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The Vostok-2M
Vostok-2M
(Russian: Восток meaning "East"), GRAU index
GRAU index
8A92M was an expendable carrier rocket used by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
between 1964 and 1991. Ninety-three were launched, of which one failed. Another was destroyed before launch.[1] It was originally built as a specialised version of the earlier Vostok-2, for injecting lighter payloads into higher sun-synchronous orbits. It was a member of the R-7 family of rockets, and the last Vostok. The Vostok-2M
Vostok-2M
made its maiden flight on 28 August 1964, from Site 31/6 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, successfully placing Kosmos 44, a Meteor weather satellite into orbit. Its only launch failure occurred on 1 February 1969, when the launch of a Meteor failed due to an upper stage problem. At 16:01 GMT on 18 March 1980, a Vostok-2M
Vostok-2M
exploded during fueling Plesetsk Site 43/4, ahead of the launch of a Tselina-D satellite, killing 48 people who were working on the rocket at the time. A filter in a hydrogen peroxide tank of the third stage had accidentally been soldered with tin-lead, the latter of which causes decomposition of hydrogen peroxide.[2] As a consequence, the H2O2 broke down, overheated, and melted the solder, causing pieces to fall into the H2O2 storage tank and cause a runaway chemical reaction. This led to a fire inside the third stage and eventual explosion which resulted in the complete destruction of the launch vehicle and severe pad damage (LC-43 did not host another launch for three years). Vostok-2M
Vostok-2M
launches occurred from Site 31/6 at Baikonur, and Sites 41/1 and 43 at Plesetsk. It is unclear if any were launched from Site 1/5 at Baikonur. The Vostok-2M
Vostok-2M
was retired in 1991, in favour of standardisation on the Soyuz-U
Soyuz-U
and U2 rockets. The final flight was conducted on 29 August, and carried the IRS-1B
IRS-1B
satellite for the Indian Space Research Organisation. References[edit]

^ Wade, Mark. "Vostok 8A92M". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 2009-03-06. Retrieved 2009-04-15.  ^ Boris Yevseyevich Chertok (2006-06-01). "Rockets and People: Creating a rocket industry" (PDF). Government Printing Office: 636–640. ASIN B019NDFEHI. ISBN 9780160766725. 

v t e

Soviet, Russian, and Ukrainian launch vehicles

Active

Angara

1.2 A5

R-7

FG Soyuz-2

2.1a 2.1b 2-1v

UR

Proton-M Rokot Strela

Zenit

3SL 3SLB 3F

In development

Angara

A5P

Cyclone-4M Mayak

L1 L2 M1 M2 H3 H5

Proton

Light Medium

Soyuz-5 Soyuz-7

Retired

Dnepr Energia Kosmos

1 2I 3 3M

N1 Proton

UR-500 Proton-K

R-7

Luna Molniya

M L

Polyot Soyuz

original L M U U2

Soyuz/Vostok Sputnik Voskhod Vostok

L K 2 2M

R-29

Shtil' Volna

Start-1 Tsyklon

2 3 4

Zenit

2 2M

v t e

Orbital launch systems

Current

Spaceflight portal

Angara

A5

Antares 230 Ariane 5 Atlas V Delta

II IV

Electron Epsilon Falcon 9

v1.2 "Full Thrust"

Falcon Heavy GSLV

Mk II Mk III

H-IIA H-IIB Kuaizhou

1 1A

Long March

2C 2D 2F 3A 3B/E 3C 4B 4C 5 6 7 11

Minotaur

I IV V C

Pegasus Proton-M PSLV Rokot Safir Shavit Simorgh Soyuz-FG Soyuz-2

2.1a / STA 2.1b / STB 2-1v

SPARK SS-520 Strela Unha Vega Zenit

3SL 3SLB 3F

In development

Angara

1.2 A5P

Antares 300 Ariane 6 Arion 2 BFR Cyclone-4M Eris Falcon 9
Falcon 9
Block 5 Firefly Alpha H3 Haas 2CA Kuaizhou

11 21 31

LandSpace-1 Long March

8 9

LauncherOne Mayak Naga-L Naro-2 New Glenn New Line 1 NGL Oril (uk) Proton

Light Medium

RPS SLS Soyuz-5 Soyuz-7 Tronador II ULV Vector-R Vector-H VLM Vulcan Xinshi-1 Yun Feng

Retired

Antares 110/120/130 Ariane

1 2 3 4

ASLV Athena

I II

Atlas

B D E/F G H I II III LV-3B SLV-3 Able Agena Centaur

Black Arrow Conestoga Delta

A B C D E G J L M N 0100 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 III

Diamant Dnepr Energia Europa Falcon 1 Falcon 9

v1.0 v1.1

Feng Bao 1 GSLV

Mk I

H-I H-II Juno I Juno II Kaituozhe-1 Kosmos

1 2I 3 3M

Lambda 4S Long March

1 2A 2E 3 3B 4A

Mu

4S 3C 3H 3S 3SII V

N1 N-I N-II Naro-1 Paektusan Pilot Proton

UR-500 K

R-7

Luna Molniya

M L

Polyot Soyuz

original L M U U2

Soyuz/Vostok Sputnik Voskhod Vostok

L K 2 2M

R-29

Shtil' Volna

Saturn

I IB V INT-21

Scout SLV Space Shuttle Sparta Start-1 Thor

Able Ablestar Agena Burner Delta DSV-2U

Thorad-Agena Titan

II GLV IIIA IIIB IIIC IIID IIIE 34D 23G CT-3 IV

Tsyklon

2 3 4

Vanguard VLS-1 Zenit

2 2M

List of orbital launch systems Comparison of orbital launch systems

v t e

R-7 rockets

Main articles

R-7 family R-7 Semyorka

Rockets

Missiles

R-7 Semyorka R-7A Semyorka

Launch systems

Sputnik Polyot Voskhod

Vostok

Luna Vostok-L Vostok-K Vostok-2 Vostok-2M

Molniya

Molniya Molniya-M Molniya-L

Soyuz

Soyuz/Vostok Soyuz Soyuz-L Soyuz-M Soyuz-U Soyuz-U2 Soyuz-FG

Soyuz-2

Soyuz 2.1a / STA Soyuz 2.1b / STB Soyuz 2-1v

Launch sites

Baikonur

Site 1/5 Site 31/6

Plesetsk

Site 41/1 Site 16/2 Site 43/3 Site 43/4

Kourou

Ensemble de Lancement Soyouz

Vostochny

Site 1S

Launches

1957–1959 1960–1964 1965–1969 1970–1974 1975–1979 1980–1984 1985–1989 1990–1994 1995–1999 2000–2004 2005–2009 2010–2014 2015–2019

See also

Korolyov Cross Soyuz at the Guiana Space Centre RD-

.