(Russian: Восто́к, East or
1) was the first
spaceflight of the
and the first manned spaceflight
in history. The
space capsule was launched from Baikonur
Cosmodrome on April 12, 1961, with Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin
aboard, making him the first human to cross into outer space.
The orbital spaceflight consisted of a single orbit around Earth which
skimmed the upper atmosphere at 169 kilometers (91 nautical miles) at
its lowest point. The flight took 108 minutes from launch to landing.
Gagarin parachuted to the ground separately from his capsule after
ejecting at 7 km (23,000 ft) altitude.
3 Medical exam
4.1 Automatic control
4.2 April 11, 1961
5.2 Time in orbit
6 Reentry and landing
7 Reactions and legacy
7.1 Soviet reaction
7.2 American reaction
7.3 Other world reactions
7.4 World record
8 See also
11 External links
Main article: Vostok programme
Space Race between the
Soviet Union and the United States, the two
Cold War superpowers, began just before the
Soviet Union launched the
world's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, in 1957. Both countries
wanted to develop spaceflight technology quickly, particularly by
launching the first successful human spaceflight. The Soviet Union
secretly pursued the
Vostok programme in competition with the United
States Project Mercury. Vostok launched several precursor unmanned
missions between May 1960 and March 1961, to test and develop the
Vostok rocket family and space capsule. These missions had varied
degrees of success, but the final two—
Korabl-Sputnik 4 and
Korabl-Sputnik 5—were complete successes, allowing the first manned
See also Selection and training of the Vostok programme
Vostok 1 capsule was designed to carry a single cosmonaut. Yuri
Gagarin, 27, was chosen as the prime pilot of Vostok 1, with Gherman
Grigori Nelyubov as backups. These assignments were formally
made on April 8, four days before the mission, but Gagarin had been a
favourite among the cosmonaut candidates for at least several
The final decision of who would fly the mission relied heavily on the
opinion of the head of cosmonaut training, Nikolai Kamanin. In an
April 5 diary entry, Kamanin wrote that he was still undecided between
Gagarin and Titov. "The only thing that keeps me from picking
[Titov] is the need to have the stronger person for the one day
flight." Kamanin was referring to the second mission, Vostok 2,
compared to the relatively short single-orbit mission of Vostok 1.
When Gagarin and Titov were informed of the decision during a meeting
on April 9, Gagarin was very happy, and Titov was disappointed. On
April 10, this meeting was reenacted in front of television cameras,
so there would be official footage of the event. This included an
acceptance speech by Gagarin. As an indication of the level of
secrecy involved, one of the other cosmonaut candidates, Alexei
Leonov, later recalled that he did not know who was chosen for the
mission until after the spaceflight had begun.
Gagarin was examined by a team of doctors prior to his flight. One
doctor gave her recollection of the events in an interview with Russia
Today in April 2011: "Gagarin looked more pale than usual. He was
unsociable and quiet, which was not like him at all. He would answer
by nodding or a short 'yes' to all questions. Sometimes he would start
humming some tunes. This was a different Gagarin. We geared him up,
and hugged. And I said, 'Yuri, everything will be fine.' And he nodded
Model of the Vostok spacecraft with its upper stage, on display in
Frankfurt Airport's "Russia in Space" exhibition
Unlike later Vostok missions, there were no dedicated tracking ships
available to receive signals from the spacecraft. Instead they relied
on the network of ground stations, also called Command Points, to
communicate with the spacecraft; all of these Command Points were
located within the Soviet Union.
Because of weight constraints, there was no backup retrorocket engine.
The spacecraft carried 10 days of provisions to allow for survival and
natural orbital decay in the event the retrorockets failed.
The letters "CCCP" were hand-painted onto Gagarin's helmet by engineer
Sergeevich Lebedev during transfer to the launch site. As it had been
less than a year since U2 pilot Gary Powers was shot down, Lebedev
reasoned that without some country identification, there was a small
chance the cosmonaut might be mistaken for a spy on landing.
Part of the
Vostok 1 instrument panel prominently displaying the
"Globus" navigation instrument
The entire mission would be controlled by either automatic systems or
by ground control. This was because medical staff and spacecraft
engineers were unsure how a human might react to weightlessness, and
therefore it was decided to lock the pilot's manual controls. In an
unusual move, a code to unlock the controls was placed in an onboard
envelope, for Gagarin's use in case of emergency.:278 Prior to the
flight, Kamanin and others told Gagarin the code anyway.
April 11, 1961
Electrocardiogram of Gagarin recorded April 11, 1961, at 19 hours and
35 minutes. Exhibited at the
Memorial Museum of Cosmonautics
Memorial Museum of Cosmonautics in
Baikonur Cosmodrome on the morning of April 11, 1961, the Vostok-K
rocket, together with the attached
Vostok 3KA space capsule, were
transported several kilometers to the launch pad, in a horizontal
position. Once they arrived at the launch pad, a quick examination of
the booster was conducted by technicians to make sure everything was
in order. When no visible problems were found, the booster was erected
on LC-1. At 10:00 (Moscow Time), Gagarin and Titov were given a
final review of the flight plan. They were informed that launch
was scheduled to occur the following day, at 09:07 Moscow Time. This
time was chosen so that when the capsule started to fly over Africa,
which was when the retrorockets would need to fire for reentry, the
solar illumination would be ideal for the orientation system's
At 18:00, once various physiological readings had been taken, the
doctors instructed the cosmonauts not to discuss the upcoming
missions. That evening Gagarin and Titov relaxed by listening to
music, playing pool, and chatting about their childhoods. At
21:50, both men were offered sleeping pills, to ensure a good night's
sleep, but they both declined. Physicians had attached sensors to
the cosmonauts, to monitor their condition throughout the night, and
they believed that both had slept well. Gagarin's biographers
Doran and Bizony say that neither Gagarin nor Titov slept that
night. Chief Designer
Sergei Korolev didn't sleep that night, due
to anxiety caused by the imminent spaceflight.
At 05:30 Moscow time, on the morning of April 12, 1961, both Gagarin
and his backup Titov were woken. They were given breakfast,
assisted into their spacesuits, and then were transported to the
launch pad. Gagarin entered the
Vostok 1 spacecraft, and at 07:10
local time (04:10 UTC), the radio communication system was turned
on. Once Gagarin was in the spacecraft, his picture appeared on
television screens in the launch control room from an onboard camera.
Launch would not occur for another two hours, and during the time
Gagarin chatted with the mission's main CapCom, as well as Chief
Designer Sergei Korolev, Nikolai Kamanin, and a few others.
Following a series of tests and checks, about forty minutes after
Gagarin entered the spacecraft, its hatch was closed. Gagarin,
however, reported that the hatch was not sealed properly, and
technicians spent nearly an hour removing all the screws and sealing
the hatch again. According to a 2014 obituary, Vostok's chief
designer, Oleg Ivanovsky, personally helped rebolt the hatch.
There is some disagreement over whether the hatch was in fact not
sealed correctly, as a more recent account stated the indication was
During this time Gagarin requested some music to be played over the
radio. Korolev was suffering from chest pains and close to a
nervous breakdown, as this was the 24th Soviet space
launch and the 16th involving a Luna/Vostok booster, and to that point
12 launches had failed, for a success rate of exactly 50%.[citation
needed] Two Vostoks had failed to reach orbit due to launch vehicle
malfunctions and another two malfunctioned in orbit. Korolev was given
a pill to calm him down. Gagarin, on the other hand, was described
as calm; about half an hour before launch his pulse was recorded at 64
beats per minute.
Launch of Vostok 1
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06:07 UT Launch occurred from the
Baikonur Cosmodrome Site No.1.
Korolev radioed, "Preliminary stage..... intermediate..... main.....
lift off! We wish you a good flight. Everything is all right." Gagarin
replied, "Let's go! (Poyekhali!)."
06:09 UT (T+ 119 s) The four strap-on boosters of the Vostok rocket
used up the last of their propellant and dropped away from the core
06:10 UT (T+ 156 s) The payload shroud covering
Vostok 1 was released,
uncovering a window at Gagarin's feet, with an optical orientation
device Vzor (lit. "look" or "glance").
06:12 UT (T+ 300 s) The rocket core stage used up its propellant and
fell away from the capsule and final rocket stage. The final rocket
06:13 UT Gagarin reported, "...the flight is continuing well. I can
see the Earth. The visibility is good.... I almost see everything.
There's a certain amount of space under cumulus cloud cover. I
continue the flight, everything is good."
Vostok 1 passed over central Russia. Gagarin reported,
"Everything is working very well. All systems are working. Let's keep
06:15 UT Three minutes into the burn of the final rocket stage,
Gagarin radioed, "Zarya-1, Zarya-1, I can't hear you very well. I feel
fine. I'm in good spirits. I'm continuing the flight..." Vostok 1
started to move out of radio range of the
Baikonur ground station.
06:17 UT The rocket final stage shut down and
Vostok 1 reached orbit.
Ten seconds later the rocket separated from the capsule.
Time in orbit
Ground trace of Gagarin's complete orbit; the landing point is west of
the takeoff point because of the Earth's eastward rotation.
06:18 UT (T+ 676 s) Gagarin reported, "The craft is operating
normally. I can see Earth in the view port of the Vzor. Everything is
proceeding as planned".
Vostok 1 passed over the
Soviet Union and
moved on over Siberia.
Vostok 1 passed over the
Kamchatka peninsula and out over the
North Pacific Ocean. Gagarin radioed, "...the lights are on on the
descent mode monitor. I'm feeling fine, and I'm in good spirits.
Cockpit parameters: pressure 1; humidity 65; temperature 20; pressure
in the compartment 1; first automatic 155; second automatic 155;
pressure in the retro-rocket system 320 atmospheres...."
06:25 UT As
Vostok 1 began its diagonal crossing of the Pacific Ocean
Kamchatka peninsula to the southern tip of South America, Gagarin
requested information about his orbital parameters: "What can you tell
me about the flight? What can you tell me?". The ground station at
Khabarovsk didn't have his orbital parameters yet, and reported back,
"There are no instructions from No. 20 [code name for Korolyov], and
the flight is proceeding normally." (Ground control did not know until
25 minutes after launch that a stable orbit had been achieved.)
06:31 UT Gagarin transmitted to the
Khabarovsk ground station, "I feel
splendid, very well, very well, very well. Give me some results on the
flight!". At this time,
Vostok 1 was nearing the VHF radio horizon for
Khabarovsk, and they responded, "Repeat. I can't hear you very well".
Gagarin transmitted again, "I feel very good. Give me your data on the
Vostok 1 then passed out of VHF range of the Khabarovsk
Vostok 1 continued on its journey as the sun set over the
North Pacific. Gagarin crossed into night, northwest of the Hawaiian
Islands. Out of VHF range with ground stations, communications
continued via HF radio.
Khabarovsk ground station sent the message "KK" via telegraph
(on HF radio to Vostok 1). This was a code meaning, "Report the
monitoring of commands," a request for Gagarin to report when the
spacecraft automated descent system had received its instructions from
Vostok 1 crossed the equator at about 170° West in a
southeast direction, and began crossing the South Pacific. Gagarin
transmitted over HF radio, "I am transmitting the regular report
message: 9 hours 48 minutes (Moscow Time), the flight is proceeding
successfully. Spusk-1 is operating normally. The mobile index of the
descent mode monitor is moving. Pressure in the cockpit is 1; humidity
65; temperature 20; pressure in the compartment 1.2 ... Manual 150;
First automatic 155; second automatic 155; retro rocket system tanks
320 atmospheres. I feel fine...."
06:49 UT Gagarin reported he was on the night side of the Earth.
06:51 UT Gagarin reported the sun-seeking attitude control system was
switched on; this oriented
Vostok 1 for retrofire. The automatic/solar
system was backed up by a manual/visual system; either one could
operate the two redundant cold nitrogen gas thruster systems, each
with 10 kg (22 lb) of gas.
06:53 UT The
Khabarovsk ground station sent Gagarin via HF radio, "By
order of No.33 (General Nikolai Kamanin), the transmitters have been
switched on, and we are transmitting this: the flight is proceeding as
planned and the orbit is as calculated."
Vostok 1 was now known to be
in a stable orbit; Gagarin acknowledged.
Vostok 1 was over the South Pacific between New Zealand and
Chile as Gagarin radioed, "...I'm continuing the flight, and I'm over
America. I transmitted the telegraph signal "ON".
Vostok 1 crossed the
Strait of Magellan
Strait of Magellan at the tip of South
America. News of the
Vostok 1 mission was broadcast on Radio
07:04 UT Gagarin sent another spacecraft status message, similar to
the one at 06:48. This was not received by ground stations.
07:09 UT Gagarin sent another spacecraft status message, also not
received by ground stations.
Vostok 1 passed over the South Atlantic, into daylight again.
At this point, retrofire is 15 minutes away.
07:13 UT Gagarin sent a fourth spacecraft status message; Moscow
received this partial message: "I read you well. The flight is
07:18 UT Gagarin sent another spacecraft status message, not received
by ground stations.
07:23 UT Gagarin sent another spacecraft status message, not received
by ground stations.
The automatic orientation system brought
Vostok 1 into alignment for
retrofire about 1 hour into the flight.
Reentry and landing
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Vostok 1 capsule on display at the RKK Energiya museum
At 07:25 UT, the spacecraft's automatic systems brought it into the
required attitude (orientation) for the retrorocket firing, and
shortly afterwards, the liquid-fueled engine fired for about 42
seconds over the west coast of Africa, near Angola, about 8,000
kilometers (4,300 nautical miles) uprange of the landing point. The
orbit's perigee and apogee had been selected to cause reentry due to
orbital decay within 10 days (the limit of the life support system
function) in the event of retrorocket malfunction. However, the actual
orbit differed from the planned and would not have allowed descent
until 20 days.
Ten seconds after retrofire, commands were sent to separate the Vostok
service module from the reentry module (code name sharik, "little
ball"), but the equipment module unexpectedly remained attached to the
reentry module by a bundle of wires. At around 07:35 UT, the two parts
of the spacecraft began reentry and went through strong gyrations as
Vostok 1 neared Egypt. At this point the wires broke, the two modules
separated, and the descent module settled into the proper reentry
attitude. Gagarin telegraphed "Everything is OK" despite continuing
gyrations; he later reported that he did not want to "make noise" as
he had (correctly) reasoned that the gyrations did not endanger the
mission (and were apparently caused by the spherical shape of the
reentry module). As Gagarin continued his descent, he remained
conscious as he experienced about 8 g during reentry. (Gagarin's own
report states "over 10 g".)
At 07:55 UT, when
Vostok 1 was still 7 km from the ground, the
hatch of the spacecraft was released, and two seconds later Gagarin
was ejected. At 2.5 km (8,200 ft) altitude, the main
parachute was deployed from the Vostok spacecraft. Two schoolgirls
witnessed the Vostok landing and described the scene: "It was a huge
ball, about two or three meters high. It fell, then it bounced and
then it fell again. There was a huge hole where it hit the first
Gagarin's parachute opened almost right away, and about ten minutes
later, at 08:05 UT, Gagarin landed. Both he and the spacecraft landed
via parachute 26 km (16 mi) south west of Engels, in the
Saratov region at 51°16′14″N 45°59′50″E / 51.270682°N
45.99727°E / 51.270682; 45.99727. It was 2800 km to the west
of the planned landing site (near Baikonur).
A farmer and her daughter observed the strange scene of a figure in a
bright orange suit with a large white helmet landing near them by
parachute. Gagarin later recalled, "When they saw me in my space suit
and the parachute dragging alongside as I walked, they started to back
away in fear. I told them, don't be afraid, I am a Soviet citizen like
you, who has descended from space and I must find a telephone to call
Reactions and legacy
Gagarin's flight was announced on the Soviet radio by Yuri Levitan,
the speaker who had announced all major events in the Great Patriotic
War, while Gagarin was still in orbit. Although with all previous and
most subsequent Soviet rocket launches, the news would only be aired
Sergei Korolev wrote a note to the Party Central
Committee, to convince them that the announcement should be made as
early as possible:
We consider it advisable to publish the first
TASS report immediately
after the satellite-spacecraft enters orbit, for the following
(a) if a rescue becomes necessary, it will facilitate rapid
organization of a rescue;
(b) it precludes any foreign government declaring that the cosmonaut
is a military scout.
The flight was celebrated as a great triumph of the Soviet science and
technology demonstrating the superiority of the socialist system over
capitalism. Moscow and other cities in the USSR held mass
demonstrations, the scale of which was comparable to World War II
Victory Parades. Gagarin was awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet
Union, the nation's highest honour. He also became an international
celebrity with numerous honours and awards.
April 12 was declared
Cosmonautics Day in the USSR, and is celebrated
today in Russia as one of the official "Commemorative Dates of
Russia." In 2011, it was declared the International Day of Human
Space Flight by the United Nations.
Gagarin's informal reply poyekhali! became a historical phrase used to
refer to the arrival of the
Space Age in human history. Later it
was included in the refrain of a Soviet patriotic song written by
Alexandra Pakhmutova and
Nikolai Dobronravov (He said "let's go!" He
waved his hand).
The Soviet press later reported that, minutes before boarding the
spacecraft, Gagarin made a speech: "Dear friends, you who are close to
me, and you whom I do not know, fellow Russians, and people of all
countries and all continents: in a few minutes a powerful space
vehicle will carry me into the distant realm of space. What can I tell
you in these last minutes before the launch? My whole life appears to
me as one beautiful moment. All that I previously lived through and
did, was lived through and done for the sake of this moment."
Officially, the U.S. congratulated the
Soviet Union on its
accomplishments. Writing for
The New York Times
The New York Times shortly after the
flight, however, journalist
Arthur Krock described mixed feelings in
the United States due to fears of the spaceflight's potential military
implications for the Cold War, and the
Detroit Free Press
Detroit Free Press wrote
that "the people of Washington, London, Paris and all points between
might have been dancing in the streets" if it were not for "doubts and
suspicions" about Soviet intentions. Other US writers reported
worries that the spaceflight had won a propaganda victory on behalf of
John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy was quoted as saying that
it would be "some time" before the US could match the Soviet launch
vehicle technology, and that "the news will be worse before it's
better." Kennedy also sent congratulations to the
Soviet Union for
their "outstanding technical achievement." Opinion pages of many
US newspapers urged renewed efforts to overtake the Soviet scientific
Adlai Stevenson, then the US ambassador to the United Nations, was
quoted as saying, "Now that the Soviet scientists have put a man into
space and brought him back alive, I hope they will also help to bring
United Nations back alive," and on a more serious note urged
international agreements covering the use of space (which did not
occur until the
Outer Space Treaty
Outer Space Treaty of 1967).
Other world reactions
Jawaharlal Nehru of
India praised the
Soviet Union for
"a great victory of man over the forces of nature" and urged that
it be "considered as a victory for peace."
The Economist voiced
worries that orbital platforms might be used for surprise nuclear
Svenska Dagbladet in Sweden chided "free countries"
for "splitting up and frittering away" their resources, while West
Die Welt argued that America had the resources to have sent
a man into space first but was beaten by Soviet purposefulness.
Yomiuri Shimbun urged "that both the United States and the
Soviet Union should use their new knowledge and techniques for the
good of mankind," and Egypt's
Akhbar El Yom
Akhbar El Yom likewise expressed
hopes that the cold war would "turn into a peaceful race in infinite
space" and turn away from armed conflicts such as the Laotian Civil
The FAI rules in 1961 required that a pilot must land with the
spacecraft to be considered an official spaceflight for the FAI record
books.:283 Although some contemporary Soviet sources stated that
Gagarin had parachuted separately to the ground, the Soviet Union
officially insisted that he had landed with the Vostok; the government
forced the cosmonaut to lie in press conferences, and the FAI
certified the flight. The
Soviet Union did not admit until 1971 that
Gagarin had ejected and landed separately from the Vostok descent
When Soviet officials filled out the FAI papers to register the flight
of Vostok 1, they stated that the launch site was Baykonur at
47°22′00″N 65°29′00″E / 47.36667°N 65.48333°E /
47.36667; 65.48333. In reality, the launch site was near
45°55′12.72″N 63°20′32.32″E / 45.9202000°N
63.3423111°E / 45.9202000; 63.3423111, 250 km (160 mi)
to the south west of "Baykonur". They did this to try to keep the
location of the Space Center a secret.:284 In 1995, Russian and
Kazakh officials renamed
Commemorative monument, Vostok-1 landing site near Engels, Russia
Four decades after the flight, historian
Asif Azam Siddiqi wrote that
will undoubtedly remain one of the major milestones in not only the
history of space exploration, but also the history of the human race
itself. The fact that this accomplishment was successfully carried out
by the Soviet Union, a country completely devastated by war just
sixteen years prior, makes the achievement even more impressive.
Unlike the United States, the USSR had to begin from a position of
tremendous disadvantage. Its industrial infrastructure had been
ruined, and its technological capabilities were outdated at best. A
good portion of its land had been devastated by war, and it had lost
about 25 million citizens ... but it was the totalitarian state that
overwhelmingly took the lead [in the space race].:282
The landing site is now a monument park. The central feature in the
park is a 25 meter tall monument that consists of a silver metallic
rocketship rising on a curved metallic column of flame, from a wedge
shaped, white stone base. In front of this is a 3 meter tall, white
stone statue of Yuri Gagarin, wearing a spacesuit, with one arm raised
in greeting and the other holding a space helmet.
Vostok 1 re-entry capsule is now on display at the RKK Energiya
museum in Korolyov, near Moscow.
In 2011, documentary film maker
Christopher Riley partnered with
European Space Agency
European Space Agency astronaut
Paolo Nespoli to record a new film of
what Gagarin would have seen of the Earth from his spaceship, by
matching historical audio recordings to video from the International
Space Station following the ground path taken by Vostok 1. The
resulting film, First Orbit, was released online to celebrate the 50th
anniversary of human spaceflight.
Soviet Union portal
Vostok was the lead ship of Faddey Bellingshausen, who discovered
Antarctica during the Russian expedition to the south polar region in
1819-1820. Some sources connect the name
Vostok 1 to Bellingshausen's
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^ a b Siddiqi, p.275
^ a b c "
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^ "Google Maps –
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Retrieved December 25, 2010.
^ "Google Maps –
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^ "Google Maps –
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^ Burgess and Hall, p.140
^ Quoted in Burgess and Hall, p.140-141
^ Burgess and Hall, p.141. The press said that Titov was so happy for
Gagarin that he almost kissed him, but Titov denies this – Burgess
and Hall, p.145.
^ Siddiqi, p.272, also Burgess and Hall, p.142
^ a b Burgess and Hall, p.151
^ "Celebrating a star: 50 years since Gagarin's spaceflight". RT
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^ Hall and Shayler, p.148-149
^ "(russian) "Where did the writing CCCP come from?" with authentic
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^ Burgess and Hall, p.156
^ a b Burgess and Hall, p.150
^ a b Siddiqi, p.273
^ Burgess and Hall, p.151. During a post-flight press conference on
April 15, Alexander Nesmeyanov claimed that Gagarin took a sleeping
pill. Also, Siddiqi, p.273, claims that they were both asleep at 21:30
when Korolev came to visit them, but Burgess and Hall, p.151, says
Korolev spoke with them at this time.
^ Siddiqi, p.273; In a post-flight press conference, Gagarin also
stated that he slept well.
^ Burgess and Hall, p.153.
^ Burgess and Hall, p.153
^ a b c Siddiqi, p.274
^ Obituary, Aviation Week and Space Technology, September 29, 2014,
^ Siddiqi, p.276; neither Siddiqi, nor Hall and Shayler claim that
music was actually played after this request.
^ Siddiqi describes it as a "tranquilizer pill", while Hall and
Shayler describe it as a "cardiac pill".
^ Siddiqi, p.276
^ Hall and Shayler, p.150
^ "1961: Soviets win space race". BBC News. April 12, 1961.
^ a b Руденко М. И. (May–June 2008). "Тогда Юра
вернулся на землю не из космоса, а с
того света!." интернет-газета "Русская
Берёза". Retrieved March 31, 2011.
^ Harford, James (8 April 1997). Korolev: How One Man Masterminded the
Soviet Drive to Beat America to the Moon: How One Man Masterminded the
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^ Pervushin (2011), 7.1 Гражданин мира
^ Государственная Дума. Федеральный
закон №32-ФЗ от 13 марта 1995 г. «О
днях воинской славы и памятных датах
России», в ред. Федерального закона
№59-ФЗ от 10 апреля 2009 г «О
внесении изменения в статью 1.1
федерального закона "О днях воинской
славы и памятных датах России"».
Вступил в силу со дня официального
"Российская Газета", №52, 15 марта 1995 г.
(State Duma. Federal Law #32-FZ of March 13, 1995
On the Days of Military Glory and the Commemorative Dates in Russia,
as amended by the Federal Law #59-FZ of April 10, 2009 On
Amending Article 1.1 of the Federal Law "On the Days of Military
Glory and the Commemorative Dates in Russia". Effective as of the
day of the official publication.).
^ "UN Resolution A/RES/65/271, The International Day of Human Space
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^ Pervushin (2011), 6.2 Он сказал «Поехали!»
^ Душенко, Константин (2014). Большой
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^ 1961 Year in Review. U.S. in Space.
UPI Audio Network.
^ Arthur Krock, "In The Nation; Concentration of Science on Outer
The New York Times
The New York Times p. 28, April 14, 1961. "But because of the
distrust that now exists among the great nations, and has plunged them
into huge programs of deadly rearmament, an achievement by one which
carries a clear and direct potential of military supremacy engenders
fear of its use.... And so it has become as impossible for either of
the groups divided by the
Cold War to welcome unreservedly such feats
as Major Gagarin's in the opposite camp."
^ a b c d e f g h i j "Opinion of the Week: At Home and Abroad," The
New York Times p. E11 (April 16, 1961). Quotes of reactions from many
US and international sources.
^ a b c d "Man in Space",
The New York Times
The New York Times p. E1 (April 16, 1961).
^ Harry Schwartz, "Moscow: Flight is taken as another sign that
communism is the conquering wave,"
The New York Times
The New York Times p. E3 (April 16,
^ "The Cruise of the Vostok". Time. April 21, 1961. Retrieved November
^ "Google Maps –
Vostok 1 Landing Site – Monument Park Location
Satellite photo". Retrieved December 26, 2010.
^ "Google Maps –
Vostok 1 Landing Site – Rocket Monument photo".
Retrieved December 26, 2010.
^ "Google Maps –
Vostok 1 Landing Site –
Yuri Gagarin Statue
photo". Retrieved December 26, 2010.
^ Amos, Jonathan (March 23, 2011). "Movie recreates Gagarin's
spaceflight". BBC News. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
^ Tattoo Archive – Vostok Archived January 22, 2012, at the Wayback
Colin Burgess, Rex Hall (June 2, 2010). The first Soviet cosmonaut
team: their lives, legacy, and historical impact. Praxis. p. 356.
Rex Hall, David Shayler (May 18, 2001). The rocket men: Vostok &
Voskhod, the first Soviet manned spaceflights. Springer. p. 350.
Антон Первушин (2011). 108 минут,
изменившие мир. Эксмо.
ISBN 978-5-699-48001-2. (Anton Pervushin. 108 minutes which
changed the world; in Russian)
Gagarin's Start – short video by
Roscosmos including the
preparation, Gagarin's flight, and Gagarin back on Earth
Vostok 1 – Encyclopedia Astronautica
The First Man In Space – NASA/JPL translation of Soviet Radio and
Newspaper Reports – May 1, 1961
An analysis of the flight of
Vostok 1 – Sven Grahn
(in Russian) transcript of Gagarin's radio conversations with ground
stations, starting 2hrs before launch, and other related documents
Sotheby's Auction House Results
Vostok 7 to 13 (incorporated into Voskhod programme)
← 1960 · Orbital launches in 1961 ·
Discoverer 21 Transit 3B ·
LOFTI-1 S-45 Korabl-Sputnik 4
Discoverer 25 Transit 4A · Solrad 3 · Injun 1 S-55
Discoverer 26 TIROS-3 Midas 3
Ranger 1 Explorer 13
Discoverer 31 Discoverer
32 Midas 4 ·
Discoverer 33 DS-1 No.1
Discoverer 35 Transit 4B ·
Mercury-Atlas 5 Zenit-2 No.1
Discoverer 36 ·
OSCAR 1 DS-1 No.2 FTV-2203
Payloads are separated by bullets ( · ), launches by pipes (
). Manned flights are indicated in bold text. Uncatalogued launch
failures are listed in italics. Payloads deployed from other
spacecraft are denoted