Gneiss, granite and vulcanite stratigraphic units : about 419–252 mya Bunter sandstone stratigraphic unit: 252–243 mya
TYPE OF ROCK
The VOSGES (French pronunciation: ; German : Vogesen ), also
called the VOSGES MOUNTAINS, are a range of low mountains in eastern
* 1.1 Mountains * 1.2 Climate
* 2 Settlement and language * 3 History * 4 Nature parks * 5 See also * 6 References and notes * 7 Further reading * 8 External links
The elongated massif is divided south to north into three sections:
* The Higher
Vosges or High
Vosges (Hautes Vosges), extending in
the southern part of the range from
In addition, the term "Central Vosges" is used to designate the various lines of summits, especially those above 1,000 m (3,300 ft) in elevation. The French department of Vosges is named after the range.
From a geological point of view, a graben at the beginning of the
Paleogene Period caused the formation of
Geographically , the
Vosges Mountains are wholly in France, far above
Col de Saverne separating them from the
Palatinate Forest in
Germany. The latter area logically continues the same
structure but traditionally receives this different name for
historical and political reasons. From 1871 to 1918 the
the border between
Vosges in their southern and central parts are called the Hautes
Vosges. These consist of a large
The highest points are in the Hautes Vosges: the
Grand Ballon , in
ancient times called Ballon de Guebwiller or Ballon de Murbach, rises
to 1,424 m (4,672 ft); the
Storckenkopf to 1,366 m (4,482 ft); the
Hohneck to 1,364 m (4,475 ft); the
Kastelberg to 1,350 m (4,429 ft);
and the Ballon d\'
Vosges is greatly similar to the corresponding range of the Black
Forest on the other side of the
The highest mountains of the Vosges (with Alsatian or German names in brackets) are:
* Grand Ballon (Großer Belchen) 1,424 m (4,672 ft) * Storkenkopf 1,366 m (4,482 ft) * Hohneck 1,363 m (4,472 ft) * Kastelberg 1,350 m (4,429 ft) * Klintzkopf (Klinzkopf) 1,330 m (4,364 ft) * Rothenbachkopf 1,316 m (4,318 ft) * Lauchenkopf 1,314 m (4,311 ft) * Batteriekopf 1,311 m (4,301 ft) * Haut de Falimont 1,306 m (4,285 ft) * Gazon du Faing 1,306 m (4,285 ft) * Rainkopf 1,305 m (4,281 ft) * Gazon du Faîte 1,303 m (4,275 ft) * Ringbuhl (Ringbühl) 1,302 m (4,272 ft) * Soultzereneck (Sulzereneck) 1,302 m (4,272 ft)
The following is a selection of other peaks in the Vosges:
Le Tanet (Tanneck) 1,292 m (4,239 ft)
Petit Ballon (Kahler Wasen or Kleiner Belchen) 1,272 m (4,173 ft)
* Ballon d\'
Meteorologically , as a consequence of the Foehn effect the difference between the eastern and western mean slopes of the range is very marked. The main air streams come generally from the west and southwest, so the Alsatian central plains just under the Hautes-Vosges receive much less water than the south-west front of the Vosges Mountains. The highlands of the arrondissement of Remiremont receive as annual rainfall or snowfall more than 2 m (6 ft 7 in) of precipitation yearly, whereas some dry country near Colmar receives less than 500 mm (20 in) of water in the event of insufficient storms. The temperature is much lower in the west front of the mountains than in the low plains behind the massif, especially in summer. On the eastern slope economic vineyards reach to a height of 400 m (1,300 ft); on the other hand, in the mountains, it is a land of pasture and forest.
The only rivers in
In the High Moselle and Meurthe basins, moraines , boulders and
polished rocks testify to the former existence of glaciers which once
covered the top of the Vosges. The mountain lakes caused by the
original glacial phenomena are surrounded by pines, beeches and maples
, and green meadows provide pasture for large herds of cattle, with
views of the
SETTLEMENT AND LANGUAGE
Over the centuries, settlement increased gradually, as was typical for a forested region. Forests were cleared for, inter alia, agriculture, livestock and early industrial factories (charcoal works and glassworks ) and the water mills used water power . Concentrations of settlement and immigration took place and not only in areas where minerals were found. In the mining area of the Lièpvrette valley, for example, there was an influx of Saxon miners and mining specialists. From time to time, wars, plagues and religious conflicts saw the depopulation of territories – in their wake it was not uncommon for people to be relocated there from other areas.
In pre-Roman times, the
Vosges was empty of settlements or was
colonized and dominated by the
Relief map of Vosges Mountains
The massif known in Latin as Vosago mons or Vosego silva, sometimes Vogesus mons, was extended to the vast woods covering the region. Later, German speakers referred to the same region as Vogesen or Wasgenwald.
On the lower heights and buttresses of the main chain on the Alsatian side are numerous castles, generally in ruins, testifying to the importance of this crucial crossroads of Europe, violently contested for centuries. At several points on the main ridge, especially at Sainte Odile above Ribeauvillé (German: Rappoltsweiler), are the remains of a wall of unmortared stone with tenons of wood, about 1.8 to 2.2 m (6 to 7 ft) thick and 1.3 to 1.7 m (4 to 6 ft) high, called the Mur Païen (Pagan Wall). It was used for defence in the Middle Ages and archaeologists are divided as to whether it was built by the Romans , or before their arrival .
French Revolutionary Wars
From 1871 to 1918, they formed the main border line between France
First World War
In the late 20th century a wide area of the massif was included in two protected areas , the Parc naturel régional des Vosges du Nord (established in 1976) and the Parc naturel régional des Ballons des Vosges (established in 1989).
On 20 January 1992 Air Inter Flight 148 crashed into the Vosges Mountains while circling to land at Strasbourg International Airport, killing 87 people.
Two nature parks lie within the Vosges: the Ballons des Vosges Nature Park and the Northern Vosges Regional Nature Park . The Northern Vosges Nature Park and the Palatinate Forest Nature Park on the German side of the border form the cross-border Palatinate Forest-North Vosges Biosphere Reserve .
REFERENCES AND NOTES
* ^ IGN maps available on Géoportail
* ^ A B C Dickinson, Robert E (1964). Germany: A Regional and
* Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). " Vosges (mountains)". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
* René Bastien, Histoire de Lorraine, éditions Serpenoise, Metz,
1991, 224 pages. ISBN 2-87692-088-3 (simple historic approach for
* Etienne Julliard, Atlas et géographie de l'
List of majors periodicals concerning Lorraine and South Lorraine:
* Annales de l'Est (et du Nord), Nancy. * Annales de la Société d\'Émulation des Vosges , Epinal, from 1826. * Bulletin de la Société Philomatique Vosgienne, Saint-Dié, from 1875 to 1999 (nowadays Mémoire des Vosges Histoire Société Coutumes) * Publications of the Société d'Histoire et d'Archéologie lorraine, Metz (from 1890, nowadays Les Cahiers Lorrains, trimestrial review). * Publications of the Société d'Histoire de la Lorraine ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v
* t * e
Mountain ranges of
* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 234591699 * GND : 4063742-6 * BNF : cb119521