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Voskhod 2 (russian: Восход-2, , ''Sunrise-2'') was a
Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a federal socialist state in Northern Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continental area on Earth, comprising all of Europe and Asia. Primarily in the ...
crewed space mission in March 1965. The Vostok-based Voskhod 3KD spacecraft with two crew members on board, Pavel Belyayev and
Alexei Leonov Alexei Arkhipovich Leonov. (30 May 1934 – 11 October 2019) was a Soviet and Russian cosmonaut, Soviet Air Forces, Air Force major general, writer, and artist. On 18 March 1965, he became the first person to conduct a spacewalk, exiting the Sp ...

Alexei Leonov
, was equipped with an inflatable airlock. It established another milestone in space exploration when Alexei Leonov became the first person to leave the spacecraft in a specialized spacesuit to conduct a 12-minute
spacewalk Extravehicular activity (EVA) is any activity done by an astronaut or cosmonaut outside a spacecraft beyond the Earth's appreciable atmosphere. The term most commonly applies to a spacewalk made outside a craft orbiting Earth (such as the Int ...
.


Crew


Backup crew


Reserve crew


Mission parameters

*
Mass Mass is both a property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing. In the context of this article, it is one or mo ...
: *
Apogee upright=1.15, The two-body system of interacting primary body (yellow); both are in elliptic orbits around their center of mass">common center of mass (or barycenter), (red +). ∗Periapsis and apoapsis as distances: The smallest and largest ...
: *
Perigee File:Periapsis_apoapsis.png, upright=1.15, The two-body system of interacting elliptic orbits: The smaller, satellite body (blue) orbits the primary (astronomy), primary body (yellow); both are in elliptic orbits around their center of mass, co ...
: *
Inclination Orbital inclination measures the tilt of an object's orbit around a celestial body. It is expressed as the angle between a Plane of reference, reference plane and the orbital plane or Axis of rotation, axis of direction of the orbiting object. ...
: 64.8° * Period: 90.9 min


Space walk

* Leonov – EVA – 18 March 1965 ** 08:28:13 GMT: The Voskhod 2 airlock is depressurized by Leonov. ** 08:32:54 GMT: Leonov opens the Voskhod 2 airlock hatch. ** 08:34:51 GMT: EVA start – Leonov leaves airlock. ** 08:47:00 GMT: EVA end – Leonov reenters airlock. ** 08:48:40 GMT: Hatch on the airlock is closed and secured by Leonov. ** 08:51:54 GMT: Leonov begins to repressurize the airlock. ** Duration: 12 minutes 9 seconds


Mission highlights

left, 220x220px, A Voskhod 2 spacecraft, with inflatable airlock deployed. Liftoff took place at 07:00 GMT on 18 March 1965. As with Voskhod 1, a Launch escape system, launch abort was not possible during the first few minutes, until the Payload fairing, payload shroud jettisoned around the -minute mark. The Voskhod 3KD spacecraft had an inflatable airlock extended in orbit. Cosmonaut
Alexei Leonov Alexei Arkhipovich Leonov. (30 May 1934 – 11 October 2019) was a Soviet and Russian cosmonaut, Soviet Air Forces, Air Force major general, writer, and artist. On 18 March 1965, he became the first person to conduct a spacewalk, exiting the Sp ...

Alexei Leonov
donned a space suit and left the spacecraft while the other cosmonaut of the two-man crew, Pavel Belyayev, remained inside. Leonov began his spacewalk 90 minutes into the mission at the end of the first orbit. Cosmonaut Leonov's spacewalk lasted 12 minutes and 9 seconds (08:34:51–08:47:00 GMT), beginning over north-central Africa (northern Sudan/southern Egypt), and ending over eastern Siberia. The Voskhod 2 spacecraft was a Vostok spacecraft with a backup, solid fuel retrorocket, attached atop the descent module. The ejection seat was removed and two seats were added, (at a 90° angle relative to the Vostok crew seat position). An inflatable exterior airlock was also added to the descent module opposite the entry hatch. After use, the airlock was jettisoned. There was no provision for crew escape in the event of a launch or landing emergency. A solid fuel braking rocket was also added to the parachute lines to provide for a softer landing at touchdown. This was necessary because, unlike the Vostok, the crew landed with the Voskhod descent module. Though Leonov was able to complete his spacewalk successfully, both that task and the overall mission were plagued with problems. Leonov's only tasks were to attach a camera to the end of the airlock to record his spacewalk and to photograph the spacecraft. He managed to attach the camera without any problem. However, when he tried to use the still camera on his chest, the suit had ballooned and he was unable to reach down to the shutter switch on his leg. After his 12 minutes and 9 seconds outside the Voskhod, Leonov found that his suit had stiffened, due to ballooning out, to the point where he could not re-enter the airlock. He was forced to bleed off some of his suit's pressure, in order to be able to bend the joints, eventually going below safety limits. Leonov did not report his action on the radio to avoid alarming others, but Soviet state radio and television had earlier stopped their live broadcasts from the spacecraft when the mission experienced difficulties. The two crew members subsequently experienced difficulty in sealing the hatch properly due to thermal distortion caused by Leonov's lengthy troubles returning to the craft, followed by a troublesome re-entry in which malfunction of the automatic landing system forced the use of its manual backup. The spacecraft was so cramped that the two cosmonauts, both wearing spacesuits, could not return to their seats to restore the ship's center of mass for 46 seconds after orienting the ship for reentry and a landing in Perm Krai. The orbital module did not properly disconnect from the landing module, not unlike Vostok 1, causing the spherical return vehicle to spin wildly until the modules disconnected at 100 km. The delay of 46 seconds caused the spacecraft to land from the intended landing zone, in the inhospitable forests of Upper Kama Upland, somewhere west of Solikamsk. Although flight controllers had no idea where the spacecraft had landed or whether Leonov and Belyayev had survived, the cosmonauts' families were told that they were resting after having been recovered. The two men were both familiar with the harsh climate and knew that bears and wolves, made aggressive by mating season, lived in the ''taiga''; the spacecraft carried a pistol and "plenty of ammunition", but the incident later drove the development of a dedicated TP-82 Cosmonaut survival pistol. Although aircraft quickly located the cosmonauts, the area was so heavily forested that helicopters could not land. When night arrived, the temperature dropped to , and the spacecraft's hatch had been blown open by explosive bolts. Warm clothes and supplies were dropped and the cosmonauts spent a freezing night in the capsule or ''Sharik'' in Russian. Even worse, the electrical system completely malfunctioned so that the heater would not work, but the fans ran at full blast. A rescue party arrived on skis the next day as it was too risky to try an airlift from the site. The advance party chopped wood and built a small log cabin and an enormous fire. After a more comfortable second night in the forest, the cosmonauts skied to a waiting helicopter several kilometers away and flew first to Perm, then to Baikonur for their mission debriefing. General Nikolai Kamanin's diary later gave the landing location of the Voskhod 2, about from Perm in the Ural mountains in heavy forest at on 19 March 1965 09:02 GMT. Initially, there was some confusion and it was believed that Voskhod 2 landed not far from Shchuchin (about south-west of Bereznikov, north of Perm), but no indication was received from the spacecraft. Apparently a commander of one of the search helicopters reported finding Voskhod 2, "On the forest road between the villages of Sorokovaya and Shchuchino, about 30 kilometers southwest of the town of Berezniki, I see the red parachute and the two cosmonauts. There is deep snow all around..." The capsule is currently on display at the RKK Energiya museum, museum of RKK Energiya in Korolyov (city), Korolev, near Moscow.


Spacewalk

On reaching orbit in Voskhod 2, Leonov and Belyayev attached the EVA backpack to Leonov's Berkut spacesuit, Berkut ("Golden Eagle") space suit, a modified Vostok Sokol-1 intravehicular (IV) suit. The white metal EVA backpack provided 45 minutes of oxygen for breathing and cooling. Oxygen vented through a relief valve into space, carrying away heat, moisture, and exhaled carbon dioxide. The space suit pressure could be set at either or . Belyayev then deployed and pressurized the Volga inflatable airlock. The airlock was necessary for two reasons: first, the capsule's avionics used vacuum tubes, which required a constant atmosphere for air cooling. Also, supplies of nitrogen and oxygen sufficient to replenish the atmosphere after EVA could not be carried due to the spacecraft's weight limit. By contrast, the American Project Gemini, Gemini capsule used solid state (electronics), solid state avionics, and an atmosphere of oxygen only, at a pressure of , which could easily be replenished after EVA. The Volga airlock was designed, built, and tested in nine months in mid-1964. At launch, Volga fitted over hatch of Voskhod 2, extending beyond the spacecraft's hull. The airlock comprised a wide metal ring fitted over inward-opening hatch of Voskhod 2, a double-walled fabric airlock tube with a deployed length of , and a wide metal upper ring around the wide inward-opening airlock hatch. Volga's deployed internal volume was . The fabric airlock tube was made rigid by about 40 airbooms, clustered as three, independent groups. Two groups sufficed for deployment. The airbooms needed seven minutes to fully inflate. Four spherical tanks held sufficient oxygen to inflate the airbooms and pressurize the airlock. Two lights lit the airlock interior, and three 16mm cameras — two in the airlock, one outside on a boom-mounted to the upper ring — recorded the historic first spacewalk. Belyayev controlled the airlock from inside Voskhod 2, but a set of backup controls for Leonov was suspended on bungee cords inside the airlock. Leonov entered the Volga, then Belyayev sealed Voskhod 2 behind him and depressurized the airlock. Leonov opened Volga's outer hatch and pushed out to the end of his umbilicus. He later said the umbilicus gave him tight control of his movements — an observation purportedly belied by subsequent American spacewalk experience. Leonov reported looking down and seeing from the Straits of Gibraltar to the Caspian Sea. After Leonov returned to his couch, Belyayev fired pyrotechnic bolts to discard the Volga. Sergei Korolev, Chief Designer at OKB-1 Design Bureau (now RKK Energia), stated after the EVA that Leonov could have remained outside for much longer than he did, while Mstislav Keldysh, "chief theoretician" of the Soviet space program and President of the Soviet Academy of Sciences, said that the EVA showed that future cosmonauts would find work in space easy. The government news agency, TASS (USSR), TASS, reported that, "outside the ship and after returning, Leonov feels well"; however, post-Cold War Russian documents reveal a different story — that Leonov's Berkut space suit ballooned, making bending difficult. Because of this, Leonov was unable to reach the shutter switch on his thigh for his chest-mounted camera. He could not take pictures of Voskhod 2, but was able to recover the camera mounted on Volga which recorded his EVA for posterity but only after it stuck and he had to exert considerable effort to push it down in front of him. After 12 minutes walking in space Leonov re-entered Volga. Later accounts report Cosmonaut Leonov violated procedure by entering the airlock head-first, then became stuck sideways when he turned to close the outer hatch, forcing him to flirt with decompression sickness (the "bends") by lowering the suit pressure so he could bend to free himself. Leonov said that he had a suicide pill to swallow had he been unable to re-enter the Voskhod 2, and Belyayev been forced to abandon him in orbit. Doctors reported that Leonov nearly suffered heatstroke — his core body temperature increased by 1.8 °C (3.2 °F) in 20 minutes; Leonov said he was up to his knees in sweat, which sloshed in the suit. In an interview published in the ''Soviet Military Review'' in 1980, Leonov downplayed his difficulties, saying that "building manned orbital stations and exploring the Universe are inseparably linked with man's activity in open space. There is no end of work in this field".


Faked EVA footage

Alexei Leonov later lamented: "...many press reports in the West later claimed that Ed White (astronaut), [Ed] White had been the first to perform a space walk and that mine had been a fake; that the film of me outside Voskhod 2 had been staged in a laboratory. These reports were taken so seriously that the ''Guinness Book of Records'', for instance, for some time recorded White as the first man to walk in space. NASA did nothing to contradict the false claims." One of the more prominent reports came from ''Science and Mechanics''. In 1966, they published a book called ''"Russia's Space Hoax: Documented Proof that the Soviet Space Program Has Been Faked"''. Its author, Lloyd Mallan, claimed the film of Leonov outside Voskhod 2 was faked. "It was double-printed, which means that the foreground (Leonov) was superimposed on the background (the Earth below). This is a trick often used by Hollywood studios to achieve special effects. But they do it less clumsily: the Russian film showed reflections from the glass plate under which a double print is made". He also claimed: "Leonov was suspended from wires or cables, much in the manner of Peter Pan as he flies through he air onto a stage. With proper stage lighting, such wires are invisible. Yet in several episodes of the Russian film, light was reflected from a small portion of the wire (or cable) attached to Leonov's space suit at just about the cosmonaut's centre of gravity." Mallan also cited other anomalies in the EVA footage. Including impossible camera angles from inside the airlock, as well as the Sun reflection in Leonov's visor appearing to be "a strange, long oval crossed by two dark bars, suggesting a diffused light, like studio floodlights." About the controversary, NASA's Jim Oberg confirmed Mallan's view that some of the spacewalk footage was faked, but disputed his conviction that Leonov did not actually walk in space: "Mr. Mallan is right when he says that most of the Leonov spacewalk movies are not genuine. They are shots underwater, shots from wire-suspension training sets, shots in simulations and practices. The Russians were often careless in describing the sources of these films. The spacewalk itself was real."http://www.astronautix.com/p/phantomsofspace.html


In popular culture

* In 2015, the mission was depicted in the "Space" episode of Comedy Central's ''Drunk History'', created by Derek Waters. Blake Anderson and Adam DeVine played Leonov and Belyayev. * The mission is depicted in the 2017 Russian film ''The Age of Pioneers'' (russian: Время первых, Vremya Pervykh), also known as ''Spacewalk'', starring Yevgeny Mironov (actor), Yevgeny Mironov as
Alexei Leonov Alexei Arkhipovich Leonov. (30 May 1934 – 11 October 2019) was a Soviet and Russian cosmonaut, Soviet Air Forces, Air Force major general, writer, and artist. On 18 March 1965, he became the first person to conduct a spacewalk, exiting the Sp ...

Alexei Leonov
and Konstantin Khabensky as Pavel Belyayev.


See also

* List of spacewalks * Voskhod Spacecraft "Globus" IMP navigation instrument


References


External links


Video of Voskod 2 mission


{{Orbital launches in 1965 Spacecraft launched in 1965 1965 in the Soviet Union Extravehicular activity Human spaceflights Voskhod program March 1965 events Alexei Leonov