The Info List - Vršac

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(Serbian Cyrillic: Вршац pronounced [ʋr̩̂ʃat͡s]) is a city located in the South Banat District
South Banat District
of the autonomous province of Vojvodina, Serbia. As of 2011, the city urban area has a population of 35,701, while the city administrative area has 52,026 inhabitants. It is located in the geographical region of Banat.


1 Name 2 History 3 Inhabited places 4 Demographics

4.1 Ethnic groups

5 Economy and industry 6 Transportation 7 Tourist destinations

7.1 Vršac
Castle 7.2 Monasteries 7.3 Churches 7.4 Winery

8 Gallery 9 Famous residents 10 International relations

10.1 Consulate 10.2 Twin towns — sister cities

11 Notes 12 Further reading 13 External links

Name[edit] The name Vršac
is of Serbian origin. It derived from the Slavic word vrh, meaning "summit". [2] In Serbian, the city is known as Вршац or Vršac, in Romanian as Vârșeț, in Hungarian as Versec or Versecz, in German as Werschetz, and in Turkish as Virșac or Verşe. History[edit] There are traces of human settlement in this area from paleolithic and neolithic times. Remains from two types of neolithic cultures have been discovered in the area: an older one, known as the Starčevo culture, and a newer one, known as the Vinča culture. From the Bronze Age, there are traces of the Vatin culture
Vatin culture
and Vršac
culture, while from the Iron Age, there are traces of the Hallstatt culture
Hallstatt culture
and La Tène culture (which is largely associated with the Celts). The Agathyrsi
(people of mixed Scythian-Thracian origin) are the first people known to have lived in this region. Later, the region was inhabited by Getae
and Dacians. It belonged to the Dacian kingdoms of Burebista
and Decebalus, and then to the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
from 102 to 271. In Vršac, archaeologists have found traces of ancient Dacian and Roman settlements. Later, the region belonged to the Empire of the Huns, the Gepid and Avar kingdoms, and the Bulgarian Empire. The Slavs
settled in this region in the 6th century, and the Slavic tribe known as the Abodrites
(Bodriči) was recorded as living in the area. The Slavs
from the region were Christianized during the rule of the duke Ahtum
in the 11th century. When duke Ahtum
was defeated by the Kingdom of Hungary, the region was included in the latter state. Information about the early history of the town is scant. According to Serbian historians, medieval Vršac
was founded and inhabited by Serbs in 1425,[1][2] although it was under administration of the Kingdom of Hungary. The original name of the town is unknown. There are several theories that its first name was Vers, Verbeč, Veršet or Vegenje, but these theories are not confirmed. The name of the town appears for the first time in 1427 in the form Podvršan. [3] The Hungarian 12th century chronicle known as Gesta Hungarorum
Gesta Hungarorum
mention the castle of Vrscia in Banat, which belonged to Romanian duke Glad in the 9th century. According to some interpretations, Vrscia is identified with modern Vršac,[3] while according to other opinions, it is identified with Orşova. According to some claims, the town was at first in the possession of the Hungarian kings,[citation needed] and later became property of a Hungarian aristocrat, Miklós Peréyi, ban of Severin.[citation needed] In the 15th century, the town was in the possession of the Serbian despot Đurađ Branković. [4] According to some claims, it was donated to the despot by Hungarian king Sigismund in 1411.[citation needed] According to other sources, Vršac
fortress was built by Đurađ Branković
Đurađ Branković
after the fall of Smederevo.[2] The Ottomans destroyed the town in the 16th century, but it was soon rebuilt under Ottoman administration. In 1590/91, the Ottoman garrison in Vršac fortress
Vršac fortress
was composed of one aga, two Ottoman officers and 20 Serb mercenaries. The town was seat of the local Ottoman authorities and of the Serbian bishop. In this time, its population was composed of Muslims
and Serbs.[4] In 1594, the Serbs
in the Banat
started large uprising against Ottoman rule, and Vršac
region was centre of this uprising. The leader of the uprising was Teodor Nestorović, the bishop of Vršac. The size of this uprising is illustrated by the verse from one Serbian national song: "Sva se butum zemlja pobunila, Šest stotina podiglo se sela, Svak na cara pušku podigao!" ("The whole land has rebelled, a six hundred villages arose, everybody pointed his gun against the emperor"). The Serb rebels bore flags with the image of Saint Sava, thus the rebellion had a character of a holy war. The Sinan-paša that lead the Ottoman army ordered that green flag of Muhammad
should be brought from Damascus
to confront this flag with image of Saint Sava. Furthermore, the Sinan-paša also burned the mortal remains of Saint Sava in Belgrade, as a revenge to the Serbs. Eventually, the uprising was crushed and most of the Serbs
from the region escaped to Transylvania
fearing the Ottoman retaliation. However, since the Banat region became deserted after this, which alarmed the Ottoman authorities who needed people in this fertile land, the authorities promised to spare everyone who came back. The Serb population came back, but the amnesty did not apply to the leader of the rebellion, Bishop Teodor Nestorović, who was flayed as a punishment. The Banat uprising was one of the three largest uprisings in Serbian history and the largest before the First Serbian Uprising
First Serbian Uprising
led by Karađorđe. In 1716, Vršac
passed from Ottoman to Habsburg control, and the Muslim population fled the town. In this time, Vršac
was mostly populated by Serbs, and in the beginning of the Habsburg rule, its population numbered 75 houses. Soon, German colonists started to settle here. They founded a new settlement known as Werschetz, which was located near the old (Serbian) Vršac. Serbian Vršac
was governed by a knez, and German Werschetz was governed by a schultheis (mayor). The name of the first Serbian knez in Vršac
in 1717 was Jovan Crni. In 1795, the two towns, Serbian Vršac
and German Werschetz, were officially joined into one single settlement, in which the authority was shared between Serbs
and Germans. It was occupied by Ottomans between 1787-1788 during Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792). The 1848/1849 revolution disrupted the good relations between Serbs and Germans, since Serbs
fought on the side of the Austrian authorities and Germans
fought on the side of the Hungarian revolutionaries. In 1848-1849, the town was part of autonomous Serbian Vojvodina, and from 1849 to 1860, it was part of the Voivodeship of Serbia
and Temes Banat, a separate Austrian province. After the abolition of the voivodship, Vršac
was included in Temes County
Temes County
of the Kingdom of Hungary, which became one of two autonomous parts of Austria-Hungary
in 1867. The town was also a district seat. In 1910, the population of the town numbered 27,370 inhabitants, of whom 13,556 spoke German language, 8,602 spoke Serbian, 3,890 spoke Hungarian and 879 spoke Romanian.[5][6] On the other side, the Diocese of Vršac numbered 260.000 Romanians
in 1847. From 1918, the town was part of the newly formed Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later renamed Yugoslavia). According to the 1921 census, speakers of German language
German language
were most numerous in the town, while the 1931 census recorded 13,425 speakers of Yugoslav languages and 11,926 speakers of German language. During the Axis occupation (1941–1944), Vršac
was part of autonomous Banat
region within the area governed by the Military Administration in Serbia. Many Danube Swabians collaborated with the Nazi
authorities and many men were conscripted into the Waffen SS. Letters were sent to German men requesting their "voluntary service" or they would face court martial. In 1944, one part of Vršac
citizens of German ethnicity left from the city, together with defeated German army.[7] Those who remained in Vršac
were sent to local communist prison camps, where some of them died from disease and malnutrition. According to some claims, some were tortured or killed by the partisans.[citation needed] Since 1944 when it was liberated by the Red Army's 46th Army, the town was part of the new Socialist Yugoslavia. After prison camps were dissolved (in 1948) and Yugoslav citizenship was returned to the Germans, the remaining German population left Yugoslavia due to being forced out by the Russians. Homes that had been in their families for decades were simply taken over by the Serbs.[8] Vršac
was granted city status in February 2016.[9] Inhabited places[edit]

Map of the city of Vršac

The city of Vršac
includes the settlement of Vršac
and the following villages:

Vatin Veliko Središte Vlajkovac Vojvodinci
(Romanian: Voivodinţ) Vršački Ritovi Gudurica Zagajica Izbište Jablanka
(Romanian: Iabuca) Kuštilj
(Romanian: Coştei) Mali Žam
Mali Žam
(Romanian: Jamu Mic) Malo Središte
Malo Središte
(Romanian: Srediştea Mică) Markovac (Romanian: Mărcovăţ, Mărculești)) Mesić (Romanian: Mesici) Orešac (Romanian: Oreşaţ) Pavliš
(Romanian: Păuliş) Parta
(Romanian Parța) Potporanj Ritiševo
(Romanian: Râtişor) Sočica
(Romanian: Sălciţa) Straža (Romanian: Straja) Uljma Šušara
(Hungarian: Fejértelep)

Note: For the places with Romanian and Hungarian ethnic majorities, the names are also given in the language of the concerned ethnic group. Demographics[edit]

Map of local communities in urban Vršac

Historical population

Year Pop. ±% p.a.

1948 51,792 —    

1953 55,594 +1.43%

1961 61,284 +1.23%

1971 60,528 −0.12%

1981 61,005 +0.08%

1991 58,228 −0.46%

2002 54,369 −0.62%

2011 52,026 −0.49%

Source: [10]

According to the 2011 census, the total population of the city of Vršac
was 52,026 inhabitants. Ethnic groups[edit] Within the city, the settlements with a Serb ethnic majority are: Vršac
(the city itself), Vatin, Veliko Središte, Vlajkovac, Vršački Ritovi, Gudurica, Zagajica, Izbište, Pavliš, Parta, Potporanj, and Uljma. The settlements with a Romanian ethnic majority are: Vojvodinci, Jablanka, Kuštilj, Mali Žam, Malo Središte, Markovac, Mesić, Ritiševo, Sočica, and Straža. Šušara
has a Hungarian ethnic majority (Seklers collonised from Bukowina during the World War I), while Orešac is an ethnically mixed settlement with a Romanian plurality. Vršac
is the seat of the Serb Orthodox Eparchy of Banat. Some of the Serb cultural-artistic societies in Vršac
are named "Laza Nančić", "Penzioner" and "Grozd". The city's Romanian minority have a Romanian-language theater, schools and a museum. Romanian-language instruction takes place at a kindergarten, an elementary school, a high school and a teachers' university. The cultural organization and folklore group "Luceafarul" hold many cultural events in Vršac
and nearby Romanian-populated villages.[11][12] In 2005, Romania
opened a consulate in Vršac.[13] The population of the city (52,026 people) is composed of the following ethnic groups (2011 census):[14]

Ethnic group Population

Serbs 37,595

Romanians 5,420

Hungarians 2,263

Roma 1,368

Macedonians 472

Yugoslavs 302

Others 4,606

Total 52,026

Economy and industry[edit] Vršac
is a city famous for well-developed industry, especially pharmaceuticals, wine and beer, confectioneries and textiles. The leading pharmaceutical company in Vršac
(and nationwide) is the Hemofarm, which helped start the city's Technology Park. Vršac
is considered to be one of the most significant centers of agriculture in the region of southern Banat, which is the southern part of the province of Vojvodina. It is mainly because it has 54,000 hectares of arable and extremely fertile land in its possession. The city itself together with 22 surrounding communities has some 52,000 residents, whose lives are closely connected with agriculture. The following table gives a preview of total number of employed people per their core activity (as of 2016):[15]

Activity Total

Agriculture, forestry and fishing 275

Mining 11

Processing industry 4,356

Distribution of power, gas and water 127

Distribution of water and water waste management 359

Construction 452

Wholesale and retail, repair 1,849

Traffic, storage and communication 713

Hotels and restaurants 515

Media and telecommunications 188

Finance and insurance 238

Property stock and charter 16

Professional, scientific, innovative and technical activities 501

Administrative and other services 357

Administration and social assurance 718

Education 940

Healthcare and social work 1,420

Art, leisure and recreation 176

Other services 188

Total 13,401



v t e


Railways in the Vršac


to Laudonovac

to Moravița





Vršački ritovi







Bela Crkva



to Ban. Jasenovo

to Nikolinci

State Road 10 (which is part of European route E70) connects Vršac
to Belgrade
and to the nearby border with Romania. Vršac
is also connected to Belgrade
by the Srbija voz railway line 44, and with a local train to Timişoara. Tourist destinations[edit] The Millennium sport center, opened in early-April 2001, is located in Vršac. The region around Vršac
is famed for its vineyards. Vršac
Castle[edit] The symbol of the town is the Vršac Castle
Vršac Castle
(Vršačka kula), which dates back to the mid 15th century. It stands at the top of the hill (399m) overlooking Vršac. There are two theories about origin of this fortress. According to the Turkish traveler, Evliya Çelebi, the fortress was built by the Serbian despot Đurađ Branković. The historians consider that Branković built the fortress after the fall of Smederevo
in 1439. [5] The fortress in its construction had some architectural elements similar to those in the fortress of Smederevo
or in the fortress around monastery Manasija. The other theory claim that Vršac Castle
Vršac Castle
is a remain of the medieval fortress known as Erdesumulu (Hungarian: Érdsomlyó or Érsomlyó, Serbian: Erd-Šomljo / Ерд-Шомљо or Šomljo / Шомљо). However, the other sources do not identify Erdesumulu with Vršac, but claim that these two were separate settlements and that location of town and fortress of Erdesumulu was further to the east, on the Karaš River, in present-day Romanian Banat. Monasteries[edit] There are two Serbian Orthodox monasteries in the city: Mesić monastery from the 13th century and Središte monastery, which is currently under construction. Churches[edit]

The Serbian Orthodox Cathedral, completed in 1728.[16] The Romanian Orthodox Cathedral, completed in 1912.[17][18] The Roman Catholic Church, completed in 1863.[19]

Winery[edit] One of interesting places to visit in Vršac
is the family winery, Vinik, which produces the Vržole Red, Vržole White and Bermetto wine. Gallery[edit]

town center


Saint Nicholas Serbian Orthodox Cathedral in Vršac

Romanian Orthodox Cathedral, Vršac

The Chapel Hill with the new Orthodox church and the old Exaltation of the Holy Cross Catholic Church.

The St. Gerhard Bishop and Martyr Catholic Church

The Exaltation of the Holy Cross Catholic Church by night.

Vrsac tower pictured from a nearby hill

Millennium sport center

Vinik winery in Vršac

Famous residents[edit] See also: Category:People from Vršac.

Marie von Augustin (1807–1886), Austrian female writer (de) Dragiša Brašovan, Serbian modernist architect Sultana Cijuk, an opera singer József Dietrich (1852–1884), Hungarian geographer and chemist of German (Danube Swabian) descent Robert Hammerstiel (born 1933), painter, artist (de) Ferenc Herczeg
Ferenc Herczeg
(1863–1954), Hungarian writer Milan Jovanović, photographer Paja Jovanović
Paja Jovanović
(1859–1957), famous Serbian painter Boris Kostić, chess player Felix Milleker, curator and first director of City Museum Dragan Mrđa, Serbian football player Teodor Nestorović, the bishop of Vršac
and leader of the Serb uprising in Banat
in 1594 Nikola Nešković
Nikola Nešković
(1739–1775), Serbian painter Vasko Popa, ethnic Romanian poet Jovan Sterija Popović
Jovan Sterija Popović
(1806–1856), Serbian playwright, dramatist, comediographer, and pedagogue of mixed Aromanian-Serb descent Nedeljko Popović Serba, painter Döme Sztójay
Döme Sztójay
(native name: Dimitrije Stojaković; 1883–1946), Hungarian Prime Minister and diplomat of Serb descent Zorana Todorović (1989-), basketball player Jenő Vincze (1908–1988), Hungarian international football player, most famous for playing for the Hungarian national team in the 1938 World Cup Final Nikola Cuculj (1958-), Wine maker of famous Vrzole wine and Great Knight of " Banat
Wine Order St. Theodor" József Wodetzky (1872–1956), Hungarian astronomer of Polish descent[20] Tamara Radočaj
Tamara Radočaj
(1987-), Serbian basketball player, Olympic bronze medalist and European champion

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Serbia Consulate[edit]

Romanian Consulate General, Vršac

Twin towns — sister cities[edit] Vršac
is twinned with:

Lugoj, Romania Banská Bystrica, Slovakia


^ Dušan Belča, Mala istorija Vršca, Vršac, 1997, page 38. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2011.  ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2011.  ^ Dušan Belča, Mala istorija Vršca, Vršac, 1997, page 48. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 9 March 2006. Retrieved 27 March 2007.  ^ http://www.megaupload.com/?d=YKE9MH4B[permanent dead link] ^ Dragomir Jankov, Vojvodina
– propadanje jednog regiona, Novi Sad, 2004, page76, Quotation (English translation): "After the war, property of Germans
in Vojvodina
(where about 350,000 of them lived) was confiscated. Most of the Germans
(about 200,000) left from Vojvodina
together with German army....About 140,000 Germans
was sent to camps". ^ Nenad Stefanović, Jedan svet na Dunavu, Beograd, 2003, pages 174-176. ^ "Pirot, Kikinda
i Vršac
dobili status grada" [Pirot, Kikinda
and Vršac
Granted City Status]. B92. 29 February 2016. Retrieved 26 June 2016.  ^ "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia" (PDF). stat.gov.rs. Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. Retrieved 19 March 2017.  ^ 1ROMANII%20DIN%20BANATUL%20SARBESC.doc "Românii din Banatul Sârbesc"[permanent dead link] ^ "comunitatea-romanilor.org.rs". www.comunitatea-romanilor.org.rs. Retrieved 1 April 2018.  ^ (in Romanian) Anca Alexe, "Consulat Nou" ("New Consulate"), Jurnalul Național, 22 January 2005 ^ "Population by ethnicity". Republic of Serbia
Republic Statistical Office. Retrieved 5 January 2014.  ^ "ОПШТИНЕ И РЕГИОНИ У РЕПУБЛИЦИ СРБИЈИ, 2017" (PDF). stat.gov.rs (in Serbian). Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. Retrieved 13 March 2018.  ^ "Saborna crkva u Vršcu". travel.rs. 14 November 2009. Retrieved 1 April 2018.  ^ Sărbătoare românească la hramul catedralei din Vârşeţ ^ Biserica – Catedrala Înălţarea Domnului din Vârşeţ − monument al artei bizantine Archived 30 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Rimokatolička crkva u Vršcu". travel.rs. 14 November 2009. Retrieved 1 April 2018.  ^ [1]

Further reading[edit]

Dušan Belča, Mala istorija Vršca, Vršac, 1997. Dr. Dušan J. Popović, Srbi u Vojvodini, knjige 1-3, Novi Sad, 1990. Slobodan Ćurčić, Broj stanovnika Vojvodine, Novi Sad, 1996.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vršac.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Vršac.

Govor slike - Vršački sajt Official site Site Of Vršac
City Vršac
- Electronic Banat Romanian organizations - Number of Romanians
in Banat[permanent dead link]

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Cities, towns and villages in the South Banat


Banatski Brestovac Banatsko Novo Selo Glogonj Dolovo Ivanovo Jabuka Kačarevo Omoljica Starčevo


Banatski Karlovac Vladimirovac Dobrica Ilandža Janošik Lokve Nikolinci Novi Kozjak Seleuš

Bela Crkva

Banatska Palanka Banatska Subotica Vračev Gaj Grebenac Dobričevo Dupljaja Jasenovo Kajtasovo Kaluđerovo Kruščica Kusić Crvena Crkva Češko Selo


Vatin Veliko Središte Vlajkovac Vojvodinci Vršački Ritovi Gudurica Zagajica Izbište Jablanka Kuštilj Mali Žam Malo Središte Markovac Mesić Orešac Pavliš Parta Potporanj Ritiševo Sočica Straža Uljma Šušara


Debeljača Idvor Padina Putnikovo Samoš Uzdin Crepaja


Bavanište Gaj Deliblato Dubovac Malo Bavanište Mramorak Pločica Skorenovac Šumarak


Baranda Sakule Sefkerin


Banatski Sokolac Barice Velika Greda Veliki Gaj Dužine Jermenovci Kupinik Laudonovac Margita Markovićevo Miletićevo Stari Lec Hajdučica

(*) bold are municipalities or cities

v t e

Municipalities and cities of Serbia

v t e

Municipalities of Belgrade


Barajevo Čukarica Grocka Lazarevac Mladenovac New Belgrade Obrenovac Palilula Rakovica Savski Venac Sopot Stari Grad Surčin Voždovac Vračar Zemun Zvezdara

v t e

Municipalities and cities of Vojvodina


Kikinda Novi Sad

Novi Sad Petrovaradin

Pančevo Sombor Sremska Mitrovica Subotica Vršac Zrenjanin


Ada Alibunar Apatin Bač Bačka Palanka Bačka Topola Bački Petrovac Bečej Bela Crkva Beočin Čoka Inđija Irig Kanjiža Kovačica Kovin Kula Mali Iđoš Nova Crnja Novi Bečej Novi Kneževac Odžaci Opovo Pećinci Plandište Ruma Sečanj Senta Šid Srbobran Sremski Karlovci Stara Pazova Temerin Titel Vrbas Žabalj Žitište

v t e

Municipalities and cities of Šumadija and Western Serbia


Čačak Jagodina Kragujevac Kraljevo Kruševac Loznica Novi Pazar Šabac Užice

Užice Sevojno



Aleksandrovac Aranđelovac Arilje Bajina Bašta Batočina Bogatić Brus Čajetina Ćićevac Ćuprija Despotovac Gornji Milanovac Ivanjica Knić Koceljeva Kosjerić Krupanj Lajkovac Lapovo Lučani Ljig Ljubovija Mali Zvornik Mionica Nova Varoš Osečina Paraćin Požega Priboj Prijepolje Rača Raška Rekovac Sjenica Svilajnac Topola Trstenik Tutin Ub Varvarin Vladimirci Vrnjačka Banja

v t e

Municipalities and cities of Southern and Eastern Serbia


Leskovac Niš

Crveni Krst Medijana Niška Banja Palilula Pantelej

Pirot Požarevac

Požarevac Kostolac

Smederevo Vranje

Vranje Vranjska Banja



Aleksinac Babušnica Bela Palanka Blace Bojnik Boljevac Bor Bosilegrad Bujanovac Crna Trava Dimitrovgrad Doljevac Gadžin Han Golubac Kladovo Knjaževac Kučevo Kuršumlija Lebane Majdanpek Malo Crniće Medveđa Merošina Negotin Petrovac Preševo Prokuplje Ražanj Smederevska Palanka Sokobanja Surdulica Svrljig Trgovište Velika Plana Veliko Gradište Vladičin Han Vlasotince Žabari Žagubica Žitorađa

v t e

Municipalities and cities of Kosovo
i Metohija1




Dečani Đakovica Glogovac Gnjilane Gora Kosovo
Polje Kosovska Kamenica Kosovska Mitrovica Istok Kačanik Klina Leposavić Lipljan Novo Brdo Obilić Orahovac Peć Podujevo Prizren Srbica Suva Reka Štimlje Štrpce Vitina Vučitrn Zubin Potok Zvečan

1  Kosovo
is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo
and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo
has received formal recognition as an independent state from 113 out of 193 United Nations
United Nations
member states.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 130779891 GN