VORONEZH (Russian : Воро́неж; IPA: ) is a city and the
administrative center of
Voronezh Oblast ,
Russia , straddling the
Voronezh River and located 12 kilometers (7.5 mi) from where it flows
into the Don . The city sits on the Southeastern Railway , which
Russia with the Urals and
Siberia , the
Ukraine , and the M4 highway (
Novorossiysk ). Its population in 2016 was estimated to be 1,032,895;
up from 889,680 recorded in the 2010 Census .
* 1 History
* 1.1 Foundation and name
* 1.2 17th to 20th centuries
* 1.3 1950s–2000s
* 1.4 2010s
* 2 Administrative and municipal status
* 2.1 City divisions
* 2.2 Demographics
* 3 Economy
* 3.1 Building
* 3.2 Clusters of
* 4 Transportation
* 4.1 Air
* 4.2 Rail
* 4.3 Bus
* 5 Climate
* 6 Education and Culture
* 6.1 Theaters
* 6.2 Festivals
* 7 Sports
* 8 Religion
* 9 Notable people
* 10 Sister Cities
* 11 References
* 11.1 Notes
* 11.2 Sources
* 12 Further reading
* 13 External links
Timeline of Voronezh
FOUNDATION AND NAME
Voronezh originates as a settlement of the
Kievan Rus in about the
12th century, first mentioned in the _
Hypatian Codex _ (dated 1177).
Voronezh River is likely named for the settlement, then in the
Principality of Chernigov
Principality of Chernigov . The toponym is usually derived from a
Slavic personal name _Voroneg_, apparently a derivation from _voron_
"raven", The comparative analysis of the name "Voronezh" was carried
out by the Khovansky Foundation in 2009.
Voronezh was presumably still in existence when Chernigov was
absorbed into the
Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the 15th century;
Voronezh itself was not part of the territory of the Grand Duchy, the
middle Don basin, including the
Voronezh river, during the 15th
century formed part of the marches separating the Grand Duchies of
Lithuania and Muscovy from the
Golden Horde . In the 16th century, the
area was gradually conquered by Muscovy from the
Nogai Horde (a
successor state of the Golden Horde), and the current city of Voronezh
was established in 1585 by Feodor I as a fort protecting the Muravsky
Trail trade route against the raids of the Nogai and Crimean Tatars.
17TH TO 20TH CENTURIES
_ A monument to
Peter the Great Center of
night Voronezh. Ship Museum
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In the 17th century,
Voronezh gradually evolved into a sizable town.
_Weronecz_ is shown on the _Worona_ river in Resania in
Joan Blaeu 's
map of 1645.
Peter the Great built a dockyard in
Voronezh where the
Azov Flotilla was constructed for the
Azov campaigns in 1695 and 1696.
This fleet, the first ever built in Russia, included the first Russian
ship of the line , _
Goto Predestinatsia _. The Orthodox diocese of
Voronezh was instituted in 1682 and its first bishop, Mitrofan of
Voronezh , was later proclaimed the town's patron saint. View of
Voronezh in the 18th century
Owing to the
Voronezh Admiralty Wharf, for a short time, Voronezh
became the largest city of South
Russia and the economic center of a
large and fertile region. In 1711, it was made the seat of the Azov
Governorate , which eventually morphed into the
Voronezh Governorate .
In the 19th century,
Voronezh was a center of the Central Black Earth
Region . Manufacturing industry (mills, tallow-melting, butter-making,
soap, leather, and other works) as well as bread, cattle, suet , and
the hair trade developed in the town. A railway connected Voronezh
Moscow in 1868 and
Rostov-on-Don in 1871.
World War II
World War II ,
Voronezh was the scene of fierce fighting
between Russian and combined Axis troops. The Germans used it as a
staging area for their attack on Stalingrad , and made it a key
crossing point on the Don River. In June 1941, two BM-13 (Fighting
machine #13 _Katyusha _) artillery installations were built at the
Voronezh excavator factory. In July, the construction of _Katyushas_
was rationalized so that their manufacture became easier and the time
of volley repetition was shortened from five minutes to fifteen
seconds. More than 300 BM-13 units manufactured in
Voronezh were used
in a counterattack near
Moscow in December 1941. In October 22, 1941,
the advance of the German troops prompted the establishment of a
defense committee in the city. On November 7, 1941, there was a troop
parade, devoted to the anniversary of the
October Revolution . Only
three such parades were organized that year: in Moscow, Kuybyshev ,
and Voronezh. In late June 1942, the city was attacked by German and
Hungarian forces. In response, Soviet forces formed the
. By July 6, the German army occupied the western river-bank suburbs
before being subjected to a fierce Soviet counter-attack. In July 24
frontline was stabilised along
Voronezh river. This was the opening
Case Blue .
Until January 25, 1943, parts of the Second German Army and the
Second Hungarian Army occupied west part of Voronezh. During Operation
Little Saturn , the
Ostrogozhsk–Rossosh Offensive , and the
Voronezhsko-Kastornenskoy Offensive, the
Voronezh Front exacted heavy
casualties on Axis forces. On January 25, 1943,
Voronezh was liberated
after ten days of combat . During the war the city was almost
completely ruined, with 92% of all buildings destroyed.
Voronezh had been rebuilt. Most buildings and historical
monuments were repaired. It was also the location of a prestigious
Suvorov Military School , a boarding school for young boys who were
considered to be prospective military officers, many of whom had been
orphaned by war.
In 1950–1960, new factories were established: a tire factory, a
machine-tool factory, a factory of heavy mechanical pressing, and
others. In 1968, Serial production of the
Tupolev Tu-144 supersonic
plane was established at the
Voronezh Aviation factory. In October
1977, the first Soviet domestic wide-body plane,
Ilyushin Il-86 , was
In 1989, TASS published details of an alleged UFO landing in the
city's park and purported encounters with extraterrestrial beings
reported by a number of children. A Russian scientist that was cited
in initial TASS reports later told the
Associated Press that he was
misquoted, cautioning, "Don't believe all you hear from TASS," and "We
never gave them part of what they published", and a TASS
correspondent admitted the possibility that some "make-believe" had
been added to the TASS story, saying, "I think there is a certain
portion of truth, but it is not excluded that there is also
From 10 to 17 September 2011,
Voronezh celebrated its 425th
anniversary. The anniversary of the city was given the status of a
federal scale celebration that helped attract large investments from
the federal and regional budgets for development.
On December 17, 2012,
Voronezh became the fifteenth city in Russia
with a population of over one million people.
Voronezh is the economic, industrial, cultural, and scientific
center of the
Central Black Earth Region .
ADMINISTRATIVE AND MUNICIPAL STATUS
The Mayor's office of
Voronezh is the administrative center of the oblast . Within the
framework of administrative divisions , it is incorporated as VORONEZH
URBAN OKRUG —an administrative unit with the status equal to that of
the districts . As a municipal division , this administrative unit
also has urban okrug status.
Administrative districts of
The city is divided into six administrative districts :
* 1. Zheleznodorozhny (183,17 km²)
* 2. Tsentralny (63,96 km²)
* 3. Kominternovsky (47,41 km²)
* 4. Leninsky (18,53 km²)
* 5. Sovetsky (156,6 km²)
* 6. Levoberezhny (123,89 km²)
NOTE: 1926–1970 and 2016 are population estimates; 1989 is the
Soviet Census; 2002 and 2010 are сensus urban population only.
The leading sectors of the urban economy in the 20th century were
mechanical engineering , metalworking , electronics industry and food
In the city are such companies as:
Voronezh Aircraft Production Association (
Tupolev Tu-144 is a
retired jet airliner, which was the world's first commercial
supersonic transport aircraft)
Voronezhselmash (the leading enterprise of the Russian Federation
in the field of agricultural engineering)
Sozvezdie (headquarter, JSC Concern “Sozvezdie”, in 1958 the
world's first created mobile telephony and wireless telephone Altai
* Verofarm (pharmaceutics, owner
Abbott Laboratories ),
Voronezh Mechanical Plant (production of missile and aircraft
engines, oil and gas equipment)
* Mining Machinery Holding - RUDGORMASH (production drilling,
mineral processing and mining equipment )
* VNiiPM Research Institute of Semiconductor Engineering (equipment
for plasma-chemical processes, technical-chemical equipment for liquid
operations, water treatment equipment)
Chemical Automatics Design Bureau with notable products:
The first Russian built nuclear rocket engine
RD-0410 (in the years
1960–1980). The rocket engine
RD-0109 , which was used in the flight
Yuri Gagarin , the first human to space. And the oxygen-hydrogen
liquid-propellant rocket engine for the space-rocket complex
"Energiya-Buran", as well as a powerful gas-dynamic laser.
Voronezh and many others.
On the territory of the city district government Maslovka Voronezh
region with the support of the Investment Fund of
implementing a project to create an industrial park, "Maslowski", to
accommodate more than 100 new businesses, including transformer
factory of Siemens. September 7, 2011 in
Voronezh opened Global
network operation center of Nokia Siemens Networks, which was the
fifth in the world and first in Russia.
In 2014, 926,000 square meters of housing was delivered.
CLUSTERS OF VORONEZH
In clusters of tax incentives and different preferences, the full
support of the authorities. A cluster of Oil and Gas Equipment,
Radio-electronic cluster, Furniture cluster, IT cluster, Cluster
aircraft, Cluster Electromechanics, Transport and logistics cluster,
Cluster building materials and technologies.
The city is served by the
Voronezh International Airport , which is
located north of the city and is home to Polet Airlines.
also home to the
Pridacha Airport , a part of a major aircraft
manufacturing facility VASO (_Voronezhskoye Aktsionernoye
Voronezh aircraft production
association) where the
Tupolev Tu-144 (known in the West as the
"Concordski"), was built and the only operational unit is still
Voronezh also hosts the
Voronezh Malshevo air force base in
the southwest of the city, which, according to a Natural Resources
Defense Council report, houses nuclear bombers .
Since 1868, there is a railway connection between
Moscow. Rail services form a part of the South Eastern Railway of the
Russian Railways . Destinations served direct from
Moscow, Kiev, Kursk, Novorossiysk, Sochi, and Tambov.
There are three Bus Stations in
Voronezh that connect the city with a
large number of destinations including
Astrakhan and many more.
Voronezh experiences a humid continental climate (Köppen climate
classification _Dfb_) with long, cold winters and short, warm summers.
CLIMATE DATA FOR VORONEZH
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE RAINY DAYS
AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%)
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net,
Source #2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)
EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Snow at night in a
The city has seven theaters, twelve museums, a number of movie
theaters, a philharmonic hall, and a circus. It is also a major center
of higher education in central Russia. The main educational facilities
Voronezh State University
Voronezh State Technical University
Voronezh State University of Architecture and Construction
Voronezh State Pedagogical University
Voronezh State Agricultural University
Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies
Voronezh State Medical University named after N. N. Burdenko
Voronezh State Academy of Arts
Voronezh State University of Forestry and Technologies named after
Voronezh State Institute of Physical Training
Voronezh Institute of Russia's Home Affairs Ministry
Voronezh Military Aviation Engineering University
Voronezh Institute of High Technologies
Voronezh Air Force Academy named after Prof. Zhukovsky and Gagarin
Plekhanov Russian University of Economics (
* Russian State University of Justice
* Admiral Makarov State University of Sea and River Fleet (Voronezh
* International Institute of Computer Technologies
Voronezh Institute of Economics and Law
and a number of other affiliate and private-funded institutes and
universities. There are 2000 schools within the city.
Voronezh Chamber Theatre
* Koltsov Academic Drama Theater
* Shut Puppet Theater
Platonov International Arts Festival
Russian Second Division
Tsentralnyi Profsoyuz Stadion
Women\'s Premier League
Higher Hockey League
Yubileyny Sports Palace
Volleyball League A
Kristall Sports Complex
Annunciation Orthodox Cathedral in
Orthodox Christianity is the prevalent religion in Voronezh.
There is an orthodox Jewish community in Voronezh, with a synagogue
located on Stankevicha Street.
Nikolai Ge. Maria, sister of Lazarus, meets Jesus who is going
to their house Main article:
List of people from Voronezh
Nikolay Basov , physicist
Ivan Bunin , writer
* Alexey Khovansky , editor
Arkady Davidowitz , writer and aphorist
Pavel Cherenkov , physicist
Kirill Gerstein , musician
Mikhail Tsvet , botanist
Konstantin Feoktistov , cosmonaut and engineer
* Poets and writers such as Platonov , Koltsov , Ivan S. Nikitin ,
Marshak , Peskov , Troepolsky;
* Painters Kramskoi , Ge , Kuprin
Valerian Albanov , navigator and polar explorer
Alexander Litvinenko , political dissident
Grigory Sanakoev , chess player
Yelena Davydova and Aleksandr Tkachyov , gymnasts
Yevgeny Lapinsky , Olympic volleyball player
Valentina Popova , weightlifter
Dmitri Sautin , diver
Volin , anarchist
Serge Voronoff , surgeon
Osip Mandelstam , poet
Vladimir Patkin , Olympic volleyball player
Andrei Platonov , writer
Sektor Gaza , punk band
Mitrofan Pyatnitsky , musician
Viktoria Komova , Olympic gymnast
Eduard Vorganov , professional cyclist
Igor Samsonov , painter
Lower Saxony ,
North Carolina ,
Castile and León ,
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ Law #87-OZ
* ^ "День города Воронеж 2015". _Mir36.ru_.
Retrieved July 22, 2015.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Law #66-OZ
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Исполнять обязанности мэра
Воронежа будет Геннадий Чернушкин
Подробнее". _Moe-online.ru_. 2014-12-30. Retrieved
* ^ "База данных показателей
муниципальных образований". _Gks.ru_.
Retrieved July 22, 2015.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_
Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011).
"Всероссийская перепись населения 2010
года. Том 1" . _Всероссийская перепись
населения 2010 года (2010 All-
Russia Population Census)_
(in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service . Retrieved June 29,
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_
Voronezh Territorial Branch of the Federal State
Statistics Service . , Voronezhstat.gks.ru, (in Russian)
* ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing
the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox.
Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified
in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the
entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
* ^ Правительство Российской
Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от
3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в
ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03
июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в
Федеральный закон "Об исчислении
времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении
шестидесяти дней после дня
официального опубликования (6 августа
2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская
газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian
Federation . Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 _On Calculating
Time_, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 _On
Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time"_. Effective as of after
sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
* ^ _A_ _B_ Историческая хроника (DOC) (IN
RUSSIAN). Муниципальное учреждение
библиотечная система города Воронежа
Центральная городская библиотека
имени А. Платонова. 2009. RETRIEVED MARCH 28, 2012.
* ^ Воронеж может оказаться намного
старше (IN RUSSIAN). Вести. AUGUST 19, 2010. RETRIEVED
MARCH 28, 2012.
* ^ "История". _Voronezh-city.ru_. Retrieved 2016-12-16.
* ^ "Каталог компаний, справочник
компаний России: Желтые страницы
России - Евро Адрес". _E-adres.ru_. Retrieved July 22,
* ^ "Рекетнммши Йнд Цнпндю Бнпнмеф".
_Kody.su_. Retrieved 2016-12-16.
* ^ The existence of the 12th-century settlement is assumed in the
historical atlas by
Karl Spruner von Merz (1855), _Die Völker und
Reiche der Slaven zwichen Elbe und Don bis 1125 _, showing _Woronesch_
on the river _Woronesch_ (high-resolution scan at davidrumsey.com).
* ^ Е. М. Поспелов. "Географические
названия мира". Москва, 1998. Стр. 104.
* ^ А. Лазарев. "Тайна имени Воронежъ"
(_The Mystery of the Name of Voronezh_), 2009.
* ^ _Woroneż_ (Wronasz) is shown on the _Woroneż_ river by Stefan
Kuczyński (1936) in a historical map of 15th-century Chernigov,
_«Ziemie Czernihowsko-Siewierskie pod rządami Litwy» _.
* ^ _Russiæ, vulgo Moscovia, pars australis _ in _Theatrum Orbis
Terrarum, sive Atlas Novus in quo Tabulæ et Descriptiones Omnium
Regionum, Editæ a Guiljel et Ioanne Blaeu_, 1645.
* ^ Alex Levin, _Under The Yellow & Red Stars_ (Azrieli Foundation
, 2009), pp. 45ff., "The Suvorov Military School".
* ^ Dahlberg, John-Thor (October 11, 1989). "Voronzeh Scientist
Quoted by TASS Casts Doubt on UFO Landing Story". _Associated Press_.
Retrieved 21 March 2014.
* ^ "UFO lands in Russia? Writer now waffles". _United Press
International_. October 10, 1989. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
* ^ Fein, Esther B.; Times,
Special To The New York (11 October
1989). "U.F.O. Landing Is Fact, Not Fantasy, the Russians Insist".
_The New York Times_. p. 6.
* ^ Интерактивная карта подготовки к
425-летию основания Воронежа (рус.). Сайт
администрации города Воронеж (31.08.11).
Проверено 24 января 2011
* ^ "В Воронеже родился миллионный
житель". _РБК_. Retrieved July 22, 2015.
* ^ "Главная страница - АО "Концерн
«Созвездие"". _Vsm-sorter.com_. Retrieved July 22, 2015.
* ^ "
Voronezh Mechanical Plant". _Vmzvrn.ru_. Retrieved July 22,
* ^ "MMHC RUDGORMASH Mining Machinery Holding Company".
_Mmhc-rudgormash.com_. Retrieved July 22, 2015.
* ^ "НИИПМ-->О компании-->Институт
сегодня". _Vniipm.ru_. Retrieved July 22, 2015.
* ^ ""Конструкторское Бюро
Химавтоматики" - Главная". _Kbkha.ru_. Retrieved
July 22, 2015.
* ^ "Pirelli, Russian Technologies joint venture launches
technologically advanced second production line at Voronezh".
_Pirelli.com_. Retrieved July 22, 2015.
* ^ "Официальный портал органов
власти". _Govvrn.ru_. Retrieved July 22, 2015.
* ^ "Главная - ЦКР". _Cluster36.ru_. Retrieved July 22,
* ^ "Жд вокзал Воронеж Оригинал жд
билета Жд билеты Международный
аэропорт «Стригино» г. Нижний
Новгород, РЖД билет, купить ж д билет,
рейсы самолетов в нижний новгород,
телефоны справочного бюро аэропорта
стригино, заказ ж/д билетов, стоимость
жд билетов, билеты на поезд,
бронирование, авиарейсы - Аэропорт
Нижний Новгород - Нижегородский
аэропорт - сайт аэропорта нижний
новгород стригино - МЕЖДУНАРОДНЫЙ
АЭРОПОРТ НИЖНИЙ НОВГОРОД". _Nnov-airport.ru_.
* ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода
и климат). Retrieved December 10, 2015.
* ^ "Voronez (Voronezh) Climate Normals 1961–1990" . National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration . Retrieved December 10, 2015.
* ^ "О филиале". _Cb.rgup.ru_. Retrieved July 22, 2015.
* ^ "Воронежский камерный театр".
_Chambervrn.ru_. Retrieved July 22, 2015.
* ^ "Воронежский Академический Театр
драмы им. А. Кольцова". _Voronezhdrama.ru_. Retrieved
July 22, 2015.
* ^ "Воронежский государственный
театр оперы и балета – официальный
сайт". _Theatre-vrn.ru_. Retrieved July 22, 2015.
* ^ ".:. Òåàòð Êóêîë - "ØÓÒ" .:.". _Puppet-shut.ru_.
Retrieved July 22, 2015.
* ^ "Фестиваль". _Platonovfest.com_. Retrieved July 22,
* ^ 14:50. "В Воронеже открыли одну из
крупнейших синагог России". _Rg.ru_. Retrieved
* ^ "The Jewish Community of Voronezh". _evrei-vrn.ru_. Retrieved 6
* ^ Рациональная маршрутная сеть.
"Воронеж: официальный сайт
администрации городского округа".
Voronezh-city.ru. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
* ^ "City of
Brno Foreign Relations - Statutory city of Brno" (in
Czech). 2.brno.cz. Archived from the original on January 15, 2016.
Retrieved 6 September 2011.
* ^ "
Brno - Partnerská města" (in Czech). Brno.cz. Retrieved
* ^ "Ciudades y pueblos se benefician del hermanamiento con otros
territorios". Larazon.es. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
* Воронежская областная Дума. Закон
№87-ОЗ от 27 октября 2006 г. «Об
устройстве Воронежской области и
порядке его изменения», в ред. Закона
№41-ОЗ от 13 апреля 2015 г. «О внесении
изменений в Закон Воронежской области
устройстве Воронежской области и
порядке его изменения"». Вступил в
силу по истечении 10 дней со дня
Опубликован: "Молодой коммунар", №123, 3
ноября 2006 г. (
Voronezh Oblast Duma. Law #87-OZ of October 27,
2006 _On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of
and on the Procedures of Changing It_, as amended by the Law #41-OZ of
April 13, 2015 _On Amending the Law of
Voronezh Oblast "On the
Administrative-Territorial Structure of
Voronezh Oblast and on the
Procedures of Changing It"_. Effective as of after 10 days from the
day of the official publication.).
* Воронежская областная Дума. Закон
№66-ОЗ от 31 октября 2005 г. «О наделении
муниципального образования город
Воронеж статусом городского округа».
Вступил в силу по истечении 10 дней со
дня официального опубликования (18
ноября 2005 г.). Опубликован: "Коммуна",
№171, 8 ноября 2005 г. (
Voronezh Oblast Duma. Law #66-OZ of
October 31, 2005 _On Granting Urban Okrug Status to the Municipal
Formation of the City of Voronezh_. Effective as of the day which is
10 days after the official publication date (November 18, 2005).).
_See also: Bibliography of the history of
Charlotte Hobson's book, _Black Earth City_, is an account of life
Voronezh at the time of the fall of the Soviet Union based on her
experiences after spending a year in
Voronezh as a foreign student in
Nadezhda Mandelstam 's _Hope Against Hope_, the first volume of
her memoirs concerning her husband, the poet
Osip Mandelstam ,
provides many details about life in
Voronezh in the 1930s under
Wikimedia Commons has media related to VORONEZH _.
Voronezh travel guide from Wikivoyage
* Official website of Voronezh
* Official website of
Voronezh (in Russian)
* Unofficial website of
Voronezh (in Russian)
Voronezh State University
* Panoramic views of Voronezh
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