject text, sometimes proposing further improvements, suggestions which would often later be incorporated as interpolations to the Vulgate
Vulgate
text of these books. In Jerome's Vulgate, the Hebrew Book
Book
of Ezra-Nehemiah
Ezra-Nehemiah
is translated as the single book of 'Ezra'. Jerome
Jerome
defends this in his Prologue to Ezra on the basis of the Hebrew text; although noting that some Greeks and Latins had begun to propose that this book might be split in two. Jerome
Jerome
rejects the book of Greek Esdras as uncanonical, and does not translate it; even though it was then universally found in Greek and Old Latin
Latin
Old Testament
Old Testament
texts, commonly preceding the combined text of Ezra-Nehemiah. [14] The Vulgate
Vulgate
is usually credited as being the first translation of the Old Testament
Old Testament
into Latin
Latin
directly from the Hebrew Tanakh
Tanakh
rather than from the Greek Septuagint. Jerome's extensive use of exegetical material written in Greek, as well as his use of the Aquiline and Theodotiontic columns of the Hexapla, along with the somewhat paraphrastic style[15] in which he translated, makes it difficult to determine exactly how direct the conversion of Hebrew to Latin was.[16][17][18] Saint Augustine, a contemporary of Saint Jerome, states in Book
Book
XVII ch. 43 of his City of God that "in our own day the priest Jerome, a great scholar and master of all three tongues, has made a translation into Latin, not from Greek but directly from the original Hebrew."[19] Nevertheless, Augustine still maintained that the Septuagint
Septuagint
alongside the Hebrew witnessed the inspired text of Scripture and consequently pressed Jerome
Jerome
for complete copies of his Hexaplar Latin
Latin
translation of the Old Testament, a request that Jerome ducked with the excuse that the originals had been lost "through someone's dishonesty".[20] As Jerome
Jerome
completed his translations of each book of the Bible, he recorded his observations and comments in an extensive correspondence with other scholars. These letters were collected and appended as prologues to the Vulgate
Vulgate
text for those books where they survived. In these letters, Jerome
Jerome
described those books or portions of books in the Septuagint
Septuagint
that were not found in the Hebrew as being non-canonical; he called them apocrypha.[21] Jerome's views did not prevail and all complete manuscripts and editions of the Vulgate include some or all of these books. Of the Old Testament
Old Testament
texts not found in the Hebrew, Jerome
Jerome
translated Tobit and Judith anew from the Aramaic, and from the Greek the additions to Esther from the Septuagint
Septuagint
and the additions to Daniel from Theodotion. He refused to translate the additions to Jeremiah and these texts, Baruch and the Letter of Jeremiah, remained excluded from the Vulgate
Vulgate
for 400 years. Other books (Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, 1 and 2 Maccabees
2 Maccabees
and the Prayer of Manasses[22]) are variously found in Vulgate
Vulgate
manuscripts with texts derived from the Old Latin
Latin
sometimes together with Latin
Latin
versions of other texts found neither in the Hebrew Bible
Bible
nor in the Septuagint
Septuagint
( 4 Esdras
4 Esdras
and Laodiceans.) Their style is still markedly distinguishable from Jerome's. In the 9th century the Old Latin
Latin
texts of Baruch and the Letter of Jeremiah were introduced[23] into the Vulgate
Vulgate
in versions revised by Theodulf of Orleans
Theodulf of Orleans
and are found in a minority of early medieval Vulgate
Vulgate
pandect bibles from that date onwards.[24] After 1300, when the booksellers of Paris began to produce commercial single volume Vulgate
Vulgate
bibles in large numbers, these commonly included both Baruch and the Letter of Jeremiah
Letter of Jeremiah
as the Book
Book
of Baruch. Also beginning in the 9th century, Vulgate
Vulgate
manuscripts are found that split Ezra
Ezra
and the Nehemiah into separate books. Bogaert argues that this practice arose from an intention to conform the Vulgate
Vulgate
text to the authoritative canon lists of the 5th/6th century, where 'two books of Ezra' were commonly cited. [25] Critical value[edit] In translating the 39 books of the Hebrew Bible, Jerome
Jerome
was relatively free in rendering their text into Latin, but it is possible to determine that the oldest surviving complete manuscripts of the Masoretic Text, which date from nearly 600 years after Jerome, nevertheless transmit a consonantal Hebrew text very close to that used by Jerome.[26] Jerome
Jerome
translated the books of Judith and Tobit, engaging a Jewish intermediary to render the Aramaic
Aramaic
into oral Hebrew for him then to paraphrase into Latin. The Vulgate
Vulgate
Old Testament
Old Testament
texts that were translated from the Greek, whether by Jerome
Jerome
or preserving revised or unrevised Old Latin
Latin
versions, are early and important secondary witnesses to the Septuagint. Given Jerome's conservative methods and that manuscript evidence from outside Egypt at this early date is very rare, these Vulgate
Vulgate
readings have considerable critical interest. Also valuable from a text-critical perspective is the revised Vulgate
Vulgate
text of the Apocalypse, a book where there is no clear majority text in the surviving Greek witnesses, as both the Old Latin
Latin
base text and its revisions show signs of using early Greek texts. Prologues[edit] In addition to the biblical text Vulgate
Vulgate
editions almost invariably print 17 prologues, 16 of which were written by Jerome. Jerome's prologues were written not so much as prologues than as cover letters to specific individuals to accompany copies of his translations. Because they were not intended for a general audience, some of his comments in them are quite cryptic. These prologues are to the Pentateuch,[27] to Joshua,[28] and to Kings, which is also called the Prologus Galeatus.[29] Following these are prologues to Chronicles,[30] Ezra,[31] Tobias,[32] Judith,[33] Esther,[34] Job,[35] the Gallican Psalms,[36] Song of Songs,[37] Isaiah,[38] Jeremiah,[39] Ezekiel,[40] Daniel,[41] the minor prophets,[42] the gospels,[43] and the final prologue which is to the Pauline epistles
Pauline epistles
and is better known as Primum quaeritur.[44] Related to these are Jerome's Notes on the Rest of Esther[45] and his Prologue to the Hebrew Psalms.[46] In addition to Jerome's prologue to the Gallican version of the Psalms, which is commonly found in Vulgate manuscripts, his prologues also survive for the translations from the Hexaplar Septuagint
Septuagint
of the books of Job, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs and Chronicles. A recurring theme of the Old Testament
Old Testament
prologues is Jerome's preference for the Hebraica veritas (i.e., Hebrew truth) to the Septuagint, a preference which he defended from his detractors. He stated that the Hebrew text more clearly prefigures Christ than the Greek. Among the most remarkable of these prologues is the Prologus Galeatus, in which Jerome
Jerome
described an Old Testament
Old Testament
canon of 22 books, which he found represented in the 22-letter Hebrew alphabet. Alternatively, he numbered the books as 24, which he described as the 24 elders in the Book
Book
of Revelation casting their crowns before the Lamb. These are the two Jewish numberings of the Jewish canon. The 12 minor prophets are counted as one book, 1 and 2 Samuel as one book, 1 and 2 Kings as one book, Ezra
Ezra
and Nehemiah as one book, and 1 and 2 Chronicles as one book, making a total of 24 books. Alternatively, Ruth is counted as part of Judges, and Lamentations as part of Jeremiah, for a total of 22 books. In addition, many medieval Vulgate
Vulgate
manuscripts included Jerome's epistle number 53, to Paulinus bishop of Nola, as a general prologue to the whole Bible. Notably, this letter was printed at the head of the Gutenberg Bible.[47] The regular prologue to the Pauline Epistles in the Vulgate
Vulgate
Primum quaeritur defends the Pauline authorship of the Epistle
Epistle
to the Hebrews, directly contrary to Jerome's own views – a key argument in demonstrating that Jerome
Jerome
did not write it. The author of the Primum quaeritur is unknown; but it is first quoted by Pelagius
Pelagius
in his commentary on the Pauline letters written before 410; and as this work also quotes from the Vulgate
Vulgate
revision of these letters, it has been proposed that Pelagius
Pelagius
or one of his associates may have been responsible for the revision of the Vulgate
Vulgate
New Testament
New Testament
outside the Gospels. At any rate, it is reasonable to identify the author of the preface with the unknown reviser of the New Testament
New Testament
outside the gospels.[10] In addition to Primum quaeritur, many manuscripts contain brief notes to each of the epistles indicating where they were written, with notes about where the recipients dwelt. Adolf von Harnack,[48] citing De Bruyne, argued that these notes were written by Marcion of Sinope
Marcion of Sinope
or one of his followers.[49] Where Vulgate
Vulgate
books lacked a genuine prologue from Jerome, the apparent lack was commonly supplied over time by pseudonymous compositions, many of which are frequently found in medieval Vulgate
Vulgate
manuscripts. Where Vulgate
Vulgate
bibles included the Psalter
Psalter
in the Roman version (rather than Jerome's Hebraic version) this inclusion was occasionally supported by pseudonymous letters between Jerome
Jerome
and Damasus; which subsequently was occasionally attached to Jerome's Gallican Psalter
Psalter
when that supplanted the Hebraic Psalter
Psalter
in the Vulgate
Vulgate
in the 9th century. Many medieval manuscripts also include a pseudonymous prologue from Jerome
Jerome
for the Catholic Epistles, composed to support the interpolated Comma Johanneum
Comma Johanneum
at 1 John 5:7. Relation with the Old Latin
Latin
Bible[edit] Main article: Vetus Latina The Latin
Latin
biblical texts in use before Jerome's Vulgate
Vulgate
are usually referred to collectively as the Vetus Latina, or "Old Latin
Latin
Bible"; where "Old Latin" means that they are older than the Vulgate
Vulgate
and written in Latin, not that they are written in Old Latin. Jerome himself uses the term " Latin
Latin
Vulgate" for the Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
text, so intending to denote this version as the common Latin
Latin
rendering of the Greek Vulgate or Common Septuagint; and this remained the usual use of the term ' Latin
Latin
Vulgate" in the West for centuries. Jerome
Jerome
reserves the term 'Septuagint' to refer to the Hexaplar Septuagint. The earliest known use of the term Vulgata to describe the 'new' Latin translation was made by Roger Bacon
Roger Bacon
in the 13th century.[50] The translations in the Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
had accumulated piecemeal over a century or more; they were not translated by a single person or institution, nor uniformly edited. The individual books varied in quality of translation and style, and different manuscripts and quotations witness wide variations in readings. Some books appear to have been translated several times; the book of Psalms
Psalms
in particular having circulated for over a century in an earlier Latin
Latin
version (the Cyprianic Version), before this was superseded by the Old Latin version in the 4th century. Jerome, in his preface to the Vulgate gospels, commented that there were "as many [translations] as there are manuscripts". The base text for Jerome's revision of the gospels was an Old Latin
Latin
text similar to the Codex Veronensis; with the text of the Gospel
Gospel
of John conforming more to that in the Codex Corbiensis.[51] Damasus had instructed Jerome
Jerome
to be conservative in his revision of the Old Latin
Latin
Gospels, and it is possible to see Jerome's obedience to this injunction in the preservation in the Vulgate
Vulgate
of variant Latin vocabulary for the same Greek terms. Hence, "high priest" is rendered princeps sacerdotum in Vulgate
Vulgate
Matthew; as summus sacerdos in Vulgate Mark; and as pontifex in Vulgate
Vulgate
John. Comparison of Jerome's Gospel texts with those in Old Latin
Latin
witnesses, suggests that his revision was substantially concerned with redacting the expanded phraseology characteristic of the Western text-type, in accordance with early Byzantine and Alexandrian witnesses. One major change introduced by Jerome
Jerome
was to re-order the Latin
Latin
Gospels. Old Latin
Latin
gospel books generally followed the "Western Order" – Matthew, John, Luke, Mark; where Jerome
Jerome
adopted the "Greek Order" – Matthew, Mark, Luke, John. It appears that he followed this order in his programme of work; as his revisions become progressively less frequent and less consistent in the gospels presumably done later.[52] In places Jerome
Jerome
adopted readings that did not correspond to a straightforward rendering either of the Old Latin
Latin
or the Greek text, so reflecting a particular doctrinal interpretation; as in his rewording panem nostrum supersubstantialem at Matthew 6:11.[53] The unknown reviser of the rest of the New Testament
New Testament
shows marked differences from Jerome, both in editorial practice and in his sources. Where Jerome
Jerome
sought to correct the Old Latin
Latin
text with reference to the best recent Greek manuscripts, with a preference for those conforming to the Byzantine text-type, the Greek text underlying the revision of the rest of the New Testament
New Testament
demonstrates the Alexandrian text-type
Alexandrian text-type
found in the great majuscule pandects of the mid 4th century, most similar to the Codex Sinaiticus. The reviser's changes generally conform very closely to this Greek text, even in matters of word order; to the extent that the resulting text may be only barely intelligible as Latin.[13] After the Gospels, the most widely used and copied part of the Christian Bible
Bible
is the Book
Book
of Psalms; and consequently Damasus also commissioned Jerome
Jerome
to revise the psalter in use in Rome, to agree better with the Greek of the Common Septuagint. This, Jerome
Jerome
said, he had done cursorily when in Rome; but later disowned this version, maintaining that copyists had reintroduced erroneous readings. Until the 20th century, it was commonly assumed that the surviving Roman Psalter
Psalter
represented Jerome's revision; but more recent scholarship - following de Bruyne - rejects this identification. The Roman Psalter is indeed one of at least five revised versions of the mid-4th century Old Latin
Latin
Psalter; but, compared to the four others the revisions in the Roman Psalter
Psalter
are in clumsy Latin, and signally fail to follow Jerome's known translational principles, especially in respect of correcting harmonised readings. Nevertheless it is clear from Jerome's correspondence (especially in the long and detailed Epistle
Epistle
106) that he was familiar with the Roman Psalter
Psalter
text; and consequently it is assumed that this revision represents the Roman text as Jerome
Jerome
had found it.[54] Jerome's earliest efforts in translation, his revision of the four Gospels, was dedicated to Damasus; but following Damasus's death Jerome's versions had little or no official recognition. Jerome's translated texts had to make their way on their own merits. The Old Latin
Latin
versions continued to be copied and used alongside the Vulgate versions. Commentators such as Isidore of Seville
Isidore of Seville
and Gregory the Great ( Pope
Pope
from 590 to 604) recognised the superiority of the new version, and promoted it in their works; but the old tended to continue in liturgical use, especially in the Psalter
Psalter
and the biblical Canticles. In the prologue to Moralia in Job, Gregory the Great writes: "I comment on the new translation. But when argumentation is necessary, I use the evidence sometimes of the new translation, sometimes of the old one, since the Apostolic See, over which by God's grace I preside, uses both". This distinction of "new translation" and "old translation" is regularly found in commentators until the 8th century; but it remained uncertain for those books that had not been revised by Jerome
Jerome
(the New Testament
New Testament
outside the Gospels, and certain of the deuterocanonical books), which versions of the text belonged to the "new" translation and which to the "old". The earliest Bible manuscript where all books are included in the versions that would later be recognised as "Vulgate" is the 8th century Codex Amiatinus; but as late as the 12th century, the Vulgate
Vulgate
Codex Gigas
Codex Gigas
retained an Old Latin
Latin
text for the Apocalypse and the Acts of the Apostles. Changes to familiar phrases and expressions aroused hostility in congregations, especially in North Africa and Spain; while scholars often sought to conform Vulgate
Vulgate
texts to Patristic citations from the Old Latin; and consequently many Vulgate
Vulgate
texts became contaminated with Old Latin
Latin
readings, re-introduced by copyists. Spanish biblical traditions, with many Old Latin
Latin
borrowings, were influential in Ireland, while both Irish and Spanish influences are found in Vulgate texts in northern France. In Italy and southern France, by contrast, a much purer Vulgate
Vulgate
text predominated; and this is the version of the Bible
Bible
that became established in England following the mission of Augustine of Canterbury. Influence on Western culture[edit]

A page from the Codex Amiatinus.

For over a thousand years (c. AD 400–1530), the Vulgate
Vulgate
was the definitive edition of the most influential text in Western European society. Indeed, for most Western Christians, it was the only version of the Bible
Bible
ever encountered. The Vulgate's influence throughout the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and the Renaissance
Renaissance
into the Early Modern Period
Early Modern Period
is even greater than that of the King James Version
King James Version
in English; for Christians during these times the phraseology and wording of the Vulgate permeated all areas of the culture. Aside from its use in prayer, liturgy, and private study, the Vulgate served as inspiration for ecclesiastical art and architecture, hymns, countless paintings, and popular mystery plays. The Reformation[edit] While the Genevan Reformed tradition sought to introduce vernacular versions translated from the original languages, it nevertheless retained and extended the use of the Vulgate
Vulgate
in theological debate. In both the published Latin
Latin
sermons of John Calvin, and the Greek New Testament editions of Theodore Beza, the accompanying Latin
Latin
reference text is the Vulgate; and where Protestant churches took their lead from the Genevan example – as in England and Scotland – the result was a broadening appreciation of Jerome's translation in its dignified style and flowing prose. The closest equivalent in English, the King James Version or Authorized Version, shows a marked influence from the Vulgate, especially by comparison with the earlier vernacular version of Tyndale, in respect of Jerome's demonstration of how a technically exact Latinate religious vocabulary may be combined with dignified prose and vigorous poetic rhythms. The Vulgate
Vulgate
continued to be regarded as the standard scholarly Bible throughout most of the 17th Century. Walton's London
London
Polyglot of 1657 disregards the English Language entirely.[55] Walton's reference text throughout is the Vulgate. The Vulgate
Vulgate
Latin
Latin
is also found as the standard text of scripture in Thomas Hobbes
Thomas Hobbes
Leviathan of 1651,[56] indeed Hobbes gives Vulgate
Vulgate
chapter and verse numbers (e.g., Job 41:24, not Job 41:33) for his head text. In Chapter 35, "The Signification in Scripture of Kingdom of God", Hobbes discusses Exodus 19:5, first in his own translation of the "Vulgar Latin", and then subsequently as found in the versions he terms "the English translation made in the beginning of the reign of King James", and "The Geneva
Geneva
French" (i.e. Olivetan). Hobbes advances detailed critical arguments why the Vulgate
Vulgate
rendering is to be preferred. It remained the assumption of Protestant scholars that, while it had been of vital importance to provide the scriptures in the vernacular for ordinary people, nevertheless for those with sufficient education to do so, biblical study was best undertaken within the international common medium of the Latin
Latin
Vulgate. The Council of Trent[edit] The Vulgate
Vulgate
was given an official capacity by the Council of Trent (1545–1563) as the touchstone of the biblical canon concerning which parts of books are canonical.[57] When the council listed the books included in the canon, it qualified the books as being "entire with all their parts, as they have been used to be read in the Catholic Church, and as they are contained in the old Latin
Latin
vulgate edition". The fourth session of the Council specified 72 canonical books in the Bible: 45 in the Old Testament, 27 in the New Testament; Lamentations not being counted as separate from Jeremiah.[58] This decree was clarified somewhat by Pope Pius XI
Pope Pius XI
on June 2, 1927[citation needed], who allowed that the Comma Johanneum
Comma Johanneum
was open to dispute, and it was further explicated by Pope
Pope
Pius XII's encyclical Divino afflante Spiritu. The council cited Sacred Tradition in support of the Vulgate's magisterial authority:

Moreover, this sacred and holy Synod,—considering that no small utility may accrue to the Church of God, if it be made known which out of all the Latin
Latin
editions, now in circulation, of the sacred books, is to be held as authentic,—ordains and declares, that the said old and vulgate edition, which, by the lengthened usage of so many years, has been approved of in the Church, be, in public lectures, disputations, sermons and expositions, held as authentic; and that no one is to dare, or presume to reject it under any pretext whatever.[59]

Translations[edit] Before the publication of Pius XII's Divino afflante Spiritu, the Vulgate
Vulgate
was the source text used for many translations of the Bible into vernacular languages. In English, the interlinear translation of the Lindisfarne Gospels
Gospels
as well as other Old English Bible translations, the translation of John Wycliffe, the Douay–Rheims Bible, the Confraternity Bible, and Ronald Knox's translation were all made from the Vulgate. Influence upon the English language[edit] The Vulgate
Vulgate
had a large influence on the development of the English language, especially in matters of religion. Many Latin
Latin
words were taken from the Vulgate
Vulgate
into English nearly unchanged in meaning or spelling: creatio (e.g. Genesis 1:1, Heb 9:11), salvatio (e.g. Is 37:32, Eph 2:5), justificatio (e.g. Rom 4:25, Heb 9:1), testamentum (e.g. Mt 26:28), sanctificatio (1 Ptr 1:2, 1 Cor 1:30), regeneratio (Mt 19:28), and raptura (from a noun form of the verb rapiemur in 1 Thes 4:17). The word "publican" comes from the Latin
Latin
publicanus (e.g., Mt 10:3), and the phrase "far be it" is a translation of the Latin expression absit (e.g., Mt 16:22 in the King James Bible). Other examples include apostolus, ecclesia, evangelium, Pascha, and angelus. Texts[edit] The Vulgate
Vulgate
exists in many forms. The Codex Amiatinus
Codex Amiatinus
is the oldest surviving complete manuscript from the 8th century. The Gutenberg Bible
Bible
is a notable printed edition of the Vulgate
Vulgate
by Johann Gutenberg in 1455. The 1598 edition of the Clementine Vulgate
Clementine Vulgate
is an official standardized edition of the medieval Vulgate. The Stuttgart Vulgate
Vulgate
is a 1969 critical edition of Jerome's original Vulgate. The Nova Vulgata is a new official translation, completed in 1979, from modern critical editions of original language texts of the Bible
Bible
into Classical Latin. Manuscripts and early editions[edit]

Manuscript
Manuscript
sigla per Biblia Sacra Vulgata

Prov. Contents Custodian Name

A 700 Northumbria Bible Laurentian Library Amiatinus

C 850 Hispania Bible
Bible
ex Cath Monte Cassino Cavensis

D 750 Lugdunum Sam–Kings Municipal Lib. of Lyon

D 750 Northumbria Job Russian National Lib.

D 650 Hibernia Gospels Trinity
Trinity
College, Dublin Durmachensis

F 547 Capua NT Fulda Codex Fuldensis

F 750 Gaul Deut–Ruth National Lib. of France

F 750 Corbie Ps(G&H) Russian National Lib. Corbeiense

G 600 Tours Gen–Num National Lib. of France Turonensis

G 850 Parisii

National Lib. of France Sangermanensis

H 650 Hibernia Psalms Royal Irish Academy Cathach

I 950 Gaul? Psalms Municipal Lib. of Rouen

I 800 Latium Acts Cath Rev Bibl. Vallicelliana of Rome

K 750 Italia Ezra–Job Cathedral Lib. of Cologne

K 850 Augia Psalms State Lib. of Baden Augiense

L 850 Würzburg Deut–Ruth Bodleian Library

L 850 Lugdunum Ezra Municipal Lib. of Lyon

L 600 Italia merid. Tobit–Job Vatican Library Laureshamensis

L 500 Lugdunum Psalms(G) Municipal Lib. of Lyon Lugdunense

L 850 Tours Psalms(H) British Museum

M 750 Corbie

City Lib. of Amiens Maurdramni

* See also List of New Testament
New Testament
Latin
Latin
manuscripts

A number of early manuscripts containing or reflecting the Vulgate survive today. Dating from the 8th century, the Codex Amiatinus
Codex Amiatinus
is the earliest surviving manuscript of the complete Vulgate
Vulgate
Bible. The Codex Fuldensis, dating from around 545, contains most of the New Testament in the Vulgate
Vulgate
version, but the four gospels are harmonized into a continuous narrative derived from the Diatessaron. Over the course of the Middle Ages, the Vulgate
Vulgate
had succumbed to the inevitable changes wrought by human error in the countless copies made of the text in monasteries across Europe. From its earliest days, readings from the Old Latin
Latin
were introduced. Marginal notes were erroneously interpolated into the text.[citation needed] Alcuin
Alcuin
of York oversaw efforts to make an improved Vulgate, which he presented to Charlemagne
Charlemagne
in 801. He concentrated mainly on correcting inconsistencies of grammar and orthography, many of which were in the original text. More scholarly attempts were made by Theodulphus, Bishop of Orléans
Bishop of Orléans
(787?–821); Lanfranc, Archbishop
Archbishop
of Canterbury (1070–1089); Stephen Harding, Abbot
Abbot
of Cîteaux (1109–1134); and Deacon Nicolaus Maniacoria (mid-12th century). The University of Paris, the Dominicans, and the Franciscans
Franciscans
following Roger Bacon assembled lists of correctoria; approved readings where variants had been noted.[60] Many of the readings that were recommended were later found to be interpolations, or survivals of the Old Latin
Latin
text, since medieval correctors commonly sought to adjust the Vulgate
Vulgate
text into consistency with Bible
Bible
quotations found in Early Church Fathers. Though the advent of printing greatly reduced the potential of human error and increased the consistency and uniformity of the text, the earliest editions of the Vulgate
Vulgate
merely reproduced the manuscripts that were readily available to the publishers. Of the hundreds of early editions, the most notable today is Mazarin edition published by Johann Gutenberg
Johann Gutenberg
and Johann Fust
Johann Fust
in 1455, famous for its beauty and antiquity. In 1504 the first Vulgate
Vulgate
with variant readings was published in Paris. One of the texts of the Complutensian Polyglot
Complutensian Polyglot
was an edition of the Vulgate
Vulgate
made from ancient manuscripts and corrected to agree with the Greek. Erasmus
Erasmus
published an edition corrected to agree better with the Greek and Hebrew in 1516. Other corrected editions were published by Xanthus Pagninus in 1518, Cardinal Cajetan, Augustinus Steuchius in 1529, Abbot
Abbot
Isidorus Clarius (Venice, 1542), and others. In 1528, Robertus Stephanus published the first of a series of critical editions, which formed the basis of the later Sistine and Clementine editions. The critical edition of John Hentenius of Louvain followed in 1547.[50] In 1550, Stephanus fled to Geneva
Geneva
where in 1555 he issued his final critical edition of the Vulgate, which was the first complete Bible with full chapter and verse divisions, and which became the standard biblical reference text for late 16th century Reformed theology. Clementine Vulgate[edit]

The Vulgata Sixtina.

The prologue of the gospel of John, Clementine Vulgate, 1922 edition.

The Clementine Vulgate
Clementine Vulgate
(Biblia Sacra Vulgatæ Editionis Sixti Quinti Pontificis Maximi iussu recognita atque edita) is the edition most familiar to Catholics who have lived prior to the liturgical reforms following Vatican II. After the Reformation, when the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
strove to counter the attacks and refute the doctrines of Protestantism, the Vulgate
Vulgate
was reaffirmed in the Council of Trent
Council of Trent
as the sole, authorized Latin
Latin
text of the Bible.[61] Furthermore, the council expressed the wish that this should be 'printed in the most correct manner possible'; although this fell short of a full commission to create a standard text of the Vulgate
Vulgate
out of the countless editions produced during the Renaissance. Nevertheless, pressure built up for the preparations of an authorized Vulgate
Vulgate
text. A committee was formed by Pope Pius IV
Pope Pius IV
in 1561 to undertake the task, but it worked slowly and ineffectively. A second committee was appointed by Pope Pius V
Pope Pius V
in 1569. Pope Sixtus V
Pope Sixtus V
appointed a third committee, who took as their base text the Louvain Vulgate
Vulgate
edition of 1583 (based on the edition of Hentenius), recording variant readings from authoritative manuscripts in the margin. A recommended text was presented in 1589. Sixtus was dissatisfied with the result, judging that it was too far from the familiar printed editions. He had substantial changes made to the text, using the Vulgate
Vulgate
edition of Robertus Stephanus
Robertus Stephanus
corrected to agree with the Greek; and introducing personal changes, including an entirely new system of verse divisions. This revised version was hurried into print; and suffered from misprints in the Old Testament. In addition, three whole verses were found to have been dropped from the Book
Book
of Numbers; Numbers 30:11-13, though it is unclear whether this was an error in printing or a 'wild' editorial choice. The Bible
Bible
appeared in 1590 and is known as Sistine Vulgate. Sixtus immediately issued corrigenda as pasted slips to be inserted into copies. After the Pope's sudden death, Robert Bellarmine warned that the work was an embarrassment, and a great danger to the church.[62] The College of Cardinals
College of Cardinals
stopped all further sales, and bought and destroyed as many copies as possible.[2] The Sistine edition was replaced by Clement VIII (1592–1605) who had ordered Franciscus Toletus, Augustinus Valerius, Fredericus Borromaeus, Robertus Bellarmino, Antonius Agellius, and Petrus Morinus to make corrections and a revision.[63] It is called today the Sixto-Clementine Vulgate, or simply the Clementine, although it is Sixtus' name which appears on the title page. The replacement version reversed many of Sixtus's changes, adopting the verse divisions of the Stephanus editions but otherwise tending to prefer the Louvain text; but this too was rushed in preparation, omitting all Jerome's Prologues. The many misprints of the 1592 first edition were remedied in the second (1593) and a third (1598) editions; which also restored the Prologues.[64] The Clementine differed from the manuscripts on which it was ultimately based in that it grouped the various prefaces of St. Jerome together at the beginning, and it removed 3 and 4 Esdras
4 Esdras
and the Prayer of Manasses
Prayer of Manasses
from the Old Testament
Old Testament
and placed them as Apocrypha into an appendix following the New Testament. As this was intended as a standard text, rather than as a critical text for scholarship, it differed from previous Vulgate
Vulgate
editions in not printing marginal variant readings.The Psalter
Psalter
of the Clementine Vulgate, like that of almost all earlier printed editions, is the Gallicanum, omitting Psalm 151. It follows the Greek numbering of the Psalms, which differs from that in versions translated directly from the Hebrew. The Clementine Vulgate
Clementine Vulgate
of 1598 became the standard Bible
Bible
text of the Roman Rite
Roman Rite
of the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
until 1979, when the Nova Vulgata was promulgated.[65] Roger Gryson, in the preface to 4th edition of the Stuttgart Vulgate (1994), asserts that the Clementine edition "frequently deviates from the manuscript tradition for literary or doctrinal reasons, and offers only a faint reflection of the original Vulgate, as read in the pandecta of the first millennium."[66] By the same token however, the great extent to which the Clementine edition preserves contaminated readings from the medieval period can itself be considered to have critical value; Frans Van Liere states: "for the medieval student interested in the text as it was read, for instance, in thirteenth century Paris, the Sixto- Clementine Vulgate
Clementine Vulgate
might actually be a better representative of the scholastic biblical text that the modern critical editions of the text in its pre-Carolingian form."[67] Later printings[edit] After Clement's 1598 printing of the Vulgate, the Vatican issued no other official printings, leaving the task to other printers. Although the other printers of the Clementine Vulgate
Clementine Vulgate
faithfully reproduced the words of the official edition, they were often quite free in matters of spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and paragraph boundaries. In 1906, Capuchin friar Fr. Michael Hetzenauer produced an edition restoring the original Clementine text while taking into account variations in Clement's three printings as well as correctoria officially issued by the Vatican. The current standard reference edition is that of Alberto Colunga & Laurentio Turrado, published in Madrid in 1946. In 1959, Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos issued a printing of the Colunga-Turrado Clementine Vulgate
Clementine Vulgate
omitting the Apocrypha, but containing excerpts from various magisterial documents and the Piana version of the psalms in addition to the vulgate version.[68] Modern critical editions[edit] The official status of the Clementine Vulgate
Clementine Vulgate
and the mass of manuscript material discouraged the creation of a critical edition of the Vulgate. In 1734 Vallarsi published a corrected edition of the Vulgate. Most other later editions were limited to the New Testament and did not present a full critical apparatus, most notably Karl Lachmann's editions of 1842 and 1850 based primarily on the Codex Amiatinus and Codex Fuldensis,[69] Fleck's edition[70] of 1840, and Constantin von Tischendorf's edition of 1864. In 1906 Eberhard Nestle published Novum Testamentum Latine,[71] which presented the Clementine Vulgate
Vulgate
text with a critical apparatus comparing it to the editions of Sixtus V (1590), Lachman (1842), Tischendorf (1854), and Wordsworth and White (1889), as well as the Codex Amiatinus
Codex Amiatinus
and Codex Fuldensis. To make a text available representative of the earliest copies of the Vulgate
Vulgate
and summarize the most common variants between the various manuscripts, Anglican
Anglican
scholars at the University of Oxford
University of Oxford
began to edit the New Testament
New Testament
in 1878 (completed in 1954), while the Benedictines of Rome
Rome
began an edition of the Old Testament
Old Testament
in 1907 (completed in 1995). Their findings were condensed into an edition of both the Old and New Testaments first published at Stuttgart in 1969, created with the participation of members from both projects. These books are the standard editions of the Vulgate
Vulgate
used by scholars.[72] From the original Oxford
Oxford
Vulgate, the editors of these critical editions adopted two major critical principles; firstly to present the text in sense lines per cola et commata, with no other indications of punctuation; and secondly, to reconstruct the earliest text solely on the authority of primary manuscript witnesses dating from before the 11th century (a few later Bibles are selectively cited in the apparatus, but not used for the texts). Consequently, for the most part, the later medieval development of the Vulgate
Vulgate
text is apparent in these critical editions only in citations of variants printed from the Sistine and Sixto-Clementine editions; albeit that these can only provide two snap-shots of the wide range of variant readings found in medieval texts. Neither in the Old or New Testaments, do the critical editions print conjectural readings (even in instances of manifest error or contamination, such as pietatis for timoris Domini at Isaiah 11:2);" [66] every reading is taken from one or another of the primary witnesses for that book. Wordsworth and White (Oxford) New Testament[edit] As a result of the inaccuracy of existing editions of the Vulgate, the delegates of Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
accepted in 1878 a proposal from classicist John Wordsworth
John Wordsworth
to produce a critical edition of the New Testament.[73][74] This was eventually published as Nouum Testamentum Domini nostri Iesu Christi Latine, secundum editionem sancti Hieronymi in three volumes between 1889 and 1954.[75] Along with Wordsworth and Henry Julian White, the completed work lists on its title pages Alexander Ramsbotham,[76] Hedley Frederick Davis Sparks, Claude Jenkins, and Arthur White Adams. As preliminary work to the full edition, Wordsworth published the text of certain important manuscripts in the series Old- Latin
Latin
Biblical Texts, with the help of William Sanday, White (professor of New Testament studies at King's College, London), and other scholars.[77] Wordsworth was consecrated Bishop of Salisbury
Bishop of Salisbury
in 1885, and White (who became Dean of Christ Church
Dean of Christ Church
College, Oxford
Oxford
in 1920) assumed co-editorship of the edition, which began to be published in fascicles with the Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew in 1889;[78] the first volume, with an extensive epilogue discussing the history of the manuscripts and the text, was completed in 1898.[79] In the gospel volumes, the Oxford editors printed an interlinear text from the Codex Brixianus, believing this to represent the most likely representative of Jerome's Old Latin
Latin
source text; but subsequent studies linking the Codex Brixianus to the Gothic version of the New Testament
New Testament
make this supposition unlikely. Acts, forming the beginning of the third volume, was published in 1905.[80] In 1911, Wordsworth and White produced a smaller editio minor with the complete text of the New Testament
New Testament
and a limited apparatus, but using modern punctuation.[81] In the subsequent publication of main editions of the Epistles to the Corinthians, Galatians, and Ephesians the text of the editio minor was revised slightly; but for the rest of the New Testament
New Testament
the 1911 editio minor text is retained unchanged, publication consisting in the presentation of a full critical apparatus. Wordsworth died in 1911.[82] Even with the death of some of those involved in the project during the First World War, the second volume (containing the Pauline epistles) had been published as far as the Second Epistle to the Corinthians
Second Epistle to the Corinthians
by 1926. In 1933, White enlisted Sparks to assist him in the work, who after White's death in 1934[83] assumed primary responsibility for the edition. After its completion, he served on the editorial board for the Stuttgart edition of the Vulgate, beginning in 1959.[84] The edition, commonly known as Oxford
Oxford
Vulgate, relies primarily on the texts of the Codex Amiatinus, Codex Fuldensis
Codex Fuldensis
(Codex Harleianus in the Gospels), Codex Sangermanensis
Codex Sangermanensis
and Codex Mediolanensis; but also consistently cites readings in the so-called DELQR group of manuscripts, named after the sigla it uses for them: Book
Book
of Armagh (D), Egerton Gospels
Gospels
(E), Lichfield Gospels
Gospels
(L), Book
Book
of Kells (Q), and Rushworth Gospels
Gospels
(R).[85] The only major early Vulgate
Vulgate
New Testament manuscripts not cited are the St Gall Gospels, Codex Sangallensis 1395 (which was not published until 1931); and the Book of Durrow. Benedictine
Benedictine
(Rome) Old Testament[edit] In 1907 Pope
Pope
Pius X
Pius X
commissioned the Benedictine
Benedictine
monks to prepare a critical edition of Jerome's Vulgate, entitled Biblia Sacra iuxta latinam vulgatam versionem.[86] This text was originally planned as the basis of a revised complete official Bible
Bible
for the Roman Catholic church to replace the Clementine edition, in the spirit of the ressourcement of the early twentieth century.[87] The first volume, the Pentateuch
Pentateuch
completed in 1926, lists as primary editor Henri Quentin, whose editorial methods, described in his book Mémoire sur l'établissement du texte de la Vulgate,[88] proved to be somewhat controversial.[89][90] Quentin maintained that, by the 10th century, three distinct textual traditions had become established for the Vulgate
Vulgate
Pentateuch; the Alcuinan, the Spanish, and the Theodulfian; and that early precursors could be identified respectively for each tradition in the Codex Amiatinus, the Codex Turonensis (the Ashburnham Pentateuch), and the Ottobonianus Octateuch. He took these three manuscript witnesses as primary sources, and claimed to have decided the text by the règle de fer of always adopting the reading supported two-to-one in his three primary sources. The resulting text was highly regarded, but neither Quentin's method nor his underlying theory, carried scholarly conviction; all of his three primary sources being more generally considered to witness an early Italian text. After Henri Quentin's death in 1935, the Roman Vulgate's editors, for the Old Testament
Old Testament
books from I Samuel onwards, modified their underlying textual theory and methods towards those of the Oxford editors; explicitly looking to establish for each book the best two or three primary sources from the Italian Vulgate
Vulgate
tradition, and then deciding readings between them using secondary sources. For much of rest of the Old Testament
Old Testament
the chosen primary sources were the Codex Amiatinus and Codex Cavensis; although for the Book
Book
of Baruch, their only source was from the bibles of Theodulf of Orleans. As neither Amiatinus nor Cavensis presented the Gallican psalter, the selected primary sources for the Book
Book
of Psalms
Psalms
were three of a series of 8th-10th century psalters which presented both Jerome's Gallican and Hebraic translations in parallel columns. Following the Codex Amiatinus
Codex Amiatinus
and the Vulgate
Vulgate
texts of Alcuin
Alcuin
and Theodulf the Roman Vulgate
Vulgate
reunited the Book
Book
of Ezra
Ezra
and the Book
Book
of Nehemiah into a single book; reversing the decisions of the Sixto-Clementine Vulgate. In 1933, Pope Pius XI
Pope Pius XI
established the Pontifical Abbey of St Jerome-in-the-City to complete the work. By the 1970s, as a result of liturgical changes that had spurred the Vatican to produce a new translation of the Latin
Latin
Bible, the Nova Vulgata, the Benedictine edition was no longer required for official purposes,[91] and the abbey was suppressed in 1984.[92] Five monks were nonetheless allowed to complete the final two volumes of the Old Testament, which were published under the abbey's name in 1987 and 1995.[93] The Oxford editors having already published a full critical text of the Vulgate New Testament, no attempt was made to duplicate their work. Weber-Gryson (Stuttgart) edition[edit]

Edition sigla of the Biblia Sacra Vulgata

* Dates Contents Editor Location

𝔟 1951–1954 Genesis Bonifatius Fischer Freiburg

𝔟 1977–1985 Wisdom; Cath Walter Thiele Freiburg

𝔟 1962–1991 Paul; Hebrews HJ Frede Freiburg

𝔟 1895 4 Esdras Robert Lubbock Bensly Cambridge

𝔠 1592–1598 Bible Pope
Pope
Clement VIII Rome

𝔡 1932 Maccabees Donatien de Bruyne Maredsous

𝔥 1922 Psalms JM Harden London

𝔥 1931 Laodiceans Adolf von Harnack Berlin

𝔯 1926–1995 Old Testament Benedictines of Jerome Rome

𝔰 1954 Psalms Henri de Sainte-Marie Rome

𝔬 1889–1954 New Testament Wordsworth & White Oxford

𝔳 1910 4 Esdras B Violet Leipzig

𝔴 1911 1 Cor–Eph Henry Julian White Oxford

Based on the editions of Oxford
Oxford
and Rome, but with independent examination of manuscript evidence, the Württembergische Bibelanstalt, later the Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft
Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft
(German Bible Society), based in Stuttgart, first published a critical edition of the complete Vulgate
Vulgate
in 1969. The work has since continued to be updated, with a fifth edition appearing in 2007.[22] The project was originally directed by Robert Weber (a monk of the same Benedictine abbey responsible for the Rome
Rome
edition), with collaborators Bonifatius Fischer, Jean Gribomont, Hedley Frederick Davis Sparks (also responsible for the completion of the Oxford
Oxford
edition), and Walter Thiele. Roger Gryson has been responsible for the most recent editions. It is thus marketed by its publisher as the "Weber-Gryson" edition, but is also frequently referred to as the Stuttgart edition.[94]

Concordance to the Vulgate
Vulgate
Bible

This edition, alternatively titled Biblia Sacra Vulgata or Biblia Sacra iuxta vulgatam versionem, is a "manual edition" in that it reduces much of the information in the large multivolume critical editions of Oxford
Oxford
and Rome
Rome
into a handheld format, identifying the primary manuscript witnesses used by those editors to establish their texts (with some adjustments); and providing variant readings from the more significant early Vulgate
Vulgate
manuscripts and printed editions. The first editions were published as two volumes, but the fourth (1994) and fifth (2007) editions were published as a single volume with smaller pages. The text reproduces and updates those of the Rome edition and the Oxford
Oxford
Edition for the Old Testament, Gospels, Acts and the earlier Pauline epistles; with changes mainly limited to standardisation of orthography. In the later New Testament
New Testament
books (those where the Oxford
Oxford
editors had retained the text of the 1911 editio minor), there are a greater number of critical changes. The text has not been modified substantially since the third edition of 1983, but the apparatus has been rewritten for many books in more recent editions, based for example on new findings concerning the Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
from the work of the Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
Institute, Beuron. Like the editions of Oxford
Oxford
and Rome, it attempts, through critical comparison of the most significant historical manuscripts of the Vulgate, to recreate an early text, cleansed of the scribal errors and scholarly contaminations of a millennium. Thus it does not always represent what might have been read in the later Middle Ages. An important feature of the Weber-Gryson edition for those studying the Vulgate
Vulgate
is its inclusion of Jerome's prologues, typically included in medieval copies of the Vulgate. It also includes the Eusebian Canons. It does not, however, provide any of the other prefatory material often found in medieval Bible
Bible
manuscripts, such as chapter headings, some of which are included in the large editions of Oxford and Rome. In its spelling, it retains medieval Latin
Latin
orthography, sometimes using oe rather than ae, and having more proper nouns beginning with H (e.g., Helimelech instead of Elimelech). Unlike the edition of Rome, it standardizes the spelling of proper names rather than attempting to reproduce the idiosyncrasies of each passage. It also follows the medieval manuscripts in using line breaks, rather than the modern system of punctuation marks, to indicate the structure of each verse, following the practice of the Oxford
Oxford
and Rome
Rome
editions, though it initially presents an unfamiliar appearance to readers accustomed to the Clementine text. It contains two Psalters, both the traditional Gallicanum and the juxta Hebraicum, which are printed on facing pages to allow easy comparison and contrast between the two versions. It has an expanded Apocrypha, containing Psalm 151
Psalm 151
and the Epistle to the Laodiceans
Epistle to the Laodiceans
in addition to 3 and 4 Esdras
4 Esdras
and the Prayer of Manasses. In addition, its modern prefaces (in Latin, German, French, and English) are a source of valuable information about the history of the Vulgate. This edition's early popularity can in part be attributed to a concordance based on the second edition of the book by Bonifatius Fischer, which was a key reference tool before the availability of personal computers.[95] More recently, it has become the text of the Vulgate
Vulgate
most commonly disseminated on the Internet. This electronic version, however, is commonly mutilated, lacking all formatting, notes, prefaces and apparatus, and often lacking the Gallican Psalter and Apocrypha. Moreover, the protocanonical part of Daniel following chapter 3 is commonly missing. Because all line breaks have been removed from most online editions, this effectively removes all punctuation. Corrected digital versions of the text that additionally include the text's apparatus are available for purchase.[96] A translation of the text into German is currently in preparation, with a planned publication date of 2018.[97] Nova Vulgata[edit] The Nova Vulgata (Nova Vulgata Bibliorum Sacrorum Editio), also called the Neo-Vulgate, is the official Latin
Latin
edition of the Bible
Bible
published by the Holy See
Holy See
for use in the contemporary Roman rite. It is not a critical edition of the historical Vulgate, but a revision of the text intended to accord with modern critical Hebrew and Greek texts and produce a style closer to Classical Latin.[98] Consequently, it introduces many readings that are not supported in any ancient Vulgate manuscript; but which provide a more accurate translation from the original languages texts into Latin. The Second Vatican Council
Second Vatican Council
in Sacrosanctum Concilium
Sacrosanctum Concilium
mandated a revision of the Latin
Latin
Psalter
Psalter
in accord with modern textual and linguistic studies, while preserving or refining its Christian Latin style. In 1965 Pope Paul VI
Pope Paul VI
appointed a commission to revise the rest of the Vulgate
Vulgate
following the same principles. The Commission published its work in eight annotated sections, inviting criticism from Catholic scholars as the sections were published. The Latin
Latin
Psalter
Psalter
was published in 1969; the New Testament
New Testament
was completed by 1971 and the entire Nova Vulgata was published as a single volume edition for the first time in 1979.[99] The foundational text of most of the Old Testament
Old Testament
is the critical edition done by the monks of the Benedictine
Benedictine
Abbey of St. Jerome
Jerome
under Pope
Pope
Pius X.[99] The foundational text of the books of Tobit and Judith are from manuscripts of the Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
rather than the Vulgate. The New Testament
New Testament
was based on the 1969 edition of the Stuttgart Vulgate, and hence on the Oxford
Oxford
Vulgate. All of these base texts were revised to accord with the modern critical editions in Greek, Hebrew, and Aramaic.[100] There are also a number of changes where the modern scholars felt that Jerome
Jerome
had failed to grasp the meaning of the original languages, or had rendered it obscurely.[101] The Nova Vulgata does not contain some books found in the earlier editions but omitted by the canon promulgated by the Council of Trent, namely the Prayer of Manasses, the 3rd and 4th Book
Book
of Esdras (sometimes known by different names: see naming conventions of Esdras) and the Epistle
Epistle
to the Laodiceans. In 1979, after decades of preparation, the Nova Vulgata was published and promulgated as the Catholic Church's current official Latin version in the Apostolic constitution
Apostolic constitution
Scripturarum Thesaurus[91] promulgated by the Pope
Pope
John Paul II. The Nova Vulgata is the translation used in the latest editions of the Roman Lectionary, Liturgy
Liturgy
of the Hours, and Roman Ritual. A second edition was published in 1986; this second edition added a Preface to the reader,[101] an Introduction[102] to the principles used in producing the Nova Vulgata as well as an appendix[103] containing 3 historical documents from the Council of Trent
Council of Trent
and the Clementine Vulgate. In addition, the second edition included the footnotes to the Latin
Latin
text found in the 8 annotated sections published before 1979; it also replaced the few occurrences of the form Iahveh, when translating the Tetragrammaton, with Dominus, in keeping with an ancient tradition. The Nova Vulgata has been criticized by those who see it as being in some verses of the Old Testament
Old Testament
a new translation rather than a revision of Jerome's work. Also, some of its readings sound unfamiliar to those who are accustomed to the Clementine. Traditional Catholics object against the Nova Vulgata because in their view it lacks Latin manuscript support and breaks with the historic worship tradition of the Church.[104] In 2001, the Vatican released the instruction Liturgiam Authenticam,[105] establishing the Nova Vulgata as a point of reference for all translations of the liturgy of the Roman rite
Roman rite
into the vernacular from the original languages, "in order to maintain the tradition of interpretation that is proper to the Latin
Latin
Liturgy". Novum Testamentum Latine[edit] In 1984 and 1992 Kurt and Barbara Aland updated and entirely revised Nestle's Latin
Latin
New Testament
New Testament
of 1906 and republished it under the same name, Novum Testamentum Latine.[106] The text is a reprint of the New Testament of the Nova Vulgata to which has been added a critical apparatus giving the variant readings of earlier printed editions: the Stuttgart edition, the Gutenberg Bible
Bible
(1452), the Latin
Latin
text of the Complutensian Polyglot
Complutensian Polyglot
(1514), the edition from Wittenberg
Wittenberg
favoured by Luther (1529), and those of Desiderius Erasmus
Erasmus
(1527), Robertus Stephanus (1540), Hentenius of Louvain (1547), Christophorus Plantinus (1583), Pope Sixtus V
Pope Sixtus V
(1590), Pope Clement VIII
Pope Clement VIII
(1592), and Wordsworth and White (1911, 1954). The text has been formatted to fit with the Novum Testamentum Graece, and is available as a volume containing both texts.[107] Electronic versions[edit] The title "Vulgate" is currently applied to three distinct online texts which can be found from various sources on the Internet. Which text is used can be ascertained from the spelling of Eve's name in Genesis 3:20.

Heva: the Clementine Vulgate Hava: the Stuttgart edition of the Vulgate; this text is the one most widely distributed on the internet Eva: the Nova Vulgata

Contents[edit] By the end of the 4th century the New Testament
New Testament
had been established in both Greek and Latin
Latin
Bibles as containing the 27 books familiar to this day; and these are the books found in all Vulgate
Vulgate
New Testaments. Over 100 late antique and medieval Vulgate
Vulgate
texts also include the concocted Epistle to the Laodiceans
Epistle to the Laodiceans
(accepted as a genuine letter of Paul by many Latin
Latin
commentators), although often with a note to the effect that it was not counted as canonical. The Vulgate
Vulgate
Old Testament
Old Testament
from the first comprised the 39 books (as counted in Christian tradition) of the Hebrew Bible, but always also including books from the Septuagint
Septuagint
tradition, which by this date had ceased to be used by Jews, but which was copied in Greek Bibles as their Old Testament. Modern critical editions of the Septuagint
Septuagint
take their texts from the Old Testament
Old Testament
found in the great 4th/5th century pandect bibles: Codex Vaticanus, Codex Sinaiticus, and Codex Alexandrinus; but no two of these present exactly the same canon of Old Testament
Old Testament
books. Similarly, Vulgate
Vulgate
Old Testaments continued to vary in their content throughout the Middle Ages, and this was not considered problematic until Protestant Reformers questioned the canonical status of books outside the Hebrew canon. Although Jerome
Jerome
preferred the books of the Hebrew Bible, he deferred to church authority in accepting as scripture not only the Greek additions to Esther and Daniel, but also an extra five[six?] "apocryphal" books in Judith, Tobit, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus
Ecclesiasticus
and the two books of Maccabees, which in his listing of the Old Testament
Old Testament
in the prologus galeatus he placed after the Hebrew canon. But, as Jerome explained in the prologue to Jeremiah, he continued to exclude altogether the Book
Book
of Baruch (and with it the letter of Jeremiah); and indeed these two books are not found in the Vulgate
Vulgate
before the 9th century, and only in a minority of manuscripts before the 13th century. The 71 biblical books as listed by Jerome, although not in his order, formed the standard text of the Vulgate
Vulgate
as it became established in Italy in the 5th and 6th centuries. No Italian manuscript of the whole Vulgate
Vulgate
Bible
Bible
survives, and such pandect Bibles were always rare in this period; but the Codex Amiatinus written in Northumbria
Northumbria
from Italian exemplars around 700 and intended to be presented to the Pope, represents the complete Bible
Bible
according to the Italian Vulgate
Vulgate
tradition. It contains the standard 71 books, with the Psalms
Psalms
according to Jerome's translation from the Hebrew, except for Psalm 151
Psalm 151
which is translated from the Greek. The early Vulgate
Vulgate
text in Spain tended to vary much further from Jerome's original, specifically in the retention of many Old Latin readings, in the expansion of the text of the Book
Book
of Proverbs, and in the incorporation into the first epistle of John of the Comma Johanneum. Spanish Bibles, on occasion, also included additional apocryphal texts, including the Book
Book
of Baruch, the Letter of Jeremiah, 3 Esdras
3 Esdras
and 4 Esdras. Spanish, Italian and Irish Vulgate traditions were all reflected in Bibles created in northern France, which by the end of the 8th century featured a wide variety of highly variable texts. Under prompting from the emperor Charlemagne, several scholars attempted in the 9th century to reform the French Vulgate. The English scholar Alcuin
Alcuin
produced a text substantially based on Italian exemplars (although also including the Comma Johanneum), but with the major change of substituting Jerome's Gallican version of the psalms for his third version from the Hebrew that had previously predominated in Bible
Bible
texts. In the 50 years after Alcuin's death, the abbey of Tours
Tours
reproduced his text in standardised pandect Bibles, of which over 40 survive. Alcuin's contemporary Theodulf of Orleans produced a second independent reformed recension of the Vulgate, also based largely on Italian exemplars, but with variant readings, from Spanish texts and patristic citations, indicated in the margin. Theodulf kept Jerome's Hebraic version of the Psalms, and also incorporated the Book
Book
of Baruch and the Letter of Jeremiah
Letter of Jeremiah
within the book of Jeremiah. However, otherwise Theodulf adopted Jerome's proposed order of the Old Testament, with the five books from the Septuagint
Septuagint
at the end. Theodulf's text was widely influential. A Vulgate
Vulgate
revision was also undertaken in the early 9th century by scholars in the Abbey of Corbie, and Bibles from this abbey are the first in France to include the books of 3 Esdras
3 Esdras
and 4 Esdras, though this practice remained rare. Although a large number of Bible
Bible
manuscripts resulted from all this work, no standard Vulgate
Vulgate
text was established for another three centuries. Marsden points out, in discussing how the Gallican version of the Psalter
Psalter
came to become established as the text of the psalms in the Vulgate
Vulgate
Bible: "Its dominant position was in fact not assured before the early 13th century, and even then was not universal". However, the explosive growth of medieval universities, especially the University of Paris
University of Paris
during the 12th century, created a demand for a new sort of Vulgate. University scholars needed the entire Bible
Bible
in a single, portable and comprehensive volume; which they could rely on to include all biblical texts which they might encounter in partristic references. The result was the Paris Bible, which reached its final form around 1230. Its text owed most to Alcuin's revision, and always presented the psalms in the Gallican version; but readings throughout were in many places adjusted to be more consistent with patristic citations (which would very frequently have been based on Old Latin
Latin
or Greek texts). The book of Baruch and Letter of Jeremiah
Letter of Jeremiah
were now always included, as too were 3 Esdras, and usually (appended to the book of Chronicles) the Prayer of Manasses. Less commonly included was 4 Esdras. The early printings of the Latin
Latin
Bible
Bible
took examples of the Paris Bible
Bible
as their base text, culminating in the successive critical Vulgate
Vulgate
editions of Robert Estienne
Robert Estienne
(Stephanus). Estienne's Geneva Vulgate
Vulgate
of 1555, the first Bible
Bible
to be subdivided throughout into chapters and verses, remained the standard Latin
Latin
Bible
Bible
for Reformed Protestantism; and established the content of the Vulgate
Vulgate
as 76 books: 27 New Testament, 39 Hebrew Bible, plus Tobit, Judith, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, 1 and 2 Maccabees, 3 Esdras, 4 Esdras
4 Esdras
and the Prayer of Manasses. At the Council of Trent
Council of Trent
it was agreed that seven of these books (all except 3 Esdras, 4 Esdras
4 Esdras
and the Prayer of Manasses) should be considered inspired scripture; and the term "deuterocanonical", first applied by Sixtus of Siena, was adopted to categorise them. The Council also requested that the Pope
Pope
should undertake the production of definitive editions of the Latin, Greek and Hebrew scriptures conforming to their definition of the biblical canon; and this resulted, after several false starts, in the publication of the Clementine Vulgate
Clementine Vulgate
of 1592. This incorporates the books of Trent's Deuterocanon in the main Bible
Bible
text; but also introduces, following the New Testament, a section of Apocrypha, containing the Prayer of Manasses, 3 Esdras
3 Esdras
and 4 Esdras, of which only the first two are found in the Septuagint. See also[edit]

Related articles

Bible
Bible
translations into Latin Biblia Pauperum Books of the Latin
Latin
Vulgate Gutenberg Bible Jerome Poor Man's Bible Ferdinand Cavallera The Philobiblon

Some manuscripts

List of New Testament
New Testament
Latin
Latin
manuscripts Codex Sangallensis 1395 Codex Amiatinus Codex Complutensis I Codex Fuldensis Codex Gigas

References[edit]

^ On the etymology of the noun (originally an adjective) vulgata ^ a b Bruce M. Metzger, The Early Versions of the New Testament, Clarendon Press, Oxford
Oxford
1977, p. 348. ^ Plater, William Edward; Henry Julian White
Henry Julian White
(1926). A grammar of the Vulgate, being an introduction to the study of the latinity of the Vulgate
Vulgate
Bible. Oxford: Clarendon Press.  ^ Chapman, John (1922). "St Jerome
Jerome
and the Vulgate
Vulgate
New Testament (I–II)". The Journal of Theological Studies. o.s. 24 (93): 33–51. doi:10.1093/jts/os-XXIV.93.33. ISSN 0022-5185.  Chapman, John (1923). "St Jerome
Jerome
and the Vulgate
Vulgate
New Testament
New Testament
(III)". The Journal of Theological Studies. o.s. 24 (95): 282–299. doi:10.1093/jts/os-XXIV.95.282. ISSN 0022-5185.  ^ York, Harry Clinton (1910). "The Latin
Latin
Versions of First Esdras". The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures. 26 (4): 253–302. doi:10.1086/369651. JSTOR 527826.  ^ Bogaert, Pierre-Maurice (2005). "Le livre de Baruch dans les manuscrits de la Bible
Bible
latine. Disparition et réintégration". Revue Benedictine. 115: 286–342.  ^ Goins, Scott (2014). "Jerome's Psalters". In Brown, William P. Oxford
Oxford
Handbook to the Psalms. Oxford
Oxford
University Press. p. 188.  ^ Scherbenske, Eric W. (2013). Canonizing Paul: Ancient Editorial Practice and the Corpus Paulinum. Oxford
Oxford
University Press. p. 182.  ^ Houghton, H. A. G. (2016). The Latin
Latin
New Testament; a Guide to its Early History, Texts and Manuscripts. Oxford
Oxford
University Press. p. 31.  ^ a b Scherbenske, Eric W. (2013). Canonizing Paul: Ancient Editorial Practice and the Corpus Paulinum. Oxford
Oxford
University Press. p. 183.  ^ Houghton, H. A. G. (2016). The Latin
Latin
New Testament; a Guide to its Early History, Texts and Manuscripts. Oxford
Oxford
University Press. p. 36.  ^ Scherbenske, Eric W. (2013). Canonizing Paul: Ancient Editorial Practice and the Corpus Paulinum. Oxford
Oxford
University Press. p. 184.  ^ a b Houghton, H. A. G. (2016). The Latin
Latin
New Testament; a Guide to its Early History, Texts and Manuscripts. Oxford
Oxford
University Press. p. 41.  ^ Bogaert, Pierre-Maurice (2000). "Les livres d'Esdras et leur numérotation dans l'histoire du canon de la Bible
Bible
latin". Revue Benedictine. 1o5: 5–26.  ^ Worth Jr, Roland H. Bible
Bible
Translations: A History Through Source Documents. pp. 29–30.  ^ Some, following P. Nautin (1986) and perhaps E. Burstein (1971), suggest that Jerome
Jerome
may have been almost wholly dependent on Greek material for his interpretation of the Hebrew. A. Kamesar (1993), on the other hand, sees evidence that in some cases Jerome's knowledge of Hebrew exceeds that of his exegetes, implying a direct understanding of the Hebrew text. ^ Pierre Nautin, article "Hieronymus", in: Theologische Realenzyklopädie, Vol. 15, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin
Berlin
– New York 1986, p. 304-315, here p. 309-310. ^ Adam Kamesar. Jerome, Greek Scholarship, and the Hebrew Bible: A Study of the Quaestiones Hebraicae in Genesim. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1993. ISBN 9780198147275. page 97. This work cites E. Burstein, La compétence en hébreu de saint Jérôme (Diss.), Poitiers 1971. ^ City of God edited and abridged by Vernon J. Bourke 1958 ^ "CHURCH FATHERS: Letter 172 (Augustine) or 134 (Jerome)". www.newadvent.org. Retrieved 26 June 2017.  ^ "The Bible". www.thelatinlibrary.com. Retrieved 26 June 2017.  ^ a b Biblia Sacra iuxta vulgatam versionem. Robert Weber, Roger Gryson (eds.) (5 ed.). Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft. 2007. ISBN 978-3-438-05303-9.  ^ Biblia Sacra iuxta vulgatam versionem. Robert Weber, Roger Gryson (eds.) (4 ed.). Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft. 1994. pp. XXXIV. ISBN 978-3-438-05303-9.  ^ Bogaert, Pierre-Maurice (2005). "Le livre de Baruch dans les manuscrits de la Bible
Bible
latine. Disparition et réintégration". Revue Benedictine. 115: 286–342.  ^ Bogaert, Pierre-Maurice (2000). "Les livres d'Esdras et leur numérotation dans l'histoire du canon de la Bible
Bible
latin". Revue Benedictine. 110: 5–26.  ^ Kenyon, Frederic G. (1939). Our Bible
Bible
and the Ancient Manuscripts (4th ed.). London. p. 81. Retrieved 2011-01-06.  ^ "Jerome's Prologue to Genesis – biblicalia". www.bombaxo.com. Retrieved 26 June 2017.  ^ "Jerome's Prologue to Joshua – biblicalia". www.bombaxo.com. Retrieved 26 June 2017.  ^ "Jerome's "Helmeted Introduction" to Kings – biblicalia". www.bombaxo.com. Retrieved 26 June 2017.  ^ "Jerome's Prologue to Chronicles – biblicalia". www.bombaxo.com. Retrieved 26 June 2017.  ^ "Jerome's Prologue to Ezra
Ezra
– biblicalia". www.bombaxo.com. Retrieved 26 June 2017.  ^ "Jerome's Prologue to Tobias – biblicalia". www.bombaxo.com. Retrieved 26 June 2017.  ^ "Jerome's Prologue to Judith – biblicalia". www.bombaxo.com. Retrieved 26 June 2017.  ^ "Jerome's Prologue to Esther – biblicalia". www.bombaxo.com. Retrieved 26 June 2017.  ^ "Jerome's Prologue to Job – biblicalia". www.bombaxo.com. Retrieved 26 June 2017.  ^ "Jerome's Prologue to Psalms
Psalms
(LXX) – biblicalia". www.bombaxo.com. Retrieved 26 June 2017.  ^ "Jerome's Prologue to the Books of Solomon – biblicalia". www.bombaxo.com. Retrieved 26 June 2017.  ^ "Jerome's Prologue to Isaiah – biblicalia". www.bombaxo.com. Retrieved 26 June 2017.  ^ "Jerome's Prologue to Jeremiah – biblicalia". www.bombaxo.com. Retrieved 26 June 2017.  ^ "Jerome's Prologue to Ezekiel – biblicalia". www.bombaxo.com. Retrieved 26 June 2017.  ^ "Jerome's Prologue to Daniel – biblicalia". www.bombaxo.com. Retrieved 26 June 2017.  ^ "Jerome's Prologue to the Twelve Prophets – biblicalia". www.bombaxo.com. Retrieved 26 June 2017.  ^ "Jerome's Prologue to the Gospels
Gospels
– biblicalia". www.bombaxo.com. Retrieved 26 June 2017.  ^ " Vulgate
Vulgate
Prologue to Paul's Letters – biblicalia". www.bombaxo.com. Retrieved 26 June 2017.  ^ "Jerome's Notes to the Additions to Esther – biblicalia". www.bombaxo.com. Retrieved 26 June 2017.  ^ "Jerome's Prologue to Psalms
Psalms
(Hebrew) – biblicalia". www.bombaxo.com. Retrieved 26 June 2017.  ^ "NPNF2-06. Jerome: The Principal Works of St. Jerome
Jerome
- Christian Classics Ethereal Library". www.ccel.org. Retrieved 26 June 2017.  ^ Origin of the New Testament, Adolf von Harnack, 1914 ^ Harnack noted: "We have indeed long known that Marcionite
Marcionite
readings found their way into the ecclesiastical text of the Pauline epistles, but now for seven years we have known that Churches actually accepted the Marcionite
Marcionite
prefaces to the Pauline epistles! De Bruyne has made one of the finest discoveries of later days in proving that those prefaces, which we read first in Codex Fuldensis
Codex Fuldensis
and then in numbers of later manuscripts, are Marcionite, and that the Churches had not noticed the cloven hoof." Origin of the New Testament, pp76sqq ^ a b Article, International Standard Bible
Bible
Encyclopedia, 1915 ^ Buron, Philip (2014). The text of the New Testament
New Testament
in Contemporary Research; 2nd edn. Brill. p. 182.  ^ Houghton, H. A. G. (2016). The Latin
Latin
New Testament; a Guide to its Early History, Texts and Manuscripts. Oxford
Oxford
University Press. p. 34.  ^ Houghton, H. A. G. (2016). The Latin
Latin
New Testament; a Guide to its Early History, Texts and Manuscripts. Oxford
Oxford
University Press. p. 33.  ^ Norris, Oliver (2017). "Tracing Fortunatianus's Psalter". In Dorfbauer, Lukas J. Fortunatianus ridivivus. CSEL. p. 285.  ^ Daniell, David (2003). The Bible
Bible
in English: its history and influence. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 510. ISBN 0-300-09930-4.  ^ (Daniell, 2003 & p. 478) ^ Sutcliffe, Edmund F. (1948). "The Council of Trent
Council of Trent
on the authentia of the Vulgate". The Journal of Theological Studies. o.s. 49 (193-194): 35–42. doi:10.1093/jts/os-XLIX.193-194.35. ISSN 0022-5185.  ^ Fourth Session, April 8 1546. ^ Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent, The Fourth Session, 1546 ^ Linde, Cornelia (2011). How to correct the Sacra scriptura? Textual criticism of the Latin
Latin
Bible
Bible
between the twelfth and fifteenth century. Medium Ævum Monographs 29. Oxford: Society for the Study of Medieval Languages and Literature. ISBN 9780907570226.  ^ Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent, Fourth Session, April 8 1546. ^ Bellarmino, Roberto Francesco Romolo (1989). Spiritual Writings. Paulist Press. p. 15. ISBN 0-8091-0389-3-.  ^ Illustrations of Biblical Literature, vol. II, Rev. James Townley, 1856 ^ Bruce M. Metzger, The Early Versions of the New Testament, Clarendon Press, Oxford
Oxford
1977, p. 349. ^ "Liturgiam authenticam". www.vatican.va. Retrieved 26 June 2017.  ^ a b Biblia Sacra iuxta vulgatam versionem. Robert Weber, Roger Gryson (eds.) (4 ed.). Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft. 1994. pp. XXXVII. ISBN 978-3-438-05303-9.  ^ Van Liere, Frans (2012). "The Lain Bible, c 900 to the Council of Trent 1546" in "The New Cambridge
Cambridge
History of the Bible, Vol II. Cambridge: Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press.  ^ Colunga, Alberto and Lorenzo Turrado (eds.) (2011). Biblia Sacra iuxta Vulgatam Clementinam. Biblioteca de autores cristianos 14 (13 ed.). Madrid: Biblioteca de autores cristianos. ISBN 978-84-7914-021-2. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Lachmann, Karl (1842–50). Novum Testamentum graece et latine. Berlin: Reimer.  (Google Books: Volume 1, Volume 2) ^ "Novum Testamentum Vulgatae editionis juxta textum Clementis VIII.: Romanum ex Typogr. Apost. Vatic. A.1592. accurate expressum. Cum variantibus in margine lectionibus antiquissimi et praestantissimi codicis olim monasterii Montis Amiatae in Etruria, nunc bibliothecae Florentinae Laurentianae Mediceae saec. VI. p. Chr. scripti. Praemissa est commentatio de codice Amiatino et versione latina vulgata". Sumtibus et Typis C. Tauchnitii. 26 June 2017. Retrieved 26 June 2017 – via Google Books.  ^ Nestle, Eberhard (1906). Novum Testamentum Latine: textum Vaticanum cum apparatu critico ex editionibus et libris manu scriptis collecto imprimendum. Stuttgart: Württembergische Bibelanstalt.  ^ Kilpatrick, G. D. (1978). "The Itala". The Classical Review. n.s. 28 (1): 56–58. doi:10.1017/s0009840x00225523. JSTOR 3062542.  ^ Wordsworth, John (1883). The Oxford
Oxford
critical edition of the Vulgate New Testament. Oxford. p. 4.  ^ Watson, E.W. (1915). Life of Bishop John Wordsworth. London: Longmans, Green.  ^ Nouum Testamentum Domini nostri Iesu Christi Latine, secundum editionem sancti Hieronymi. John Wordsworth, Henry Julian White (eds.). Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1889–1954.  3 vols. ^ Sparks, Hedley F.D. (1935). "The Rev. A. Ramsbotham and the Oxford Vulgate". The Journal of Theological Studies. o.s. 36 (144): 391–391. doi:10.1093/jts/os-XXXVI.144.391. ISSN 0022-5185.  ^ Watson, E.W. (2004). "Wordsworth, John". In H.C.G. Matthew, B. Harrison (eds.). The Oxford
Oxford
Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford
Oxford
University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/37025. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ^ Abbott, T.K. (1889). "Bishop Wordsworth's Edition of the Vulgate". The Classical Review. 3 (10): 452–454. doi:10.1017/S0009840X00196192. JSTOR 692429.  Abbott, T.K. (1890). "The new edition of the Vulgate". Hermathena. 7 (16): 330–335. JSTOR 23036406.  ^ Nouum Testamentum Domini nostri Iesu Christi Latine, secundum editionem sancti Hieronymi. 1. John Wordsworth, Henry Julian White (eds.). Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1898.  ^ Nouum Testamentum Domini nostri Iesu Christi Latine, secundum editionem sancti Hieronymi. 3. John Wordsworth, Henry Julian White (eds.). Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1905.  ^ Nouum Testamentum Latine, secundum editionem Sancti Hieronymi, editio minor. John Wordsworth, Henry Julian White
Henry Julian White
(eds.). Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1911.  ^ White, H.J. (1911). "John Wordsworth, Bishop of Salisbury, and his work on the Vulgate
Vulgate
New Testament". The Journal of Theological Studies. o.s. 13 (50): 201–208. doi:10.1093/jts/os-XIII.50.201. ISSN 0022-5185.  ^ Souter, Alexander (1935). " Henry Julian White
Henry Julian White
and the Vulgate". The Journal of Theological Studies. o.s. 36 (141): 11–13. doi:10.1093/jts/os-XXXVI.141.11. ISSN 0022-5185.  ^ Livingstone, Elizabeth A. (2004). "Sparks, Hedley Frederick Davis". In H.C.G. Matthew, B. Harrison (eds.). The Oxford
Oxford
Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford
Oxford
University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/64018. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ^ H. A. G. Houghton (2016). The Latin
Latin
New Testament: A Guide to Its Early History, Texts, and Manuscripts. Oxford
Oxford
University Press. p. 74. ISBN 9780198744733. Retrieved 5 June 2016.  ^ Biblia Sacra iuxta latinam vulgatam versionem. Pontifical Abbey of St Jerome-in-the-City (ed.). Rome: Libreria Editrice Vaticana. 1926–95. ISBN 8820921286.  18 vols. ^ Gasquet, F.A. (1912). "Vulgate, Revision of". The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ Quentin, Henri (1922). Mémoire sur l'établissement du texte de la Vulgate. Rome: Desclée.  ^ Burkitt, F.C. (1923). "The text of the Vulgate". The Journal of Theological Studies. o.s. 24 (96): 406–414. doi:10.1093/jts/os-XXIV.96.406. ISSN 0022-5185.  ^ Kraft, Robert A. (1965). "Review of Biblia Sacra iuxta Latinam vulgatam versionem ad codicum fidem iussu Pauli Pp. VI. cura et studio monachorum abbatiae pontificiae Sancti Hieronymi in Urbe ordinis Sancti Benedicti edita. 12: Sapientia Salomonis. Liber Hiesu Filii Sirach". Gnomon. 37 (8): 777–781. ISSN 0017-1417. JSTOR 27683795.  Préaux, Jean G. (1954). "Review of Biblia Sacra iuxta latinum vulgatam versionem. Liber psalmorum ex recensione sancti Hieronymi cum praefationibus et epistula ad Sunniam et Fretelam". Latomus. 13 (1): 70–71. JSTOR 41520237.  ^ a b "Scripturarum Thesarurus, Apostolic Constitution, 25 April 1979, John Paul II". Vatican: The Holy See. Retrieved 19 December 2013.  ^ Pope
Pope
John Paul II. "Epistula Vincentio Truijen OSB Abbati Claravallensi, 'De Pontificia Commissione Vulgatae editioni recognoscendae atque emendandae'". Vatican: The Holy See. Retrieved 19 December 2013.  ^ "Bibliorum Sacrorum Vetus Vulgata". Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Retrieved 19 December 2013.  ^ "Die Vulgata (ed. Weber/Gryson)". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Fischer, Bonifatius (1977). Novae concordantiae bibliorum sacrorum iuxta Vulgatam versionem critice editam. Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt: Frommann-Holzboog. ISBN 3772806384.  Meyvaert, Paul; Serge Lusignan (1981). "Review of Novae concordantiae Biblorum Sacrorum iuxta vulgatam versionem by Bonifatius Fischer". Speculum. 56 (3): 611–613. doi:10.2307/2847758. ISSN 0038-7134. JSTOR 2847758.  Kilpatrick, G.D. (1980). "A New Concordance to the Vulgate". The Classical Review. n.s. 30 (1): 36–37. doi:10.1017/S0009840X00234082.  ^ The CD-ROM of Latin
Latin
texts produced by the Packard Humanities Institute includes a correctly formatted version of the text. The text with apparatus is published through Accordance (which also makes available a version of the text without the apparatus) and Logos. ^ "Projekt: Biblia Sacra Vulgata Lateinisch-deutsch". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Stramare, Tarcisio (1981). "Die Neo-Vulgata. Zur Gestaltung des Textes". Biblische Zeitschrift. 25 (1): 67–81.  ^ a b Clifford, Richard J. (April 2001). "The Authority of the Nova Vulgata: A Note on a Recent Roman Document". Catholic Biblical Quarterly. 63: 197–202.  ^ "Praenotanda (Bibliorum Sacrorum nova vulgata editio)". vatican.va (in Latin). Retrieved 2015-06-04.  ^ a b "Praefatio ad Lectorem (Bibliorum Sacrorum nova vulgata editio)". vatican.va (in Latin). Retrieved 2015-06-04.  ^ "Nova Vulgata : Praenotanda" (in Latin). Retrieved 2015-06-04.  ^ "Appendix". vatican.va (in Latin). Retrieved 2015-06-04.  ^ "So now the Modernists in Rome
Rome
are rewriting Scripture - Crisis in the Church - Catholic Info". www.cathinfo.com. Retrieved 26 June 2017.  ^ "Liturgiam authenticam". vatican.va. Retrieved 2015-06-04.  ^ Novum testamentum Latine: Novam vulgatam Bibliorum sacrorum ed. secuti apparatibus titulisque additis. Kurt Aland, Barbara Aland (eds.) (2 ed.). Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft. 1992. ISBN 9783438053008.  ^ Novum Testamentum Graece
Novum Testamentum Graece
et Latine. Eberhard Nestle, Erwin Nestle, Kurt Aland, Barbara Aland (eds.) (3 ed.). Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft. 1994. ISBN 3438054019. 

Further reading[edit]

The Vulgate
Vulgate
New Testament, with the Douay Version of 1582. In Parallel Columns ( London
London
1872). Samuel Berger, Histoire de la Vulgate
Vulgate
pendant les premiers siècles du Moyen Age (Paris 1893). R. Draguet, "Le Maître louvainiste, [Jean] Driedo, inspirateur du décret de Trente sur la Vulgate", in Festschrift volume, Miscellenea historica in honorem Alberti de Meyer (Louvain: Bibliothèque universitaire, 1946), p. 836-854. Richard Gameson ed. The Early Medieval Bible, Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press, 1994 G.W.M. Lampe ed. The Cambridge
Cambridge
History of the Bible. Vol 2 Cambridge University Press 1969. Richard Marsden, The Text of the Old Testament
Old Testament
in Anglo-Saxon England, Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press, 1995 C. H. Turner, The Oldest Manuscript
Manuscript
of the Vulgate
Vulgate
Gospels
Gospels
(The Clarendon Press: Oxford
Oxford
1931).

External links[edit]

Latin
Latin
Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Stuttgart Vulgate

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vulgata.

The Clementine Vulgate, fully searchable and possible to compare with both the Douay Rheims and Knox Bibles side by side. Clementine Vulgate
Clementine Vulgate
1822, including Apocrypha Clementine Vulgate
Clementine Vulgate
1861, including Apocrypha Biblia Sacra Vulgata, online text of the Stuttgart edition from the German Bible
Bible
Society Eight examples of the Vulgate, 13th – 15th centuries, Center for Digital Initiatives, University of Vermont Libraries Latin
Latin
Vulgate
Vulgate
with Parallel English Douay-Rheims and King James Version, Stuttgart edition, but missing 3 and 4 Esdras, Manasses, Psalm 151, and Laodiceans. The Clementine Vulgate, searchable. Michael Tweedale, et alii. Other installable modules include Weber's Stuttgart Vulgate. Missing 3 and 4 Esdras, and Manasses. Nova Vulgata, from the Vatican Timeline of Jerome's translations Vulgata, Hieronymiana versio (Jerome's version), Latin
Latin
text complete as ebook (public domain) Vulgate
Vulgate
text of Laodiceans
Laodiceans
including a parallel English translation Psalmus 151 Latin
Latin
text Title pages from early editions Works by or about Vulgate
Vulgate
at Internet Archive Works by Vulgate
Vulgate
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks)

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Catholic Church

Index Outline

History (Timeline)

Jesus Holy Family

Mary Joseph

Apostles Early Christianity History of the papacy Ecumenical councils Missions Great Schism of East Crusades Great Schism of West Age of Discovery Protestant Reformation Council of Trent Counter-Reformation Catholic Church
Catholic Church
by country Vatican City

index outline

Second Vatican Council

Hierarchy (Precedence)

Pope
Pope
(List)

Pope
Pope
Francis (2013–present)

conclave inauguration theology canonizations visits

Pope
Pope
Emeritus Benedict XVI (2005–2013)

Roman Curia College of Cardinals

Cardinal List

Patriarchate Episcopal conference Patriarch Major archbishop Primate Metropolitan Archbishop Diocesan bishop Coadjutor bishop Auxiliary bishop Titular bishop Bishop emeritus Abbot Abbess Superior general Provincial superior Grand Master Prior
Prior
(-ess) Priest Brother

Friar

Sister Monk Nun Hermit Master of novices Novice Oblate Postulant Laity

Theology

Body and soul Bible Catechism Divine grace Dogma Ecclesiology

Four Marks of the Church

Original sin

List

Salvation Sermon on the Mount Ten Commandments Trinity Worship

Mariology

Assumption History Immaculate Conception Mariology of the popes Mariology of the saints Mother of God Perpetual virginity Veneration

Philosophy

Natural law Moral theology Personalism Social teaching Philosophers

Sacraments

Baptism Confirmation Eucharist Penance Anointing of the Sick

Last rites

Holy orders Matrimony

Saints

Mary Apostles Archangels Confessors Disciples Doctors of the Church Evangelists Church Fathers Martyrs Patriarchs Prophets Virgins

Doctors of the Church

Gregory the Great Ambrose Augustine of Hippo Jerome John Chrysostom Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nazianzus Athanasius of Alexandria Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem John of Damascus Bede
Bede
the Venerable Ephrem the Syrian Thomas Aquinas Bonaventure Anselm of Canterbury Isidore of Seville Peter Chrysologus Leo the Great Peter Damian Bernard of Clairvaux Hilary of Poitiers Alphonsus Liguori Francis de Sales Peter Canisius John of the Cross Robert Bellarmine Albertus Magnus Anthony of Padua Lawrence of Brindisi Teresa of Ávila Catherine of Siena Thérèse of Lisieux John of Ávila Hildegard of Bingen Gregory of Narek

Institutes, orders, and societies

Assumptionists Annonciades Augustinians Basilians Benedictines Bethlehemites Blue nuns Camaldoleses Camillians Carmelites Carthusians Cistercians Clarisses Conceptionists Crosiers Dominicans Franciscans Good Shepherd Sisters Hieronymites Jesuits Mercedarians Minims Olivetans Oratorians Piarists Premonstratensians Redemptorists Servites Theatines Trappists Trinitarians Visitandines

Associations of the faithful

International Federation of Catholic Parochial Youth Movements International Federation of Catholic Universities International Kolping Society Schoenstatt Apostolic Movement International Union of Catholic Esperantists Community of Sant'Egidio

Charities

Aid to the Church in Need Caritas Internationalis Catholic Home Missions Catholic Relief Services CIDSE

Particular churches (By country)

Latin
Latin
Church Eastern Catholic Churches: Albanian Armenian Belarusian Bulgarian Chaldean Coptic Croatian and Serbian Eritrean Ethiopian Georgian Greek Hungarian Italo-Albanian Macedonian Maronite Melkite Romanian Russian Ruthenian Slovak Syriac Syro-Malabar Syro-Malankara Ukrainian

Liturgical rites

Alexandrian Antiochian Armenian Byzantine East Syrian Latin

Anglican
Anglican
Use Ambrosian Mozarabic Roman

West Syrian

Catholicism portal Pope
Pope
portal Vatican City
Vatican City
portal

Book Name Media

Category Templates WikiProject

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History of Catholic theology

General history

History of the Catholic Church Early Christianity History of the papacy Ecumenical Councils Timeline of the Catholic Church History of Christianity History of Christian theology

Church beginnings

Paul Clement of Rome First Epistle
Epistle
of Clement Didache Ignatius of Antioch Polycarp Epistle
Epistle
of Barnabas The Shepherd of Hermas Aristides of Athens Justin Martyr Epistle
Epistle
to Diognetus Irenaeus Montanism Tertullian Origen Antipope Novatian Cyprian

Constantine to Pope
Pope
Gregory I

Eusebius Athanasius of Alexandria Arianism Pelagianism Nestorianism Monophysitism Ephrem the Syrian Hilary of Poitiers Cyril of Jerusalem Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nazianzus Gregory of Nyssa Ambrose John Chrysostom Jerome Augustine of Hippo John Cassian Orosius Cyril of Alexandria Peter Chrysologus Pope
Pope
Leo I Boethius Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite Pope
Pope
Gregory I

Early Middle Ages

Isidore of Seville John Climacus Maximus the Confessor Monothelitism Ecthesis Bede John of Damascus Iconoclasm Transubstantiation
Transubstantiation
dispute Predestination
Predestination
disputes Paulinus II of Aquileia Alcuin Benedict of Aniane Rabanus Maurus Paschasius Radbertus John Scotus Eriugena

High Middle Ages

Roscellinus Gregory of Narek Berengar of Tours Peter Damian Anselm of Canterbury Joachim of Fiore Peter Abelard Decretum Gratiani Bernard of Clairvaux Peter Lombard Anselm of Laon Hildegard of Bingen Hugh of Saint Victor Dominic de Guzmán Robert Grosseteste Francis of Assisi Anthony of Padua Beatrice of Nazareth Bonaventure Albertus Magnus Boetius of Dacia Henry of Ghent Thomas Aquinas Siger of Brabant Thomism Roger Bacon

Mysticism
Mysticism
and reforms

Ramon Llull Duns Scotus Dante Alighieri William of Ockham Richard Rolle John of Ruusbroec Catherine of Siena Brigit of Sweden Meister Eckhart Johannes Tauler Walter Hilton The Cloud of Unknowing Heinrich Seuse Geert Groote Devotio Moderna Julian of Norwich Thomas à Kempis Nicholas of Cusa Marsilio Ficino Girolamo Savonarola Giovanni Pico della Mirandola

Reformation Counter-Reformation

Erasmus Thomas Cajetan Thomas More John Fisher Johann Eck Francisco de Vitoria Thomas of Villanova Ignatius of Loyola Francisco de Osuna John of Ávila Francis Xavier Teresa of Ávila Luis de León John of the Cross Peter Canisius Luis de Molina
Luis de Molina
(Molinism) Robert Bellarmine Francisco Suárez Lawrence of Brindisi Francis de Sales

Baroque
Baroque
period to French Revolution

Tommaso Campanella Pierre de Bérulle Pierre Gassendi René Descartes Mary of Jesus
Jesus
of Ágreda António Vieira Jean-Jacques Olier Louis Thomassin Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet François Fénelon Cornelius Jansen
Cornelius Jansen
(Jansenism) Blaise Pascal Nicolas Malebranche Giambattista Vico Alphonsus Liguori Louis de Montfort Maria Gaetana Agnesi Alfonso Muzzarelli Johann Michael Sailer Clement Mary Hofbauer Bruno Lanteri

19th century

Joseph Görres Felicité de Lamennais Luigi Taparelli Antonio Rosmini Ignaz von Döllinger John Henry Newman Henri Lacordaire Jaime Balmes Gaetano Sanseverino Giovanni Maria Cornoldi Wilhelm Emmanuel Freiherr von Ketteler Giuseppe Pecci Joseph Hergenröther Tommaso Maria Zigliara Matthias Joseph Scheeben Émile Boutroux Modernism Léon Bloy Désiré-Joseph Mercier Friedrich von Hügel Vladimir Solovyov Marie-Joseph Lagrange George Tyrrell Maurice Blondel Thérèse of Lisieux

20th century

G. K. Chesterton Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange Joseph Maréchal Pierre Teilhard de Chardin Jacques Maritain Étienne Gilson Ronald Knox Dietrich von Hildebrand Gabriel Marcel Marie-Dominique Chenu Romano Guardini Edith Stein Fulton Sheen Henri de Lubac Jean Guitton Josemaría Escrivá Adrienne von Speyr Karl Rahner Yves Congar Bernard Lonergan Emmanuel Mounier Jean Daniélou Hans Urs von Balthasar Alfred Delp Edward Schillebeeckx Thomas Merton René Girard Johann Baptist Metz Jean Vanier Henri Nouwen

21st century

Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI Walter Kasper Raniero Cantalamessa Michał Heller Peter Kreeft Jean-Luc Marion Tomáš Halík Scott Hahn Robert Barron

Catholicism portal Pope
Pope
portal

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History of the Catholic Church

General

History of the Catholic Church

By country or region

History of the Papacy Timeline of the Catholic Church Catholic ecumenical councils History of the Roman Curia Catholic Church
Catholic Church
art Religious institutes Christian monasticism Papal States Role of Christianity in civilization

Church beginnings, Great Church

Jesus John the Baptist Apostles

Peter John Paul

Saint Stephen Great Commission Council of Jerusalem Apostolic Age Apostolic Fathers Ignatius of Antioch Irenaeus Pope
Pope
Victor I Tertullian

Constantine to Pope
Pope
Gregory I

Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
and Christianity Arianism Archbasilica of St. John Lateran First Council of Nicaea Pope
Pope
Sylvester I First Council of Constantinople Biblical canon Jerome Vulgate Council of Ephesus Council of Chalcedon Benedict of Nursia Second Council of Constantinople Pope
Pope
Gregory I Gregorian chant

Early Middle Ages

Third Council of Constantinople Saint Boniface Byzantine Iconoclasm Second Council of Nicaea Charlemagne Pope
Pope
Leo III Fourth Council of Constantinople East–West Schism

High Middle Ages

Pope
Pope
Urban II Investiture Controversy Crusades First Council of the Lateran Second Council of the Lateran Third Council of the Lateran Pope
Pope
Innocent III Latin
Latin
Empire Francis of Assisi Fourth Council of the Lateran Inquisition First Council of Lyon Second Council of Lyon Bernard of Clairvaux Thomas Aquinas

Late Middle Ages

Pope
Pope
Boniface VIII Avignon Papacy Pope
Pope
Clement V Council of Vienne Knights Templar Catherine of Siena Pope
Pope
Alexander VI

Reformation Counter-Reformation

Reformation Counter-Reformation Thomas More Pope
Pope
Leo X Society of Jesus Ignatius of Loyola Francis Xavier Dissolution of the Monasteries Council of Trent Pope
Pope
Pius V Tridentine Mass Teresa of Ávila John of the Cross Philip Neri Robert Bellarmine

Baroque
Baroque
Period to the French Revolution

Pope
Pope
Innocent XI Pope
Pope
Benedict XIV Suppression of the Society of Jesus Anti-clericalism Pope
Pope
Pius VI Shimabara Rebellion Edict of Nantes Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution

19th century

Pope
Pope
Pius VII Pope
Pope
Pius IX Dogma of the Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception
of the Virgin Mary Our Lady of La Salette Our Lady of Lourdes First Vatican Council Papal infallibility Pope
Pope
Leo XIII Mary of the Divine Heart Prayer of Consecration to the Sacred Heart Rerum novarum

20th century

Pope
Pope
Pius X Our Lady of Fátima Persecutions of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and Pius XII Pope
Pope
Pius XII Pope Pius XII
Pope Pius XII
Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary Lateran Treaty Pope
Pope
John XXIII Second Vatican Council Pope
Pope
Paul VI Pope
Pope
John Paul I Pope
Pope
John Paul II World Youth Day

1995 2000

21st century

Catholic Church
Catholic Church
sexual abuse cases Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI World Youth Day

2002 2005 2008 2011 2013 2016

Pope
Pope
Francis

Pope
Pope
portal Vatican City
Vatican City
portal Catholicism portal

v t e

Books of the Bible

Principal divisions

Hebrew Bible/ Old Testament
Old Testament
Protocanon

Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy Joshua Judges Ruth 1–2 Samuel 1–2 Kings 1–2 Chronicles Ezra Nehemiah Esther Job Psalms Proverbs Ecclesiastes Song Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations Ezekiel Daniel Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi

Deuterocanon and Apocrypha

Catholic Orthodox

Tobit Judith Additions to Esther 1 Maccabees 2 Maccabees Wisdom Sirach Baruch / Letter of Jeremiah Additions to Daniel

Susanna Song of the Three Children Bel and the Dragon

Orthodox only

1 Esdras 2 Esdras Prayer of Manasseh Psalm 151 3 Maccabees 4 Maccabees Odes

Tewahedo Orthodox

Enoch Jubilees 1, 2, and 3 Meqabyan Paralipomena of Baruch Broader canon

Syriac

Letter of Baruch 2 Baruch Psalms
Psalms
152–155

New Testament

Matthew Mark Luke John Acts Romans 1 Corinthians 2 Corinthians Galatians Ephesians Philippians Colossians 1 Thessalonians 2 Thessalonians 1 Timothy 2 Timothy Titus Philemon Hebrews James 1 Peter 2 Peter 1 John 2 John 3 John Jude Revelation

Subdivisions

Chapters and verses Pentateuch Wisdom Major prophets / Minor prophets Gospels

Synoptic

Epistles

Pauline Johannine Pastoral Catholic

Apocalyptic literature

Development

Old Testament
Old Testament
canon New Testament
New Testament
canon Antilegomena Jewish canon Christian canon

Manuscripts

Dead Sea Scrolls Samaritan Pentateuch Septuagint Targum Diatessaron Muratorian fragment Peshitta Vetus Latina Masoretic Text New Testament
New Testament
manuscript categories New Testament
New Testament
papyri New Testament
New Testament
uncials

See also

Biblical canon Luther's canon Authorship English Bible
Bible
translations Other books referenced in the Bible Pseudepigrapha

list

New Testament
New Testament
apocrypha Studies Synod of Hippo Textual criticism

Category Portal WikiProject Book

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 208174761

.