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Withdrawal

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2016 EU membership referendum

Causes Endorsements Issues Opinion polling

Campaigns

Organisations advocating and campaigning for a referendum

People's Pledge Labour for a Referendum

Leave

Vote Leave
Vote Leave
(official lead group)

Business for Britain Conservatives for Britain Students for Britain

Labour Leave Leave.EU

Bpoplive
Bpoplive
(cancelled)

Grassroots Out Get Britain Out The Freedom Association

Better Off Out

Other anti-EU advocacy organisations

Bruges Group Campaign for an Independent Britain

Remain

Britain Stronger in Europe
Britain Stronger in Europe
(official lead group) Labour In for Britain European Movement UK

Other pro-EU advocacy organisations

Britain in Europe British Influence Business for New Europe New Europeans Nucleus

Project Fear

Media coverage

Brexit: The Movie In or Out

Aftermath

Results International reactions Terms of Withdrawal from EU (Referendum) Bill 2016-17 2016 Conservative Party election 2016 Labour Party election 2017 Liberal Democrats Party election Proposed second Scottish independence referendum The New European European Union
European Union
(Withdrawal) Bill Gibraltar 2017 General Election UK's relations with EU after 2019

Triggering of Article 50 & Negotiations

R (Miller) v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union' EU (Notification of Withdrawal) Act 2017 UK invocation of Article 50 Brexit
Brexit
negotiations Department for Exiting the EU ( Brexit
Brexit
Department)

Secretary of State ( Brexit
Brexit
Secretary)

Department for International Trade

Secretary of State (International Trade Secretary)

Post-referendum organisations

Change Britain More United Open Britain

See also

United Ireland

v t e

Vote Leave
Vote Leave
is[1] an organisation that campaigned for a Leave vote in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
European Union
European Union
membership referendum, 2016.[2] On 13 April 2016, Vote Leave
Vote Leave
was designated by the Electoral Commission as the official campaign in favour of leaving the European Union
European Union
for the referendum on EU membership.[3] Vote Leave
Vote Leave
was founded in October 2015 by political strategists Matthew Elliot and Dominic Cummings as a cross-party campaign; involving Members of Parliament from the Conservative Party, Labour Party and the sole UKIP
UKIP
MP, Douglas Carswell
Douglas Carswell
along with MEP Daniel Hannan and Conservative Peer Nigel Lawson. Labour MP Gisela Stuart served as Chairman and leader of the Vote Leave
Vote Leave
Campaign Committee as Co-Convenor with Michael Gove
Michael Gove
MP, of the Conservatives.[4] The campaign was also supported by a number of prominent politicians; including outgoing Mayor of London
Mayor of London
Boris Johnson, who became a key figurehead for Vote Leave. A number of Vote Leave
Vote Leave
principals; Douglas Carswell, Michael Gove, Bernard Jenkin
Bernard Jenkin
and Anne-Marie Trevelyan
Anne-Marie Trevelyan
were also members of the influential IPSA resourced European Research Group Vote Leave
Vote Leave
was funded by former Conservative treasurer Peter Cruddas and Labour supporter John Mills.[5] Vote Leave
Vote Leave
co-operated with Labour Leave, Conservatives for Britain
Conservatives for Britain
and Business for Britain
Business for Britain
throughout the referendum campaign.[6] In the 2016 referendum, the vote for the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
to leave the European Union
European Union
won a 51.9% share of the vote, therefore setting into motion the steps to be taken for the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the European Union. During and after 23 June, both Vote Leave
Vote Leave
and its rival organisation, "Britain Stronger in Europe", were excoriated by sections of the media and academia for a campaign described by the Electoral Reform Society as "dire", which left the public seriously lacking proper information. In September 2016, Change Britain was formed to act as a successor organisation. Many of Vote Leave's staff (including Matthew Elliott, Hugh Bennett, Darren Grimes) went on to work on Hard Brexit
Brexit
supporting website Brexit
Brexit
Central.[7]

Contents

1 History 2 Campaign Committee 3 Board 4 Supporters 5 Relationship with other groups

5.1 Leave.EU
Leave.EU
and Grassroots Out 5.2 Political parties 5.3 Charities

6 Criticism

6.1 Strategy 6.2 Post referendum campaign

7 See also 8 References 9 External links

History[edit]

Boris Johnson
Boris Johnson
MP was a key figurehead for the Vote Leave
Vote Leave
campaign

The Vote Leave
Vote Leave
campaign was launched on 8 October 2015 with support from MPs including Labour MP Kate Hoey
Kate Hoey
and UKIP
UKIP
MP Douglas Carswell, and supporters from the business world including CMC Markets founder Peter Cruddas, entrepreneur Luke Johnson and businessman John Mills, the Labour Party's biggest individual donor.[8][9][10] Matthew Elliott, founder and former chief executive of the TaxPayers' Alliance and Big Brother Watch as well as the campaign director of the successful NOtoAV
NOtoAV
campaign in 2011 was announced as the chief executive of Vote Leave. On 2 November 2015, Vote Leave
Vote Leave
called on the British Polling Council to investigate "serious violations" of the Council's rules by polling organisation YouGov in a survey conducted in 2013 for the Confederation of British Industry
Confederation of British Industry
(CBI). The poll appeared to show that 8 out of 10 businesses backed Britain's continued membership of the EU. Vote Leave
Vote Leave
claimed that the poll was "wholly unrepresentative" of Britain's businesses due to skewed sampling in the poll and alleged that the research had "caused the public to be misled about the views of British businesses on the EU for nearly two years."[11][12] The British Polling Council's formal response concluded that YouGov had "not provided an adequate explanation of the sampling procedures that had been used to conduct the survey" at the time of publishing the survey,[13] whilst a leaked email sent in response to the initial complaint by Nick Moon, secretary of the British Polling Council, stated: “Survey looks pretty dodgy but luckily we don’t need to rule on that. But my initial thought is that YouGov did not give as much info as they should have.”[14][15] Vote Leave
Vote Leave
described the CBI as the "Voice of Brussels"[16] and also published research allegedly showing that the CBI had received over £1million in funding from the EU over the previous six years.[17] Research released by Vote Leave
Vote Leave
in November argued that David Cameron's plan to reduce the level of economic migration from the EU by restricting in-work benefits paid to EU migrants would be outweighed by the Government's plans to introduce a National Living Wage of £9-an-hour by 2020.[18] Vote Leave
Vote Leave
submitted an official statement in November in response to a House of Lords
House of Lords
inquiry on the relationship between EU membership and UK science, calling for science research to "replace EU membership as a fundamental priority for national policy."[19][20] An analysis by Vote Leave, published in December 2015, found that the costs of EU membership outweighed the benefits of the EU's single market as reported in the European Commission's own figures.[21][22]

A "Vote Leave" poster in Omagh
Omagh
saying "We send the EU £50 million every day. Let's spend it on our NHS instead."

Young Leave campaigner on referendum day.

Vote Leave
Vote Leave
campaign material

On 3 February 2016, Vote Leave
Vote Leave
announced that former Conservative Chancellor of the Exchequer
Chancellor of the Exchequer
Lord Lawson would be taking over as interim chairman of the Vote Leave
Vote Leave
board. Lord Forsyth, the former Secretary of State for Scotland, was also appointed to the board at this time.[23][24][25] On 20 February 2016, following David Cameron's announcement that the EU referendum would take place on 23 June 2016, five Cabinet ministers publicly declared their support for Vote Leave: Michael Gove, the Lord Chancellor and Justice Secretary, Chris Grayling, Leader of the House of Commons, Iain Duncan Smith, the Secretary of State for Work and Pensions, John Whittingdale, the Culture Secretary, Theresa Villiers, the Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, as well cabinet-attending minister Priti Patel, the Minister of State for Employment.[26][27][28] This was followed by an announcement on 21 February by the then-Mayor of London, Boris Johnson
Boris Johnson
MP, that he would also be backing the Vote Leave
Vote Leave
campaign.[29][30][31] Boris Johnson subsequently became one of the key figureheads for Vote Leave throughout the referendum campaign. On 15 June 2016, Vote Leave
Vote Leave
presented its roadmap to lay out what would happen if Britain left the EU.[32] The blueprint suggested that Parliament would pass laws: Finance Bill to scrap VAT on tampons and household energy bills; Asylum and Immigration Control Bill to end the automatic right of EU citizens to enter Britain; National Health Service (Funding Target) Bill to get an extra 100 million pounds a week; European Union
European Union
Law (Emergency Provisions) Bill; Free Trade Bill to start to negotiate its own deals with non-EU countries; and European Communities Act 1972 (Repeal) Bill to end the European Court of Justice's jurisdiction over Britain and stop making contributions to the EU budget.[32] Campaign Committee[edit] On 13 March 2016 Vote Leave
Vote Leave
announced the Vote Leave
Vote Leave
Campaign Committee, the public facing governing body that meets weekly to set the campaign strategy for Vote Leave.[33] This coincided with the announcement of Labour MP Gisela Stuart
Gisela Stuart
as the new Chairman of Vote Leave (replacing Lord Lawson) along with Gisela Stuart
Gisela Stuart
and Michael Gove as Co-Conveners of the Committee.[34] The Vote Leave
Vote Leave
Campaign Committee is

Michael Gove
Michael Gove
(Co-Convener), Conservative MP for Surrey Heath, Lord Chancellor and Secretary of State for Justice Gisela Stuart
Gisela Stuart
(Co-Convener), Labour MP for Birmingham Edgbaston Matthew Elliott (Chief Executive) Dominic Cummings (Campaign Director), former government adviser[35] Boris Johnson, Conservative MP for Uxbridge and South Ruislip, former Mayor of London Steve Baker, Conservative MP for High Wycombe Douglas Carswell, then a UKIP
UKIP
MP for Clacton Ian Davidson, former Labour MP for Glasgow South West Nigel Dodds, Democratic Unionist Party
Democratic Unionist Party
MP for Belfast North, Deputy Leader of the DUP Iain Duncan Smith, Conservative MP for Chingford and Woodford Green Frank Field, Labour MP for Birkenhead, former Minister of Welfare Reform Lord Forsyth, former Conservative MP for Stirling and Secretary of State for Scotland Liam Fox, Conservative MP for North Somerset, former Secretary of State for Defence Chris Grayling, Conservative MP for Epsom and Ewell, Leader of the House of Commons Daniel Hannan, Conservative MEP for South East England Paul Keetch, former Liberal Democrat MP for Hereford Lord Lawson, former Conservative MP for Blaby and Chancellor of the Exchequer Andrea Leadsom, Conservative MP for South Northamptonshire, Minister of State at the Department of Energy and Climate Change John Longworth, former Director-General of the British Chambers of Commerce (BCC). Longworth was suspended from his role at the BCC following his public comments in support of Brexit
Brexit
on 3 March.[36][37] Lord Owen, former Labour and SDP MP for Plymouth Devonport and Foreign Secretary Priti Patel, Conservative MP for Witham, Minister of State for Employment Dominic Raab, Conservative MP for Esher and Walton, Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for Justice Graham Stringer, Labour MP for Blackley and Broughton Theresa Villiers, Conservative MP for Chipping Barnet, Secretary of State for Northern Ireland John Whittingdale, Conservative MP for Maldon, Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport

Board[edit] The Vote Leave
Vote Leave
board was legally responsible for the campaign.[33]

Gisela Stuart
Gisela Stuart
(Chairman), Labour MP for Birmingham Edgbaston John Mills
John Mills
(Deputy chairman), founder and chairman, JML Arabella Arkwright Martin Bellamy, CEO, Salamanca Group Peter Cruddas, founder, CMC Markets Suzanne Evans, UKIP
UKIP
spokeswoman Lord Forsyth, former Conservative MP for Stirling and Secretary of State for Scotland Alan Halsall, former chairman, Silver Cross Daniel Hodson, former Chief Executive, LIFFE Bernard Jenkin, Conservative MP for Harwich and North Essex Jon Moynihan, former Executive chairman, PA Consulting Group[6] Graham Stringer, Labour MP for Blackley and Broughton Anne-Marie Trevelyan, Conservative MP for Berwick-upon-Tweed Stuart Wheeler, founder, IG Index Victoria Woodcock (company secretary)

Supporters[edit] See also: Endorsements in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
European Union
European Union
membership referendum, 2016

JCB chairman Anthony Bamford
Anthony Bamford
donated £100,000 to Vote Leave[38] Neville Baxter, director, RH Development[39] John Caudwell, entrepreneur and philanthropist[40] Joe Foster, Founder of Reebok[40] Michael Freeman, co-Founder, Argent Group[5] Oliver Hemsley, CEO, Numis Securities[40] Robert Hiscox, Honorary President, Hiscox Insurance[39] Alexander Hoare, Managing Partner, C. Hoare & Co[5] John Hoerner, former Chief Executive of Central European Clothing, Tesco[41] Luke Johnson, Chairman, Patisserie Valerie[40] Crispin Odey, Founding Partner, Odey Asset Management[6] Andrew Roberts, historian[5]

Members of Parliament supporting the organisation include UKIP
UKIP
MP Douglas Carswell, Labour MP Kelvin Hopkins, Conservative MPs Steve Baker, Bernard Jenkin
Bernard Jenkin
and Owen Paterson, and former Ulster Unionist Party leader Lord Trimble.[citation needed] Relationship with other groups[edit] Leave.EU
Leave.EU
and Grassroots Out[edit] See also: Project Fear (British politics) Vote Leave
Vote Leave
has focused on economic arguments against the European Union, while Leave.EU
Leave.EU
has made more of immigration-related issues. This has led to situations where Vote Leave
Vote Leave
and Leave.EU
Leave.EU
statements have contradicted each other, and sometimes to direct attacks by one pro- Brexit
Brexit
group against the other.[42] Infighting within Vote Leave and Leave.EU, as well as disillusion with Cummings, led to the formation of Grassroots Out
Grassroots Out
(GO).[43] Nigel Farage
Nigel Farage
is a key member of the organisation and of Leave.EU
Leave.EU
and UKIP
UKIP
donor Arron Banks is a major donor to GO,[43] whereas Vote Leave
Vote Leave
is a mainly Conservative campaign.[44] Although the groups have pledged to work together, relations between them have been difficult, with some sources saying that "the loathing within the Brexit
Brexit
camp surpasses even that between Remain and Leave".[44] Farage has said that Vote Leave
Vote Leave
is headed by "apparatchiks" and "cretins", saying that the organisation "brief[s] every day that I'm toxic, I put voters off, and there is absolutely no statistical evidence to back that up at all. ... It's crackers to think that you can win a referendum campaign with Boris [Johnson] and the likes of the cabinet", and became irritated when UKIP's sole MP Douglas Carswell
Douglas Carswell
joined Vote Leave.[45] Andy Wigmore, Leave.EU's director of communications, told Private Eye
Private Eye
that "our private polling shows Remain will win if we carry on as we are".[44] When Nigel Farage
Nigel Farage
was selected for an interview with ITV's Robert Peston instead of a Vote Leave
Vote Leave
representative, Vote Leave
Vote Leave
issued a statement accusing Peston of bias and threatening "consequences" for the broadcaster if Vote Leave
Vote Leave
members formed a government post-referendum.[46] Michael Grade, Conservative life peer and former head of both the BBC and ITV, accused Vote Leave
Vote Leave
of using "unacceptable" "bullying tactics".[46] In response, Farage said that "I'm not going to compare myself to any of the others. ... But I do know the subject well. I've been doing this for a long time."[45] Political parties[edit] Labour MPs who want to exit the European Union
European Union
on left-wing grounds have expressed their concern over being marginalised by Conservative and UKIP
UKIP
domination of the Vote Leave
Vote Leave
campaign. Labour donor John Mills was replaced by Conservative peer Lord (Nigel) Lawson as chairman of the group on 5 February 2016, which prompted a source close to the campaign to tell The Morning Star that "Given that we need to win over Labour and socialist voters to win, how can we have a Tory grandee leading the campaign? Labour Leave's position in the campaign is very difficult after this."[47] The Green Party of England and Wales' representative in the House of Lords, Baroness Jones, previously supported Vote Leave[5] but withdrew her support for the organisation following its decision to appoint Lawson as its chairman, tweeting that she "Will vote to Leave EU but can't work with an organisation with so little judgement as to put Lawson at its head."[48] However, in mid-March Labour MP Gisela Stuart
Gisela Stuart
replaced Lawson as Chair of Vote Leave Charities[edit] Matthew Elliott, the chief executive of Vote Leave, was former chief executive of the TaxPayers' Alliance (TPA) and founded Politics and Economics Research Trust (PERT) in 2004. Labour MP and former Shadow Minister for Europe, Emma Reynolds, questioned the affairs of the TPA and PERT, writing to the Charity Commission
Charity Commission
that "Pert may be in breach of charities legally binding commitments to preserve their independence, specifically regarding political activity and the delivery of charitable objectives". Of £532,000 PERT paid out in grants in 2014, £300,000 went to the TPA and £205,000 to Business for Britain, both of which are Eurosceptic. £10,000 went to Global Britain, which has campaigned for Brexit. Charitable trusts are not allowed to be used for political purposes under British charity law.[49] Criticism[edit] Strategy[edit] During 2015, the group established a fake company[50] to gain entry to a speech being given by Prime Minister David Cameron
David Cameron
at the Confederation of British Industry
Confederation of British Industry
where they heckled him and held banners stating "CBI = voice of Brussels". Cummings subsequently stated: "You think it is nasty? You ain’t seen nothing yet. These guys have failed the country, they are going to be under the magnifying glass. Tough shit ... It is going to be tough".[51] The campaign also stated their intention to target and disrupt meetings of pro-EU organisations and companies.[52] In a letter to the Electoral Commission, Sir Eric Pickles, the former Conservative cabinet minister, said he believed Vote Leave
Vote Leave
had disqualified itself from lead status in the referendum (which entitles the campaign to public funding) after it pledged to run a "nasty" campaign against opponents.[51] Criticism emerged in 2018 of their relationship with their relationship with their 'Outreach Groups' such as Beleave[53], as claims emerged that they were puppet organisations through which Vote Leave channeled money[54] to circumvent spending restrictions.[55] George Eaton wrote, “[The] allegations bear the imprimatur of three senior barristers ( Clare Montgomery QC, Helen Mountfield QC and Ben Silverstone of Matrix Chambers) who concluded that Vote Leave
Vote Leave
may have 'spent huge sums unlawfully', that there are 'grounds to suspect' that campaign director and former Michael Gove
Michael Gove
aide Dominic Cummings “conspired to break the law” and that Stephen Parkinson and fellow No. 10 aide Cleo Watson may have 'conspired with others to commit offences'”.[56] BeLeave was based inside the Vote Leave
Vote Leave
headquarters[57] Post referendum campaign[edit] Noting the absence of post-victory celebrations, Nick Cohen
Nick Cohen
wrote in a Guardian newspaper article that it reflected the fear of the two main leaders Johnson and Gove, both journalists, that they would be “found out.” He said that the Leave camp had no plan and provided a single simplistic answer to EU problems condemning the UK Statistics Authority as “stooges” and other experts as “corrupt liars in Brussel’s pocket.” The campaign - an alliance of left and right wing campaigners - had made promises on immigration and the National Health Service on which some politicians[which?] were backtracking.[58] Michael Dougan, Professor of European Law and Jean Monnet Chair in EU Law at the University of Liverpool, described the Vote Leave
Vote Leave
and other Leave campaigns as "one of the most dishonest political campaigns this country [the UK] has every seen".[59] His position was mirrored by many other experts and academics.[60] In August 2016 the Electoral Reform Society
Electoral Reform Society
published a highly critical report and called for a review of how such future events are run. Contrasting it unfavourably with the 'well-informed grassroots' campaign for Scottish independence, Chief Executive Katie Ghose described it as "dire" with “glaring democratic deficiencies” which left voters bewildered. She noted a generally negative response to establishment figures with 29% of voters saying David Cameron
David Cameron
made them more likely to vote leave whilst only 14% said he made them want to vote remain. Looking ahead, the society called for an official organisation to highlight misleading claims and for Ofcom
Ofcom
to define the role broadcasters are expected to play.[61] In November 2017, the Electoral Commission announced that it was reopening its investigation of Vote Leave's EU referendum spending.[62] See also[edit]

Better Off Out Business for Britain Campaign for an Independent Britain Conservatives for Britain Democracy Movement European Research Group Get Britain Out Grassroots Out
Grassroots Out
(GO) Labour Leave BeLeave Leave Means Leave Leave.EU Students for Britain Change Britain Labour In for Britain Britain Stronger in Europe

References[edit]

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Vote Leave
designated as official EU referendum Out campaign".  ^ George Parker (13 March 2016). " Michael Gove
Michael Gove
and Gisela Stuart
Gisela Stuart
to head Vote Leave
Vote Leave
group". Financial Times. Retrieved 14 March 2016.  ^ a b c d e "Millionaire donors and business leaders back Vote Leave campaign to exit EU". The Guardian
The Guardian
– via Press Association.  ^ a b c "The Campaign". Vote Leave. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 15 November 2015.  ^ "Matthew Elliott: Welcome to BrexitCentral". Retrieved 31 March 2018.  ^ "Businesses, MPs launch 'Vote Leave' campaign to push for Brexit". Reuters UK. Reuters Editorial. 8 October 2015. Retrieved 15 March 2016.  ^ "The battle to be the official EU referendum Leave campaign". BBC News. Retrieved 15 March 2016.  ^ "Rich, private school, Oxford. Meet John Mills, Labour's biggest donor". The Daily Telegraph. 15 September 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2016.  ^ "Pro-Europe CBI poll was rigged, claims 'no' lobby". The Times. Retrieved 15 March 2016.  ^ Macer Hall. "CBI 'rigged survey to ensure it backed staying in the EU'". Daily Express. Retrieved 15 March 2016.  ^ "BPC Announces Findings in Respect of Complaint by Mr Dominic Cummings". British Polling Council. Retrieved 15 March 2016.  ^ "Polling chief hits 'reply all' and calls anti-EU campaigner 'odious' in email over pro-Brussels poll". Daily Mail. 3 November 2015. Retrieved 15 March 2016.  ^ " Vote Leave
Vote Leave
chief called 'odious' in email mistakenly sent to him by polling boss". Sun Nation. Retrieved 15 March 2016.  ^ "CBI attacked as 'voice of Brussels' by anti-EU campaigners". The Daily Telegraph. 9 November 2015. Retrieved 15 March 2016.  ^ "CBI 'compromised by EU cash'". The Times. Retrieved 15 March 2016.  ^ "George Osborne's £9 National Living Wage will make Britain a BIGGER draw for migrants". Daily Mail. 11 November 2015. Retrieved 15 March 2016.  ^ " Vote Leave
Vote Leave
claims 'EU exit could make science bigger priority in UK'". Times Higher Education (THE). Retrieved 15 March 2016.  ^ "Relationship between EU membership and the effectiveness of UK science publications". UK Parliament. Retrieved 15 March 2016.  ^ "Costs of EU membership 'outweigh benefits'". The Daily Telegraph. 29 December 2015. Retrieved 15 March 2016.  ^ Macer Hall. "Britain is losing a staggering £4.5bn a year in EU membership – Politics – News – Daily Express". Daily Express. Retrieved 15 March 2016.  ^ "Ex-Chancellor Lord Lawson To Lead 'Vote Leave'". Sky News. Retrieved 15 March 2016.  ^ "EU referendum: Lord Lawson to chair Vote Leave
Vote Leave
campaign". BBC News. Retrieved 15 March 2016.  ^ "Lord Lawson announced as chairman of Vote Leave
Vote Leave
as controversial figures are dropped from the board". The Daily Telegraph. 3 February 2016. Retrieved 15 March 2016.  ^ Peter Apps (20 February 2016). "EU referendum: Vote Leave
Vote Leave
launches campaign featuring Michael Gove, Chris Grayling and Iain Duncan Smith". The Independent. Retrieved 15 March 2016.  ^ Nicholas Watt. " Michael Gove
Michael Gove
and five other cabinet members break ranks with PM over EU". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 March 2016.  ^ Dan Bloom (20 February 2016). "How are Tory Cabinet ministers voting in the EU referendum?". mirror. Retrieved 15 March 2016.  ^ Nicholas Watt. " Boris Johnson
Boris Johnson
to campaign for Brexit
Brexit
in EU referendum". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 March 2016.  ^ " Boris Johnson
Boris Johnson
exclusive: There is only one way to get the change we want – vote to leave the EU". The Daily Telegraph. 22 February 2016. Retrieved 15 March 2016.  ^ "EU referendum: Time to vote for real change, says Boris Johnson". BBC News. Retrieved 15 March 2016.  ^ a b EU referendum: Vote Leave
Vote Leave
sets out post- Brexit
Brexit
plans BBC News, 15 June 2016 ^ a b " Gisela Stuart
Gisela Stuart
to Chair Vote Leave
Vote Leave
campaign". Vote Leave. Archived from the original on 27 July 2016. Retrieved 15 March 2016.  ^ " Michael Gove
Michael Gove
and Gisela Stuart
Gisela Stuart
to head Vote Leave
Vote Leave
group". Financial Times.  ^ "Bagehot" (21 January 2016). "An interview with Dominic Cummings". The Economist. Retrieved 29 March 2016.  ^ Samuel Osborne (5 March 2016). "EU referendum: BCC boss John Longworth 'suspended over Brexit
Brexit
comments'". The Independent. Retrieved 15 March 2016.  ^ "Business boss suspended after board told Downing Street was 'pretty damned angry'". The Daily Telegraph. 8 March 2016. Retrieved 15 March 2016.  ^ Chan, Szu Ping (10 October 2016). "Manufacturing giant JCB ends CBI membership over anti- Brexit
Brexit
stance". Telegraph. Retrieved 25 August 2017.  ^ a b " Vote Leave
Vote Leave
unveils 30-strong expert group to dismiss Brexit fears". City A.M.
City A.M.
23 May 2016.  ^ a b c d "The Brexit
Brexit
campaign is starting to look like it could win". Business Insider. 9 October 2015. Retrieved 18 December 2017.  ^ "EU referendum: 250 business leaders back exit, say campaigners". BBC News. 26 March 2016.  ^ Jim Waterson (18 April 2016). "Anti-EU Campaign Groups Are Contradicting Each Other And It's A Mess". BuzzFeed. Retrieved 24 May 2016.  ^ a b "Sceptic Cranks". Private Eye
Private Eye
(1411). Pressdram Ltd. 5 February 2016. p. 13.  ^ a b c 'Ratbiter' (27 May 2016). "Outers who want Kippers for breakfast". Private Eye
Private Eye
(1419). Pressdram Ltd. p. 11. Archived from the original on 28 May 2016. Retrieved 31 May 2016.  ^ a b Aitkenhead, Decca (20 May 2016). "Nigel Farage: 'Vote Leave brief every day that I'm toxic. Quite the opposite'". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 May 2016.  ^ a b Ned Simmons (12 May 2016). " Vote Leave
Vote Leave
Brexit
Brexit
Campaign Accused of Deploying 'Shocking Bullying Tactics' Over TV Debates". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 24 May 2016.  ^ James, Luke (5 February 2016). "Labour MPs warn of split as Vote Leave turns right". The Morning Star. p. 3. Retrieved 5 February 2016.  ^ Sparrow, Andrew (5 February 2016). "EU campaign feuds may lead to no official Brexit
Brexit
group". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 February 2016.  ^ Boffey, Daniel (12 December 2015). "Charity alleged to have illegally funded Brexit
Brexit
campaign groups". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 February 2016.  ^ Matt Dathan (9 November 2015). "Anti-EU protesters create fake firm to heckle David Cameron
David Cameron
during CBI speech". The Independent.  ^ a b Nicholas Watt (11 November 2015). " Eric Pickles
Eric Pickles
says Vote Leave campaign should be denied lead status". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 February 2016.  ^ "Hecklers interrupt David Cameron's EU speech to the CBI". Financial Times.  ^ Outreach groups - Vote Leave ^ "' Vote Leave
Vote Leave
committed crime on Brexit
Brexit
campaign'". Evening Standard. 27/03/2018. Retrieved 27 March 2018.  Check date values in: date= (help) ^ "BeLeave revelations taint the Brexit
Brexit
result. There must be another vote". Guardian. 27/03/2018. Retrieved 27/03/2018.  Check date values in: access-date=, date= (help) ^ “We need to take back control”: Brexit
Brexit
whistleblower Shahmir Sanni on why there must be a new EU referendum New Statesman ^ " Brexit
Brexit
campaign was 'totally illegal'". Channel Four. Retrieved 31 March 2018.  ^ Nick Cohen
Nick Cohen
(25 June 2016). "There are liars and then there's Boris Johnson and Michael Gove". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 March 2017.  Nick Cohen ^ "Professor Michael Dougan assesses UK's position following vote to leave the EU". 30 Jun 2016. Retrieved 30 Jun 2016.  ^ "EU referendum: nine out of 10 university staff back Remain". June 16, 2016. Retrieved June 16, 2016.  ^ Rajeev Syal (1 September 2016). "Electoral reform campaigners slam 'dire' EU referendum debate". Guardian newspapers. Retrieved 1 September 2016.  ^ "Brexit: Electoral Commission reopens probe into Vote Leave". BBC News. 20 November 2017. 

External links[edit]

Examples of Vote Leave
Vote Leave
campaign leaflets

v t e

United Kingdom
United Kingdom
European Union
European Union
membership referendum, 2016

Renegotiation Results Aftermath Brexit

Referendum question

"Should the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
remain a member of the European Union
European Union
or leave the European Union?"

Referendum legislation

European Union
European Union
Referendum Act 2015 European Union
European Union
(Referendum) Act 2016 (Gibraltar)

Background

Treaty of Rome UK Accession to the European Communities Treaty of Accession 1972 European Communities Act 1972 1973 EC enlargement 1975 European Communities membership referendum Single European Act European Communities (Amendment) Act 1986 UK rebate Black Wednesday Maastricht Treaty Treaty on European Union European Communities (Amendment) Act 1993 European Economic Area European Economic Area
European Economic Area
Act 1993 Treaty of Amsterdam European Communities (Amendment) Act 1998 Treaty of Nice European Communities (Amendment) Act 2002 Treaty of Accession 2003 European Union
European Union
(Accessions) Act 2003 European Constitution European Union
European Union
Bill 2005 Treaty of Lisbon Withdrawal from the European Union Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union European Union
European Union
(Amendment) Act 2008 European Union
European Union
Act 2011 European Union
European Union
(Referendum) Bill 2013 2014 UK European Parliament election 2015 UK general election Euroscepticism in the United Kingdom

Campaign

2016 referendum campaign Issues Opinion polling Endorsements Project Fear

Campaign organisations

Remain

Official campaign

Britain Stronger in Europe

Other campaigns

Labour In for Britain

Leave

Official campaign

Vote Leave

Other campaigns

Leave.EU Grassroots Out Labour Leave Campaign for an Independent Britain The Freedom Association

Better Off Out

Get Britain Out Bruges Group

Televised debates

The European Union: In or Out (2014)

Aftermath

International reactions Conservative Party leadership election Labour Party leadership election UK Independence Party
UK Independence Party
leadership election (September) UK Independence Party
UK Independence Party
leadership election (November) 2017 UK general election

Brexit

R (Miller) v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union United Kingdom
United Kingdom
invocation of Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union Brexit
Brexit
negotiations Effect of Brexit
Brexit
on Gibraltar Effects of Brexit
Brexit
on science and technology WTO Option

Brexit
Brexit
legislation

European Union
European Union
(Notification of Withdrawal) Act 2017 European Union
European Union
(Withdrawal) Bill

Related

Brexit: The Movie (2016 documentary) Change Britain "Enemies of the People" London independence More United The New European
The New European
(newspaper) Open Britain Proposed second Scottish independence referendum United Ireland Status of Akrotiri and Dhekelia
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
and Gibraltar Impact of Brexit
Brexit
on

.