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Volker Schlöndorff
Volker Schlöndorff
(born 31 March 1939) is a German filmmaker who has worked in Germany, France and the United States. He was a prominent member of the New German Cinema of the late 1960s and early 1970s, which also included Werner Herzog, Wim Wenders, Margarethe von Trotta and Rainer Werner Fassbinder. He won an Oscar as well as the Palme d'or
Palme d'or
at the 1979 Cannes Film Festival for The Tin Drum
The Tin Drum
(1979), the film version of the novel by Nobel Prize-winning author Günter Grass.[1]

Contents

1 Early life 2 Early film career 3 International success as a filmmaker 4 Hollywood and later career 5 Personal life 6 Filmography

6.1 Features 6.2 TV Movies 6.3 Documentaries and shorts subjects

7 Awards 8 Cultural References 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Early life[edit] Volker Schlöndorff
Volker Schlöndorff
was born in Wiesbaden, Germany to the physician Dr. Georg Schlöndorff. In 1956 his family moved to Paris, where Schlöndorff won awards at school for his work in philosophy. He graduated in political science at the Sorbonne, while at the same time studying film at the Institut des Hautes Etudes Cinematographiques, where he was friends with Bertrand Tavernier and met Louis Malle. Malle gave him his first job as his assistant director on Zazie in the Metro, which continued with the films A Very Private Affair, The Fire Within and Viva Maria!. Schlöndorff also worked as assistant director on Alain Resnais's Last Year at Marienbad
Last Year at Marienbad
and Jean-Pierre Melville's Léon Morin, Priest. During this time he also made his first short film, Who Cares? about French people living in Frankfurt in 1960. In 1963 he collaborated with filmmaker Jean-Daniel Pollet on the 40-minute documentary Méditerranée. The film has been highly regarded since its initial release, gaining praise from Jean-Luc Godard and consistently appearing in the popular book 1001 Movies You Must See Before You Die. Early film career[edit] Schlöndorff returned to Germany to make his feature film debut Young Törless. Produced by Louis Malle
Louis Malle
and based on the famous novel The Confusions of Young Törless
Young Törless
by Robert Musil, the film debuted at the 1966 Cannes Film Festival. Taking place at a semi-military Austrian boarding school, Törless witnesses the bullying of a fellow student but does nothing to prevent it despite his superior and mature intellect. He gradually begins to accept his personal responsibility for the abuse by doing nothing to stop it and runs away from the school. The comparison to pre-war Germany were obvious and the film was highly praised upon release, winning the FIPRESCI Prize at Cannes.[2] The New German Cinema movement unofficially began in 1962 with the Oberhausen Manifesto, calling new young German filmmakers to revitalize filmmaking in Germany, much like the French New Wave and British New Wave
British New Wave
of the previous few years. Although not among the initial group of filmmakers involved, Schlöndorff was quick to align himself with the group and Young Törless
Young Törless
is considered one of the most important films of the New German Cinema. Schlöndorff's next film was A Degree of Murder, a counter-culture saturated film with a musical score by Rolling Stones
Rolling Stones
guitarist Brian Jones. The film stars Jones' then girlfriend (and later Keith Richards wife) Anita Pallenberg as a young waitress who accidentally kills her boyfriend and hides the body with the help of two male friends. The film was very popular upon release amongst "swinging sixties" youths.[2] He then made another film that spoke to the counter culture generation, Michael Kohlhaas - Der Rebell. Set in medieval Germany, Michael Kohlhaas is a horse trader who has been cheated by a local nobleman and nearly starts a revolution to get revenge. The film starred David Warner, Anna Karina
Anna Karina
and Anita Pallenberg and was made in both German and English versions.[2] Schlöndorff then adapted Bertolt Brecht's first play Baal for television and cast an actor named Rainer Werner Fassbinder
Rainer Werner Fassbinder
in the lead role, along with Margarethe von Trotta, whom Schlöndorff would marry the following year. Schlöndorff adapted the story of a self-destructive poet to modern day Munich and the film was shown on German TV in 1970. He then made another TV movie The Sudden Wealth of the Poor People of Kombach (de), again starring Fassbinder. The film depicts 7 peasants in 19th Century Germany who rob the local tax collection cart but are so conditioned by their poverty that they cannot handle their newfound wealth.[2] The Morals of Ruth Halbfass (de) examined a group of people who have lost their sense of morals and co-starred von Trotta. Von Trotta would both star in and co-write Schlöndorff's next film, A Free Woman. The film took a feminist look at the condition of modern women in Munich. von Trotta portrays Elizabeth Junker, a recently divorced woman who must struggle to live her life independently as her husband has everything come easily to him, including the villa and son that they had shared together as a married couple. The film is loosely based on von Trotta's experiences with her divorce from her first husband.[2] Schlöndorff then completed the TV movie Übernachtung in Tirol in 1974, an adaptation of the Henry James
Henry James
short story Les raisons de Georgina for German TV and directed his first opera in Frankfurt, a production of Leoš Janáček's Káťa Kabanová
Káťa Kabanová
in 1974. International success as a filmmaker[edit] Schlöndorff (and the New German Cinema movement as a whole) had his first financial hit film with The Lost Honor of Katharina Blum
The Lost Honor of Katharina Blum
in 1975. Based on the novel of the same name by Nobel Prize-winning German author Heinrich Böll, Schlöndorff both co-wrote and co-directed the film with Margarethe von Trotta
Margarethe von Trotta
in her directorial debut. The film stars Angela Winkler as Blum, who after falling in love and spending the night with a young army deserter becomes the victim of a corrupt police investigation and predatory tabloid newspaper, which cast her as both a terrorist and a prostitute. The newspaper is based upon the real right-wing German tabloid Bild-Zeitung, whose publisher Axel Springer
Axel Springer
was the inspiration for the character Werner Tötges. West Germany was in a political hysteria over the activities of the terrorist group the Red Army Faction, and the police and journalistic activities depicted in both the book and the film accurately portrayed that era as reminiscent of McCarthyism
McCarthyism
in 1950s USA, including illegal police raids, phone tapping and tabloid smears. Böll himself was heavily attacked after the books publication, but both the novel and the film were hugely successful in West Germany.[2] After directing his second opera We Come to the River
We Come to the River
in 1976, Schlöndorff followed The Lost Honor of Katharina Blum
The Lost Honor of Katharina Blum
with the equally political Coup de Grâce in 1976. Based on a novel by French author Marguerite Yourcenar, the film stars von Trotta (who again co-wrote the script) as Sophie von Reval, a young left-wing aristocrat who sides with the Bolshevik Revolution
Bolshevik Revolution
after being rejected by a young German soldier preparing to fight the Red Army in 1919. The film depicts the same time period and subject matter that von Trotta would later revisit in the film Rosa Luxemburg. A supporting actress in Coup de Grâce was Valeska Gert, a former cabaret dancer, circus performer and silent film actress who had worked with Greta Garbo
Greta Garbo
and G.W. Pabst. This led to the documentary about her life Just for Fun, Just for Play in 1977. Schlöndorff then contributed to the omnibus film Germany in Autumn, in which nine German filmmakers (including Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Alexander Kluge, Edgar Reitz
Edgar Reitz
and author Heinrich Böll) made short films depicting the hysteria and political chaos in West Germany during the German Autumn
German Autumn
of 1977.[2] Schlöndorff's next film was the most successful and ambitious of his career, and perhaps the most important film of post-war Germany: The Tin Drum, released in 1979. The film was based on the novel by Nobel Prize-winning author Günter Grass, who for years had rejected proposed adaptations of his book until giving Schlöndorff his approval (and assistance) to make the film.[2] The Tin Drum
The Tin Drum
stars David Bennent
David Bennent
as the protagonist Oscar Matzerath, who, after receiving a tin drum on his third birthday, makes the conscious choice to stop growing and remain a three-year-old for the rest of his life. He hurls himself down a flight of stairs so as to give the adults around him a rational explanation for his handicap, and later discovers that he has the ability to tactically shatter glass with the power of his high-pitch scream, which he evokes whenever anyone attempts to take his tin drum away from him. The film co-stars Angela Winkler as Oscar's mother and Mario Adorf
Mario Adorf
and Daniel Olbrychski as the German and Kashubian (Pole) who may both be his biological fathers. The film mostly takes place from the end of World War I to the end of World War II
World War II
(when Oscar is 20) in the city of Danzig, Poland. Danzig
Danzig
is most famous for being the site of the first battle of the war at the polish Post Office, which Oscar takes part in. The film was widely hailed as a masterpiece[2] and shared the Palme d'or at the 1979 Cannes Film Festival
1979 Cannes Film Festival
with Apocalypse Now, as well as winning the 1979 Oscar for Best Foreign Language Film. In 1980 Schlöndorff collaborated with Stefan Aust, Alexander Kluge and Alexander von Eschwege on the documentary The Candidate, a film about the political campaign of arch-conservative Franz Josef Strauss. Schlöndorff next made The Circle of Deceit in 1981. Based on the novel by Nicolas Born, the film concerns the politics and moral struggles of war photographers. The film stars Bruno Ganz
Bruno Ganz
and Jerzy Skolimowski as photojournalists covering the Lebanon Civil War
Lebanon Civil War
in Beirut in 1975. Hollywood and later career[edit] Schlöndorff's first English language film was Swann in Love (1984), an adaptation of the first two volumes of Marcel Proust's In Search of Lost Time. The film was shot in France and financed by Gaumont, and stars Jeremy Irons, Ornella Muti, Alain Delon
Alain Delon
and Fanny Ardant. Schlöndorff then went to the United States to make a TV adaptation of Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman, starring Dustin Hoffman
Dustin Hoffman
as Willy Loman and John Malkovich
John Malkovich
as Biff. Both actors won Emmy's for their performances and Schlöndorff was nominated for an Emmy for his direction. The film premiered on Television in 1985 and was released theatrically throughout Europe over the following years. Schlöndorff followed this with another TV Movie in the US, A Gathering of Old Men, based on the novel of the same name by Ernest J. Gaines. The film stars Richard Widmark, Holly Hunter
Holly Hunter
and Lou Gossett Jr. and concerns racial discrimination in 1970s Louisiana. Schlöndorff returned to theatrical films with the Hollywood science fiction film The Handmaid's Tale in 1990. The film's story takes place in a dystopia near future where most women are sterile due to pollution. Kate (Natasha Richardson) is arrested after attempting to flee to Canada and forced to become a "Handmaid". Handmaids are fertile women who are enslaved by the state and put in the households of wealthy men - who have "ceremonial" sex with them in the hope of conceiving a child. She becomes the Handmaid of the Commander (Robert Duvall), Fred, who is married to Serena Joy (Faye Dunaway). To save herself from execution, Kate - renamed "Offred," since she now is attached to Fred's household - allows the Commander's driver (Aidan Quinn) to impregnate her and falls in love with him. The film was in competition at the 40th Berlin International Film Festival. This was quickly followed by Voyager in 1991. The film stars Sam Shepard as a man who survives a plane crash, then finds the love of his life (Julie Delpy) on his next trip and begins to question the rationale of his good luck after having spent most of his life being cruel to others. The film was based on the novel Homo Faber by Max Frisch and was not a success financially. In 1992 he directed the concert film The Michael Nyman Songbook, then made the first of his two documentaries on famous director Billy Wilder, Billy Wilder, How Did You Do It?, in which he and German critic Hellmut Karasek interviewed Wilder about his career over the course of two weeks in 1988. It was aired on German TV in 1992, and shown on TCM in the USA under the title Billy Wilder
Billy Wilder
Speaks in 2006. Schlöndorff had been a great admirer of Wilder for many years and sought his advice during the making of The Tin Drum. Appalled at plans of destroying the historic film studios Babelsberg, Schlöndorff mounted a one-man campaign to save them in the early 1990s.[3] He served as the chief executive for the UFA studio in Babelsberg between 1992 and 1997.[3] During that time, he helped Jiang Wen finish editing his 1994 film In the Heat of the Sun
In the Heat of the Sun
in Germany, with the studio’s full financial support. He also helped to get the film selected for the 51st Venice International Film Festival.[4] In 1996 he contributed to the French TV series Lumière sur un massacre with the episode "Le parfait soldat". Schlöndorff returned to Germany in 1996 to make The Ogre, his most well-regarded feature film since [The Tin Drum. Based on a novel by Michel Tournier
Michel Tournier
and starring John Malkovich
John Malkovich
as the titular Abel Tiffauges, the film revisited many of the themes and time period of The Tin Drum. Tiffauges is a slow-witted French soldier who has been accused of child molestation. After being captured by the Nazis and put in an internment camp, he is made a servant at an elite German training camp and kidnaps local children, officially as a way to recruit them for the camp, but in his mind to protect them. The film was screened in competition at the 1996 Venice Film Festival and won the UNICEF award. The film was released in Germany in 1996 and gained positive reviews. On the audio commentary for The Tin Drum, Schlöndorff said that he had wanted to film a sequel to The Tin Drum, as the film was based only on the first two thirds of the novel. But because actor David Bennent
David Bennent
was too old to reprise the role and he did not want to recast Oscar, he considers The Ogre to be an unofficial sequel to his masterpiece. Schlöndorff returned to Hollywood for Palmetto in 1998. In a classic noir plot, the film stars Woody Harrelson
Woody Harrelson
as a falsely accused journalist who was sent to jail after uncovering corruption in the local government. After getting out of jail and unable to find work, he encounters Rhea Malroux (Elisabeth Shue), a femme fatale who propositions him to help her extort money from her millionaire husband. The film was not a financial success and has so far been Schlöndorff's last film in the US.

Volker Schlöndorff
Volker Schlöndorff
and Nina Hoss at the 2017 Berlin International Film Festival

Schlöndorff returned to Germany to make the 2000 film The Legend of Rita. Loosely based upon the lives of members of the Red Army Faction who exiled to East Germany in the 1970s, the film centers around Rita, who most closely resembles real RAF member Inge Viett. Rita abandons the revolution and live in East Germany under protection of the secret service, but much risk discovery and consequences for her past crimes after German unification.[5] After the documentary Ein Produzent hat Seele oder er hat keine and a contribution to the omnibus film Ten Minutes Older
Ten Minutes Older
(both in 2002), Schlöndorff made The Ninth Day
The Ninth Day
in 2004. The film is Schlöndorff's third film to center around World War II
World War II
and is based on the diary of Father Jean Bernard. Ulrich Matthes
Ulrich Matthes
plays Father Henri Kremer, a Catholic Priest who is interned at Dachau concentration camp
Dachau concentration camp
during the second World War. He is inexplicably released for 9 days and sent to Luxembourg. There he meets a young SS Soldier who informs him that his mission there is to convince the local bishop to cooperate with the Nazi Party, in which case he will not be sent back to Dachau. He is thus faced with the moral dilemma of betraying his faith or returning to the concentration camp. Schlöndorff then completed the TV Movie Enigma - Eine uneingestandene Liebe in 2005. In 2006 he returned to the city of Danzig
Danzig
to film Strike, a docudrama about labor strikes at the Gdańsk Shipyard
Gdańsk Shipyard
during the Polish 1970 protests, and itself is a history of the Solidarity Movement in Poland leading up to the Fall of Communism. Schlöndorff's Ulzhan
Ulzhan
(2007) stars Philippe Torreton
Philippe Torreton
as a treasure hunter on his way home who has lost his soul and Ayanat Ksenbai as Ulzhan, the woman who falls in love with him. David Bennent
David Bennent
also co-starred. In the summer of 2012, he worked with Andrew Turner, who had formerly been a runway model for the late Alexander McQueen. Schlöndorffs World War II-era film Diplomacy, dedicated to his friend Richard C. Holbrooke
Richard C. Holbrooke
debuted at the 64th Berlin International Film Festival. Set in 1944, it explores how the Swedish consul general in Paris, Raoul Nordling, helped persuade Dietrich von Choltitz, the Nazi military governor of Paris, not to obey Hitler’s orders to destroy the historic city should it fall into enemy hands.[6] Personal life[edit] Schlöndorff was married to fellow film director Margarethe von Trotta from 1971 to 1991 and helped raise her son from her first marriage. He is currently married to Angelika Schlöndorff, and the couple has one daughter.[7] He formed a production company that produced both his and von Trotta's films, Bioskop. In 1991, he was the Head of the Jury at the 41st Berlin International Film Festival.[8] Schlöndorff also teaches film and literature at the European Graduate School in Saas-Fee, Switzerland, where he conducts an Intensive Summer Seminar. Filmography[edit] Features[edit]

1966 Young Törless 1967 A Degree of Murder 1969 Michael Kohlhaas - Der Rebell 1971 The Morals of Ruth Halbfass (de) 1972 A Free Woman 1975 The Lost Honor of Katharina Blum 1976 Coup de Grâce 1979 The Tin Drum 1981 The Circle of Deceit 1984 Swann in Love 1990 The Handmaid's Tale 1991 Voyager 1996 The Ogre 1998 Palmetto 2000 The Legend of Rita 2004 The Ninth Day 2006 Strike 2007 Ulzhan 2012 Calm at Sea 2014 Diplomacy 2017 Return to Montauk

TV Movies[edit]

1970 Baal 1970 The Sudden Wealth of the Poor People of Kombach (de) 1974 Übernachtung in Tirol 1985 Death of a Salesman 1987 A Gathering of Old Men 2005 Enigma - Eine uneingestandene Liebe

Documentaries and shorts subjects[edit]

1960 Who cares? (short) 1963 Méditerranée (documentary) 1967 Der Paukenspieler (segment "Unheimlicher Moment, Ein") 1975 The Novels of Henry James
Henry James
(TV series, episode "Les raisons de Georgina") 1977 Just for Fun, Just for Play (documentary) 1978 Germany in Autumn
Germany in Autumn
(segment "Die verschobene Antigone") 1980 The Candidate (documentary) 1983 War and Peace (short) 1992 Billy Wilder, How Did You Do It? (documentary, aka Billy Wilder Speaks) 1992 The Michael Nyman Songbook
The Michael Nyman Songbook
(documentary) 1996 Lumière sur un massacre (TV series, episode "Le parfait soldat") 2002 Ein Produzent hat Seele oder er hat keine 2002 Ten Minutes Older: The Cello (segment "The Enlightenment")

Awards[edit]

1978 Special
Special
Recognition award (shared) at the 28th Berlin International Film Festival for Germany in Autumn[9] 1979 Palme d'Or
Palme d'Or
Cannes Film Festival The Tin Drum 1980 Academy Awards
Academy Awards
Best Foreign Language Film The Tin Drum 2004 Bavarian Film Awards Honorary Award [1] 2009 Camerimage
Camerimage
Lifetime Achievement Award[10]

Cultural References[edit]

Good Bye Schlöndorff, a performance by Lebanese artist and musician Waël Koudaih alias Rayess Bek based on extracts of Die Fälschung
Die Fälschung
and audio tapes from the Lebanese Civil War.[11]

See also[edit]

New German Cinema Cinema of Germany

References[edit]

^ Volker Schlöndorff
Volker Schlöndorff
at European Graduate School. Biography and bibliography. (Retrieved May 14, 2010) ^ a b c d e f g h i Wakeman, John. World Film Directors, Volume 2. The H. W. Wilson Company. 1988. 983-987. ^ a b Mary Williams Walsh (September 22, 1996), The Savior of Babelsberg (Well, Almost) Los Angeles Times. ^ Edward Wong (October 16, 2013), Cinema Heavyweights Open German Film Festival New York Times. ^ " Cinema has been 'abused horrifically'". Matthew Hays and Martin Siberok, The Globe and Mail, Sep. 04, 2000 ^ Rachel Donadio (February 9, 2014), Europe’s Painful Past Colors a Film Festival New York Times. ^ Peter Craven and Volker Schlöndorff. Talking Germany. Deutsche Welle. April 26, 2009. ^ "Berlinale: 1991 Juries". berlinale.de. Retrieved 2011-03-21.  ^ "Berlinale 1978: Prize Winners". berlinale.de. Retrieved 2010-08-07.  ^ http://www.pluscamerimage.pl/index.php?lang=en&pg=3362 ^ "'Good Bye Schlöndorff', performance de Waël Koudaih au Metro al-Madina". Agenda Culturel. 13 January 2013. Retrieved 18 January 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

Moeller, Hans Bernhard and George Lellis, Volker Schlöndorff's Cinema: Adaptation, Politics and the "Movie Appropriate" . Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2002.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Volker Schlöndorff.

Volker Schlöndorff
Volker Schlöndorff
Faculty Website @ European Graduate School. Biography and bibliography. Volker Schlöndorff
Volker Schlöndorff
on IMDb Volker Schlöndorff's Cinématon - A 4 minutes online portrait by Gérard Courant Volker Schlöndorff
Volker Schlöndorff
Collection at Deutsches Filminstitut, Frankfurt (German)

v t e

Films directed by Volker Schlöndorff

Fiction films

Young Törless A Degree of Murder Man on Horseback Baal Sudden Wealth of the Poor People of Kombach The Morals of Ruth Halbfass A Free Woman Übernachtung in Tirol The Lost Honour of Katharina Blum Coup de Grâce Germany in Autumn The Tin Drum Die Fälschung War and Peace Swann in Love Death of a Salesman A Gathering of Old Men The Handmaid's Tale Voyager The Ogre Palmetto The Legend of Rita The Ninth Day Enigma - Eine uneingestandene Liebe Strike Ulzhan Calm at Sea Diplomacy Return to Montauk

Documentaries

Nur zum Spaß, nur zum Spiel The Candidate The Michael Nyman Songbook Ein Produzent hat Seele oder er hat keine Billy Wilder
Billy Wilder
Speaks

v t e

Academy Award
Academy Award
for Best Foreign Language Film

1947–1955 (Honorary)

1947: Shoeshine – Vittorio De Sica 1948: Monsieur Vincent
Monsieur Vincent
– Maurice Cloche 1949: Bicycle Thieves
Bicycle Thieves
– Vittorio De Sica 1950: The Walls of Malapaga – René Clément 1951: Rashomon
Rashomon
– Akira Kurosawa 1952: Forbidden Games
Forbidden Games
– René Clément 1953: No Award 1954: Gate of Hell – Teinosuke Kinugasa 1955: Samurai, The Legend of Musashi – Hiroshi Inagaki

1956–1975

1956: La Strada
La Strada
– Federico Fellini 1957: Nights of Cabiria
Nights of Cabiria
– Federico Fellini 1958: My Uncle – Jacques Tati 1959: Black Orpheus
Black Orpheus
– Marcel Camus 1960: The Virgin Spring
The Virgin Spring
– Ingmar Bergman 1961: Through a Glass Darkly – Ingmar Bergman 1962: Sundays and Cybele
Sundays and Cybele
– Serge Bourguignon 1963:
– Federico Fellini 1964: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow
Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow
– Vittorio De Sica 1965: The Shop on Main Street
The Shop on Main Street
Ján Kadár & Elmar Klos 1966: A Man and a Woman
A Man and a Woman
– Claude Lelouch 1967: Closely Watched Trains
Closely Watched Trains
– Jiří Menzel 1968: War and Peace – Sergei Bondarchuk 1969: Z – Costa-Gavras 1970: Investigation of a Citizen Above Suspicion
Investigation of a Citizen Above Suspicion
– Elio Petri 1971: The Garden of the Finzi Continis – Vittorio De Sica 1972: The Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoisie
The Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoisie
– Luis Buñuel 1973: Day for Night – François Truffaut 1974: Amarcord
Amarcord
– Federico Fellini 1975: Dersu Uzala – Akira Kurosawa

1976–2000

1976: Black and White in Color
Black and White in Color
– Jean-Jacques Annaud 1977: Madame Rosa
Madame Rosa
– Moshé Mizrahi 1978: Get Out Your Handkerchiefs
Get Out Your Handkerchiefs
– Bertrand Blier 1979: The Tin Drum
The Tin Drum
– Volker Schlöndorff 1980: Moscow Does Not Believe in Tears
Moscow Does Not Believe in Tears
– Vladimir Menshov 1981: Mephisto – István Szabó 1982: Volver a Empezar ('To Begin Again') – José Luis Garci 1983: Fanny and Alexander
Fanny and Alexander
– Ingmar Bergman 1984: Dangerous Moves
Dangerous Moves
– Richard Dembo 1985: The Official Story
The Official Story
– Luis Puenzo 1986: The Assault – Fons Rademakers 1987: Babette's Feast – Gabriel Axel 1988: Pelle the Conqueror
Pelle the Conqueror
– Bille August 1989: Cinema Paradiso – Giuseppe Tornatore 1990: Journey of Hope – Xavier Koller 1991: Mediterraneo – Gabriele Salvatores 1992: Indochine – Régis Wargnier 1993: Belle Époque – Fernando Trueba 1994: Burnt by the Sun
Burnt by the Sun
– Nikita Mikhalkov 1995: Antonia's Line
Antonia's Line
– Marleen Gorris 1996: Kolya
Kolya
– Jan Svěrák 1997: Character – Mike van Diem 1998: Life Is Beautiful
Life Is Beautiful
– Roberto Benigni 1999: All About My Mother
All About My Mother
– Pedro Almodóvar 2000: Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon
Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon
– Ang Lee

2001–present

2001: No Man's Land – Danis Tanović 2002: Nowhere in Africa – Caroline Link 2003: The Barbarian Invasions
The Barbarian Invasions
– Denys Arcand 2004: The Sea Inside
The Sea Inside
– Alejandro Amenábar 2005: Tsotsi
Tsotsi
– Gavin Hood 2006: The Lives of Others
The Lives of Others
– Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck 2007: The Counterfeiters – Stefan Ruzowitzky 2008: Departures – Yōjirō Takita 2009: The Secret in Their Eyes
The Secret in Their Eyes
– Juan J. Campanella 2010: In a Better World
In a Better World
– Susanne Bier 2011: A Separation – Asghar Farhadi 2012: Amour – Michael Haneke 2013: The Great Beauty
The Great Beauty
– Paolo Sorrentino 2014: Ida – Paweł Pawlikowski 2015: Son of Saul
Son of Saul
– László Nemes 2016: The Salesman – Asghar Farhadi 2017: A Fantastic Woman
A Fantastic Woman
– Sebastián Lelio

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 84161106 LCCN: n81116971 ISNI: 0000 0001 1030 2617 GND: 118608312 SUDOC: 028254570 BNF: cb140727775 (data) BIBSYS: 90356809 NLA: 35721203 NKC: jo2004213684 BNE: XX1295

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