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Voronezh
Voronezh
(Russian: Воро́неж, IPA: [vɐˈronʲɪʂ]) is a city and the administrative center of Voronezh
Voronezh
Oblast, Russia, straddling the Voronezh River
Voronezh River
and located 12 kilometers (7.5 mi) from where it flows into the Don. The city sits on the Southeastern Railway, which connects European Russia
Russia
with the Urals and Siberia, the Caucasus
Caucasus
and Ukraine, and the M4 highway (Moscow–Voronezh–Rostov-on-Don–Novorossiysk). Its population in 2016 was estimated to be 1,032,895;[7] up from 889,680 recorded in the 2010 Census,[6] and is the fourteenth most populous city in the country.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Foundation and name 1.2 17th to 20th centuries 1.3 1950s–2000s 1.4 2010s

2 Administrative and municipal status

2.1 City divisions 2.2 Demographics

3 Economy

3.1 Building 3.2 Clusters of Voronezh

4 Transportation

4.1 Air 4.2 Rail 4.3 Bus

5 Climate 6 Education and culture

6.1 Theaters 6.2 Festivals

7 Sports 8 Religion 9 Notable people 10 Sister Cities 11 References

11.1 Notes 11.2 Sources

12 Further reading 13 External links

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Voronezh Foundation and name[edit] Voronezh
Voronezh
originates as a settlement of the Kievan Rus
Kievan Rus
in about the 12th century, first mentioned in the Hypatian Codex (dated 1177). The Voronezh River
Voronezh River
is likely named for the settlement, then in the Principality of Chernigov.[15] The toponym is usually derived from a Slavic personal name Voroneg, apparently a derivation from voron "raven", [16] The comparative analysis of the name "Voronezh" was carried out by the Khovansky Foundation in 2009.[17] Voronezh
Voronezh
was presumably still in existence when Chernigov was absorbed into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
in the 15th century;[18] Voronezh itself was not part of the territory of the Grand Duchy, the middle Don basin, including the Voronezh
Voronezh
river, during the 15th century formed part of the marches separating the Grand Duchies of Lithuania and Muscovy from the Golden Horde. In the 16th century, the area was gradually conquered by Muscovy from the Nogai Horde
Nogai Horde
(a successor state of the Golden Horde), and the current city of Voronezh
Voronezh
was established in 1585 by Feodor I as a fort protecting the Muravsky Trail
Muravsky Trail
trade route against the raids of the Nogai and Crimean Tatars.[10] 17th to 20th centuries[edit]

A monument to Peter the Great

Center of Voronezh
Voronezh
at night

Voronezh. Ship Museum Goto Predestinatsia

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In the 17th century, Voronezh
Voronezh
gradually evolved into a sizable town. Weronecz is shown on the Worona river in Resania in Joan Blaeu's map of 1645.[19] Peter the Great
Peter the Great
built a dockyard in Voronezh
Voronezh
where the Azov Flotilla was constructed for the Azov campaigns
Azov campaigns
in 1695 and 1696. This fleet, the first ever built in Russia, included the first Russian ship of the line, Goto Predestinatsia. The Orthodox diocese of Voronezh
Voronezh
was instituted in 1682 and its first bishop, Mitrofan of Voronezh, was later proclaimed the town's patron saint.

View of Voronezh
Voronezh
in the 18th century

Owing to the Voronezh
Voronezh
Admiralty Wharf, for a short time, Voronezh became the largest city of South Russia
Russia
and the economic center of a large and fertile region. In 1711, it was made the seat of the Azov Governorate, which eventually morphed into the Voronezh
Voronezh
Governorate. In the 19th century, Voronezh
Voronezh
was a center of the Central Black Earth Region. Manufacturing industry (mills, tallow-melting, butter-making, soap, leather, and other works) as well as bread, cattle, suet, and the hair trade developed in the town. A railway connected Voronezh with Moscow
Moscow
in 1868 and Rostov-on-Don
Rostov-on-Don
in 1871. During World War II, Voronezh
Voronezh
was the scene of fierce fighting between Russian and combined Axis troops. The Germans used it as a staging area for their attack on Stalingrad, and made it a key crossing point on the Don River. In June 1941, two BM-13 (Fighting machine #13 Katyusha) artillery installations were built at the Voronezh
Voronezh
excavator factory. In July, the construction of Katyushas was rationalized so that their manufacture became easier and the time of volley repetition was shortened from five minutes to fifteen seconds. More than 300 BM-13 units manufactured in Voronezh
Voronezh
were used in a counterattack near Moscow
Moscow
in December 1941. In October 22, 1941, the advance of the German troops prompted the establishment of a defense committee in the city. On November 7, 1941, there was a troop parade, devoted to the anniversary of the October Revolution. Only three such parades were organized that year: in Moscow, Kuybyshev, and Voronezh. In late June 1942, the city was attacked by German and Hungarian forces. In response, Soviet forces formed the Voronezh
Voronezh
Front. By July 6, the German army occupied the western river-bank suburbs before being subjected to a fierce Soviet counter-attack. In July 24 frontline was stabilised along Voronezh
Voronezh
river. This was the opening move of Case Blue. Until January 25, 1943, parts of the Second German Army and the Second Hungarian Army occupied west part of Voronezh. During Operation Little Saturn, the Ostrogozhsk–Rossosh Offensive, and the Voronezhsko-Kastornenskoy Offensive, the Voronezh Front exacted heavy casualties on Axis forces. On January 25, 1943, Voronezh
Voronezh
was liberated after ten days of combat. During the war the city was almost completely ruined, with 92% of all buildings destroyed. 1950s–2000s[edit] By 1950, Voronezh
Voronezh
had been rebuilt. Most buildings and historical monuments were repaired. It was also the location of a prestigious Suvorov Military School, a boarding school for young boys who were considered to be prospective military officers, many of whom had been orphaned by war.[20] In 1950–1960, new factories were established: a tire factory, a machine-tool factory, a factory of heavy mechanical pressing, and others. In 1968, Serial production of the Tupolev Tu-144
Tupolev Tu-144
supersonic plane was established at the Voronezh
Voronezh
Aviation factory. In October 1977, the first Soviet domestic wide-body plane, Ilyushin Il-86, was built there. In 1989, TASS published details of an alleged UFO landing in the city's park and purported encounters with extraterrestrial beings reported by a number of children. A Russian scientist that was cited in initial TASS reports later told the Associated Press
Associated Press
that he was misquoted, cautioning, "Don't believe all you hear from TASS," and "We never gave them part of what they published",[21] and a TASS correspondent admitted the possibility that some "make-believe" had been added to the TASS story, saying, "I think there is a certain portion of truth, but it is not excluded that there is also fantasizing".[22][23] 2010s[edit] From 10 to 17 September 2011, Voronezh
Voronezh
celebrated its 425th anniversary. The anniversary of the city was given the status of a federal scale celebration that helped attract large investments from the federal and regional budgets for development.[24] On December 17, 2012, Voronezh
Voronezh
became the fifteenth city in Russia
Russia
with a population of over one million people.[25] Today Voronezh
Voronezh
is the economic, industrial, cultural, and scientific center of the Central Black Earth Region.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

The Mayor's office of Voronezh

Voronezh
Voronezh
is the administrative center of the oblast.[1] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as Voronezh Urban Okrug—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, this administrative unit also has urban okrug status.[3]

City divisions[edit]

Administrative districts of Voronezh

The city is divided into six administrative districts:

1. Zheleznodorozhny (183,17 km²) 2. Tsentralny (63,96 km²) 3. Kominternovsky (47,41 km²) 4. Leninsky (18,53 km²) 5. Sovetsky (156,6 km²) 6. Levoberezhny (123,89 km²)

Demographics[edit]

Demographic Evolution

1615 1777 1840 1897 1923 1939 1959 1973 1989 1997

7,000 13,000 43,800 80,599 95,000 326,932 447,164 713,000 886,844 905,000

2010[6] 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016[7]

889,680 979,884 991,269 1,003,638 1,014,610 1,023,570 1,032,895

Note: 1926–1970 and 2016 are population estimates; 1989 is the Soviet Census; 2002 and 2010 are census urban population only. Economy[edit] The leading sectors of the urban economy in the 20th century were mechanical engineering, metalworking, the electronics industry and the food industry. In the city are such companies as:

Voronezh Aircraft Production Association
Voronezh Aircraft Production Association
( Tupolev Tu-144
Tupolev Tu-144
is a retired jet airliner, which was the world's first commercial supersonic transport aircraft)

Tupolev Tu-144

Voronezhselmash
Voronezhselmash
(the leading enterprise of the Russian Federation in the field of agricultural engineering) Sozvezdie[26] (headquarter, JSC Concern “Sozvezdie”, in 1958 the world's first created mobile telephony and wireless telephone Altai Verofarm (pharmaceutics, owner Abbott Laboratories), Voronezh
Voronezh
Mechanical Plant[27] (production of missile and aircraft engines, oil and gas equipment) Mining Machinery Holding - RUDGORMASH[28] (production drilling, mineral processing and mining equipment ) VNiiPM Research Institute of Semiconductor Engineering[29] (equipment for plasma-chemical processes, technical-chemical equipment for liquid operations, water treatment equipment) KBKhA Chemical Automatics Design Bureau
Chemical Automatics Design Bureau
with notable products:[30] The first Russian built nuclear rocket engine RD-0410
RD-0410
(in the years 1960–1980). The rocket engine RD-0109, which was used in the flight by Yuri Gagarin, the first human to space. And the oxygen-hydrogen liquid-propellant rocket engine for the space-rocket complex "Energiya-Buran", as well as a powerful gas-dynamic laser. Pirelli
Pirelli
Voronezh[31] and many others.

On the territory of the city district government Maslovka Voronezh region with the support of the Investment Fund of Russia
Russia
is implementing a project to create an industrial park, "Maslowski", to accommodate more than 100 new businesses, including transformer factory of Siemens. September 7, 2011 in Voronezh
Voronezh
opened Global network operation center of Nokia Siemens Networks, which was the fifth in the world and first in Russia. Building[edit] In 2014, 926,000 square meters of housing was delivered.[32] Clusters of Voronezh[edit] In clusters of tax incentives and different preferences, the full support of the authorities. A cluster of Oil and Gas Equipment, Radio-electronic cluster, Furniture cluster, IT cluster, Cluster aircraft, Cluster Electromechanics, Transport and logistics cluster, Cluster building materials and technologies.[33]

Transportation[edit] Air[edit] The city is served by the Voronezh
Voronezh
International Airport, which is located north of the city and is home to Polet Airlines. Voronezh
Voronezh
is also home to the Pridacha Airport, a part of a major aircraft manufacturing facility VASO (Voronezhskoye Aktsionernoye Samoletostroitelnoye Obshchestvo, Voronezh
Voronezh
aircraft production association) where the Tupolev Tu-144
Tupolev Tu-144
(known in the West as the "Concordski"), was built and the only operational unit is still stored. Voronezh
Voronezh
also hosts the Voronezh Malshevo
Voronezh Malshevo
air force base in the southwest of the city, which, according to a Natural Resources Defense Council report, houses nuclear bombers.[citation needed] Rail[edit] Since 1868, there is a railway connection between Voronezh
Voronezh
and Moscow.[34] Rail services form a part of the South Eastern Railway of the Russian Railways. Destinations served direct from Voronezh
Voronezh
include Moscow, Kiev, Kursk, Novorossiysk, Sochi, and Tambov. Bus[edit] There are three Bus Stations in Voronezh
Voronezh
that connect the city with a large number of destinations including Moscow, Belgorod, Lipetsk, Volgograd, Rostov-on-Don, Astrakhan
Astrakhan
and many more. Climate[edit] Voronezh
Voronezh
experiences a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb) with long, cold winters and short, warm summers.

Climate data for Voronezh

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 8.0 (46.4) 11.0 (51.8) 18.4 (65.1) 29.2 (84.6) 35.7 (96.3) 38.9 (102) 40.1 (104.2) 40.5 (104.9) 32.1 (89.8) 26.5 (79.7) 18.1 (64.6) 12.4 (54.3) 40.5 (104.9)

Average high °C (°F) −3.4 (25.9) −3.0 (26.6) 2.9 (37.2) 13.9 (57) 21.1 (70) 24.5 (76.1) 26.6 (79.9) 25.6 (78.1) 18.9 (66) 10.9 (51.6) 2.3 (36.1) −2.5 (27.5) 11.5 (52.7)

Daily mean °C (°F) −6.1 (21) −6.5 (20.3) −1.0 (30.2) 8.3 (46.9) 14.8 (58.6) 18.5 (65.3) 20.5 (68.9) 19.2 (66.6) 13.3 (55.9) 6.9 (44.4) −0.4 (31.3) −5.0 (23) 6.9 (44.4)

Average low °C (°F) −8.8 (16.2) −9.3 (15.3) −4.2 (24.4) 3.6 (38.5) 9.3 (48.7) 13.2 (55.8) 15.2 (59.4) 13.7 (56.7) 8.7 (47.7) 3.6 (38.5) −2.6 (27.3) −7.6 (18.3) 2.9 (37.2)

Record low °C (°F) −36.5 (−33.7) −36.2 (−33.2) −32.0 (−25.6) −16.8 (1.8) −3.3 (26.1) −1.6 (29.1) 5.0 (41) 0.4 (32.7) −5.2 (22.6) −15.2 (4.6) −25.1 (−13.2) −33.4 (−28.1) −36.5 (−33.7)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 41 (1.61) 37 (1.46) 33 (1.3) 38 (1.5) 46 (1.81) 74 (2.91) 62 (2.44) 52 (2.05) 61 (2.4) 50 (1.97) 46 (1.81) 44 (1.73) 584 (22.99)

Average rainy days 8 6 8 12 13 15 13 10 13 14 13 9 134

Average snowy days 21 20 14 3 0.2 0 0 0 0.1 3 12 20 93

Average relative humidity (%) 84 82 77 66 61 67 68 67 73 79 85 85 75

Mean monthly sunshine hours 62 86 125 184 268 284 286 254 185 111 45 38 1,928

Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net,[35]

Source #2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)[36]

Education and culture[edit]

Snow at night in a Voronezh
Voronezh
park

The city has seven theaters, twelve museums, a number of movie theaters, a philharmonic hall, and a circus. It is also a major center of higher education in central Russia. The main educational facilities include:

Voronezh
Voronezh
State University Voronezh
Voronezh
State Technical University Voronezh State University
Voronezh State University
of Architecture and Construction Voronezh
Voronezh
State Pedagogical University Voronezh
Voronezh
State Agricultural University Voronezh State University
Voronezh State University
of Engineering Technologies Voronezh
Voronezh
State Medical University named after N. N. Burdenko Voronezh
Voronezh
State Academy of Arts Voronezh State University
Voronezh State University
of Forestry and Technologies named after G.F. Morozov Voronezh
Voronezh
State Institute of Physical Training Voronezh
Voronezh
Institute of Russia's Home Affairs Ministry Voronezh
Voronezh
Military Aviation Engineering University Voronezh
Voronezh
Institute of High Technologies Voronezh
Voronezh
Air Force Academy named after Prof. Zhukovsky and Gagarin Plekhanov Russian University of Economics
Plekhanov Russian University of Economics
( Voronezh
Voronezh
branch) Russian State University of Justice[37] Admiral Makarov State University of Sea and River Fleet (Voronezh branch) International Institute of Computer Technologies Voronezh
Voronezh
Institute of Economics and Law

and a number of other affiliate and private-funded institutes and universities. There are 2000 schools within the city. Theaters[edit]

Voronezh
Voronezh
Chamber Theatre[38] Koltsov Academic Drama Theater[39] Voronezh
Voronezh
State Opera
Opera
and Ballet
Ballet
Theatre[40] Shut Puppet Theater[41]

Festivals[edit] Platonov International Arts Festival[42]

Sports[edit]

Club Sport Founded Current League League Rank Stadium

Fakel Voronezh Football 1947 Russian Football National League 2nd Tsentralnyi Profsoyuz Stadion

Energy Voronezh Football 1989 Women's Premier League 1st Rudgormash Stadium

Buran Voronezh Ice Hockey 1977 Higher Hockey League 2nd Yubileyny Sports Palace

VC Voronezh Volleyball 2006 Women's Higher Volleyball
Volleyball
League A 2nd Kristall Sports Complex

Religion[edit]

Annunciation Orthodox Cathedral in Voronezh

Orthodox Christianity is the prevalent religion in Voronezh.[citation needed] There is an orthodox Jewish community in Voronezh, with a synagogue located on Stankevicha Street.[43][44]

Notable people[edit]

Nikolai Ge. Mary, sister of Lazarus, meets Jesus who is going to their house

Main article: List of people from Voronezh

Nikolay Basov, physicist Ivan Bunin, writer Alexey Khovansky, editor Arkady Davidowitz, writer and aphorist Pavel Cherenkov, physicist Kirill Gerstein, musician Mikhail Tsvet, botanist Konstantin Feoktistov, cosmonaut and engineer Poets and writers such as Platonov, Koltsov, Ivan S. Nikitin, Marshak, Peskov, Troepolsky; Painters Kramskoi, Ge, Kuprin Valerian Albanov, navigator and polar explorer Alexander Litvinenko, political dissident Grigory Sanakoev, chess player Yelena Davydova and Aleksandr Tkachyov, gymnasts Yevgeny Lapinsky, Olympic volleyball player Valentina Popova, weightlifter Dmitri Sautin, diver Volin, anarchist Serge Voronoff, surgeon Osip Mandelstam, poet Vladimir Patkin, Olympic volleyball player Andrei Platonov, writer Sektor Gaza, punk band Mitrofan Pyatnitsky, musician Viktoria Komova, Olympic gymnast Eduard Vorganov, professional cyclist Igor Samsonov, painter

Sister Cities[edit] Source:[45]

Date   Sister City

1968

Brno, Czech Republic[46][47]

1989

Wesermarsch, Lower Saxony, Germany

1991

Charlotte, North Carolina, United States

1992

Chongqing, China

1995

Sliven, Bulgaria

1996

León, Castile and León, Spain[48]

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ a b c d e f g Law #87-OZ ^ "День города Воронеж 2015". Mir36.ru. Retrieved July 22, 2015.  ^ a b c Law #66-OZ ^ a b "Исполнять обязанности мэра Воронежа будет Геннадий Чернушкин Подробнее". Moe-online.ru. 2014-12-30. Retrieved 2016-12-16.  ^ "База данных показателей муниципальных образований". Gks.ru. Retrieved July 22, 2015.  ^ a b c Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All- Russia
Russia
Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.  ^ a b c Voronezh
Voronezh
Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. [1], Voronezhstat.gks.ru, (in Russian) ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.). ^ a b Историческая хроника (DOC) (in Russian). Муниципальное учреждение культуры Централизованная библиотечная система города Воронежа Центральная городская библиотека имени А. Платонова. 2009. Retrieved March 28, 2012.  ^ Воронеж может оказаться намного старше (in Russian). Вести. August 19, 2010. Retrieved March 28, 2012.  ^ "История". Voronezh-city.ru. Retrieved 2016-12-16.  ^ "Каталог компаний, справочник компаний России: Желтые страницы России - Евро Адрес". E-adres.ru. Archived from the original on August 30, 2009. Retrieved July 22, 2015.  ^ "Рекетнммши Йнд Цнпндю Бнпнмеф". Kody.su. Retrieved 2016-12-16.  ^ The existence of the 12th-century settlement is assumed in the historical atlas by Karl Spruner von Merz
Karl Spruner von Merz
(1855), Die Völker und Reiche der Slaven zwichen Elbe und Don bis 1125, showing Woronesch on the river Woronesch (high-resolution scan at davidrumsey.com). ^ Е. М. Поспелов. "Географические названия мира". Москва, 1998. Стр. 104. ^ А. Лазарев. "Тайна имени Воронежъ" (The Mystery of the Name of Voronezh), 2009. ^ Woroneż (Wronasz) is shown on the Woroneż river by Stefan Kuczyński (1936) in a historical map of 15th-century Chernigov, «Ziemie Czernihowsko-Siewierskie pod rządami Litwy». ^ Russiæ, vulgo Moscovia, pars australis in Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, sive Atlas Novus in quo Tabulæ et Descriptiones Omnium Regionum, Editæ a Guiljel et Ioanne Blaeu, 1645. ^ Alex Levin, Under The Yellow & Red Stars (Azrieli Foundation, 2009), pp. 45ff., "The Suvorov Military School". ^ Dahlberg, John-Thor (October 11, 1989). "Voronzeh Scientist Quoted by TASS Casts Doubt on UFO Landing Story". Associated Press. Retrieved 21 March 2014.  ^ "UFO lands in Russia? Writer now waffles". United Press International. October 10, 1989. Retrieved 21 March 2014.  ^ Fein, Esther B.; Times, Special
Special
To The New York (11 October 1989). "U.F.O. Landing Is Fact, Not Fantasy, the Russians Insist". The New York Times. p. 6.  ^ Интерактивная карта подготовки к 425-летию основания Воронежа (рус.). Сайт администрации города Воронеж (31.08.11). Проверено 24 января 2011 ^ "В Воронеже родился миллионный житель". РБК. Retrieved July 22, 2015.  ^ "Главная страница - АО "Концерн «Созвездие"". Vsm-sorter.com. Retrieved July 22, 2015.  ^ " Voronezh
Voronezh
Mechanical Plant". Vmzvrn.ru. Retrieved July 22, 2015.  ^ "MMHC RUDGORMASH Mining Machinery Holding Company". Mmhc-rudgormash.com. Retrieved July 22, 2015.  ^ "НИИПМ-->О компании-->Институт сегодня". Vniipm.ru. Retrieved July 22, 2015.  ^ ""Конструкторское Бюро Химавтоматики" - Главная". Kbkha.ru. Retrieved July 22, 2015.  ^ "Pirelli, Russian Technologies joint venture launches technologically advanced second production line at Voronezh". Pirelli.com. Retrieved July 22, 2015.  ^ "Официальный портал органов власти". Govvrn.ru. Retrieved July 22, 2015.  ^ "Главная - ЦКР". Cluster36.ru. Retrieved July 22, 2015.  ^ "Жд вокзал Воронеж Оригинал жд билета Жд билеты Международный аэропорт "Стригино" г. Нижний Новгород, РЖД билет, купить ж д билет, рейсы самолетов в нижний новгород, телефоны справочного бюро аэропорта стригино, заказ ж/д билетов, стоимость жд билетов, билеты на поезд, бронирование, авиарейсы - Аэропорт Нижний Новгород - Нижегородский аэропорт - сайт аэропорта нижний новгород стригино - МЕЖДУНАРОДНЫЙ АЭРОПОРТ НИЖНИЙ НОВГОРОД". Nnov-airport.ru. Retrieved 2016-12-16.  ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved December 10, 2015.  ^ "Voronez (Voronezh) Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 10, 2015.  ^ "О филиале". Cb.rgup.ru. Retrieved July 22, 2015.  ^ "Воронежский камерный театр". Chambervrn.ru. Archived from the original on August 21, 2015. Retrieved July 22, 2015.  ^ "Воронежский Академический Театр драмы им. А. Кольцова". Voronezhdrama.ru. Retrieved July 22, 2015.  ^ "Воронежский государственный театр оперы и балета – официальный сайт". Theatre-vrn.ru. Retrieved July 22, 2015.  ^ ".:. Òåàòð Êóêîë - "ØÓÒ" .:". Puppet-shut.ru. Retrieved July 22, 2015.  ^ "Фестиваль". Platonovfest.com. Retrieved July 22, 2015.  ^ 14:50. "В Воронеже открыли одну из крупнейших синагог России". Rg.ru. Retrieved 2016-12-16.  ^ "The Jewish Community of Voronezh". evrei-vrn.ru. Retrieved 6 August 2016.  ^ Рациональная маршрутная сеть. "Воронеж: официальный сайт администрации городского округа". Voronezh-city.ru. Retrieved 2013-03-12.  ^ "City of Brno
Brno
Foreign Relations - Statutory city of Brno" (in Czech). 2.brno.cz. Archived from the original on January 15, 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2011.  ^ " Brno
Brno
- Partnerská města" (in Czech). Brno.cz. Retrieved 2009-07-17.  ^ "Ciudades y pueblos se benefician del hermanamiento con otros territorios". Larazon.es. Retrieved 2011-09-16. 

Sources[edit]

Воронежская областная Дума. Закон №87-ОЗ от 27 октября 2006 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Воронежской области и порядке его изменения», в ред. Закона №41-ОЗ от 13 апреля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Воронежской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Воронежской области и порядке его изменения"». Вступил в силу по истечении 10 дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Молодой коммунар", №123, 3 ноября 2006 г. ( Voronezh
Voronezh
Oblast Duma. Law #87-OZ of October 27, 2006 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Voronezh Oblast
Voronezh Oblast
and on the Procedures of Changing It, as amended by the Law #41-OZ of April 13, 2015 On Amending the Law of Voronezh Oblast
Voronezh Oblast
"On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Voronezh Oblast
Voronezh Oblast
and on the Procedures of Changing It". Effective as of after 10 days from the day of the official publication.). Воронежская областная Дума. Закон №66-ОЗ от 31 октября 2005 г. «О наделении муниципального образования город Воронеж статусом городского округа». Вступил в силу по истечении 10 дней со дня официального опубликования (18 ноября 2005 г.). Опубликован: "Коммуна", №171, 8 ноября 2005 г. ( Voronezh
Voronezh
Oblast Duma. Law #66-OZ of October 31, 2005 On Granting Urban Okrug Status to the Municipal Formation of the City of Voronezh. Effective as of the day which is 10 days after the official publication date (November 18, 2005).).

Further reading[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Voronezh

Charlotte
Charlotte
Hobson's book, Black Earth City, is an account of life in Voronezh
Voronezh
at the time of the fall of the Soviet Union based on her experiences after spending a year in Voronezh
Voronezh
as a foreign student in 1991–1992. Nadezhda Mandelstam's Hope Against Hope, the first volume of her memoirs concerning her husband, the poet Osip Mandelstam, provides many details about life in Voronezh
Voronezh
in the 1930s under Stalinist
Stalinist
rule.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to Voronezh.

Voronezh
Voronezh
travel guide from Wikivoyage Official website of Voronezh Official website of Voronezh
Voronezh
(in Russian) Unofficial website of Voronezh
Voronezh
(in Russian) Voronezh
Voronezh
State University Panoramic views of Voronezh

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Administrative divisions of Voronezh
Voronezh
Oblast

Administrative center: Voronezh

Cities and towns

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Districts

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Cities of Military Glory of Russia

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