HOME
The Info List - Volga Tatars


--- Advertisement ---



The Volga Tatars
Tatars
are a Turkic ethnic group, native to the Volga-Ural region, Russia. They are in turn subdivided into various subgroups. They compose 53% of the population of Tatarstan. Volga Tatars
Tatars
are Russia's second-largest ethnicity.[11]

Contents

1 Volga Tatar
Tatar
history

1.1 Bulgarism

2 Volga Tatar
Tatar
subgroups

2.1 Kazan
Kazan
(Qazan) Tatars 2.2 Mishars 2.3 Qasím Tatars 2.4 Noqrat Tatars 2.5 Perm (Ostyak) Tatars 2.6 Keräşens

3 1921–22 famine in Tatarstan 4 Traditional culture

4.1 Festivals 4.2 Cuisine

5 Population figures 6 Volga Tatar
Tatar
diaspora 7 See also 8 References 9 Sources 10 External links 11 Further reading

Volga Tatar
Tatar
history[edit] Further information: Tartary
Tartary
and Tatarstan Tatars
Tatars
inhabiting the Republic of Tatarstan, a federal subject of Russia, constitute one third of all Tatars, while the other two thirds reside outside Tatarstan. The formation of some of the communities residing outside Tatarstan
Tatarstan
took place before the Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
of 1917 due to Tatars
Tatars
being specialized in trading.[12] The emergence of ethnonym "Tatar" is disputed, with two theses trying to explain its origins. Mongol thesis, according to which etymology can be traced back to the Chinese "Ta-Tan" or "Da-Dan", is more widely accepted than Turkic one.[13] Ethnonym "Tatar" first emerged in the fifth century CE/AD.[14] The 14th century saw the spread of Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam
among the Tatars.[14] Tatars
Tatars
became subjects of Russia
Russia
after the Siege of Kazan
Siege of Kazan
in 1552.[15] Since Russians
Russians
linked Tatars
Tatars
with the Mongol Golden Horde
Golden Horde
(that ruled Russia
Russia
in the 13th century), they began to negatively stereotype the Tatar
Tatar
people. Due to these negative stereotypes, some of which persist in modern Russian society, recently some Tatar
Tatar
intellectuals have been trying to link Tatar
Tatar
heritage with the historic Bulgar population of today's Tatarstan. Russians
Russians
were using the Tatar
Tatar
ethnonym during the 18th and 19th centuries to denote all Turkic inhabitants of the Russian Empire,[16] however the Turkic peoples
Turkic peoples
of the Russian Empire before the emergence of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
did not usually self-identify as Tatars.[15] Up to the end of the 19th century, Volga Tatars
Tatars
mainly identified themselves as Muslims
Muslims
until the rehabilitation of the ethnonym Tatar
Tatar
occurred.[13] Russian officials used literary Tatar language to interact with the Turkic peoples
Turkic peoples
of the Russian Empire before the end of the 19th century. Volga Tatar
Tatar
role in the Muslim national and cultural movements of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
before the 1917 Revolution is significant and this situation continued even after 1917.[12] Tatar
Tatar
authorities attempted in the 1990s to reverse the Russification
Russification
of Tatarstan
Tatarstan
that took place during the Soviet period.[15] Bulgarism[edit] "Bulgarism" is a term for the position that the Volga Tatars
Tatars
are significantly descended from the Volga Bulgars.[17][18][19] Volga Tatar
Tatar
subgroups[edit] Kazan
Kazan
(Qazan) Tatars[edit] The majority of Volga Tatars
Tatars
are Kazan
Kazan
Tatars. They form the bulk of the Tatar
Tatar
population of Tatarstan. Traditionally, they inhabit the left bank of Volga river.[20] Khazar
Khazar
invasions forced Bulgars, Turkic people, to migrate from the Azov
Azov
steppes to the Middle Volga and lower Kama region during the first half of the eighth century.[13] In the period of 10th–13th centuries, Turkic peoples, including Kipchaks, migrated from southern Siberia
Siberia
to Europe. They played a significant role in the Mongol invasion of Rus' in the 13th century. Tatar
Tatar
ethnogenesis took place after Turkic peoples, who were mixed with the Bulgars
Bulgars
and other local inhabitants of the Volga River area, kept Kipchak dialect and became Muslims. Several new Tatar
Tatar
states had emerged by the 1500s after the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
fell.[21] These states were Khanate of Kazan, Astrakhan Khanate, Khanate of Sibir
Khanate of Sibir
and Crimean Khanate.[14] Controversy surrounds the origin of the Tatar
Tatar
people, whether they are descended either from Bulgars
Bulgars
or Golden Horde.[12] According to one theory, Kazan
Kazan
Tatar
Tatar
heritage can be traced back to Kipchaks
Kipchaks
of the Golden Horde, yet according to another theory, the Tatars
Tatars
emerged from the Bulgar culture which had survived the Mongol conquest of 1236–1237.[13] Mishars[edit] Mishars
Mishars
(or Mişär-Tatars) are an ethnographic group of Volga Tatars speaking Mishar dialect of the Tatar
Tatar
language. They comprise approximately one third of the Volga Tatar
Tatar
population. They are descendants of Cuman-Kipchak tribes who mixed with the Burtas in the Middle Oka River
Oka River
area and Meschiora. Nowadays, they live in Chelyabinsk, Ulyanovsk, Penza, Ryazan, Nizhegorodskaya oblasts of Russia
Russia
and in Tatarstan, Bashkortostan
Bashkortostan
and Mordovia. Qasím Tatars[edit] The Qasím Tatars
Tatars
have their capital in the town of Qasím ( Kasimov
Kasimov
in Russian transcription) in Ryazan
Ryazan
Oblast. See "Qasim Khanate" for their history. Today, there are 1,100 Qasím Tatars
Tatars
living in Kasimov. There is no reliable information about their number elsewhere. Noqrat Tatars[edit] Noqrat Tatars
Tatars
live in Russia's Republic of Udmurtia
Udmurtia
and Kirov Oblast. In 1920s their number was around 15,000 people. Perm (Ostyak) Tatars[edit] Ethnographic subgroup of Kazan
Kazan
Tatars
Tatars
that lives in Russia's Perm Krai. Some Tatar
Tatar
scholars (as Zakiev) name them Ostyak Tatars. Their number is (2002) c.130,000 people. Keräşens[edit] Main article: Kryashens

Ivan the Terrible
Ivan the Terrible
subjugated the Tatars
Tatars
and forcibly converted many of them to Christianity.

A policy of Christianization of the Muslim Tatars
Tatars
was enacted by the Russian authorities, beginning in 1552, resulting in the emergence of Keräşens (Christianized Tatars).[22] Many Volga Tatars
Tatars
were forcibly Christianized by Ivan the Terrible during the 16th century, and later, during the 18th century. Some scientists suppose that the Suars were ancestors of the Keräşen Tatars, and had been converted to Christianity
Christianity
by Armenians
Armenians
in the 6th century while they lived in the Caucasus. Suars, like other tribes which later converted to Islam, became Volga Bulgars, and later the modern Chuvash (who are Orthodox Christians) and Kazan
Kazan
Tatars
Tatars
(who are Muslims). Keräşen Tatars
Tatars
live in much of the Volga-Ural area. Today, they tend to be assimilated among the Chuvash and Tatars. Eighty years of Atheistic Soviet rule made Tatars
Tatars
of both faiths not as religious as they once were. Russian names are largely the only remaining difference between Tatars
Tatars
and Keräşen Tatars. Some Cuman tribes in the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
were converted to Christianity in the 13th and 14th centuries (Nestorianism). Some prayers, written during that time in the Codex Cumanicus, sound like modern Keräşen prayers, but the connection between Christian Cumans
Cumans
and modern Keräşens is unknown. 1921–22 famine in Tatarstan[edit] Main article: 1921–22 famine in Tatarstan The 1921–1922 famine in Tatarstan
Tatarstan
was a period of mass starvation and drought that took place in the Tatar
Tatar
ASSR as a result of war communism policy,[23][24] in which 500,000[25] to 2,000,000[26] peasants died. The event was part of the greater Russian famine of 1921–22 that affected other parts of the USSR,[27] in which up 5,000,000 people died in total.[28][29] Traditional culture[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Festivals[edit] Historically, the traditional celebrations of Tatars
Tatars
depended largely on the agricultural cycle. Spring/summer period

Sabantuy Sowing Dzhien

Fall/winter period

Pomochi Nardugan

Cuisine[edit] Main article: Tatar
Tatar
cuisine

Qistibi

Glass mug of fresh susurluk ayranı with a head of froth

Tatar
Tatar
cuisine is rich with hot soups (şulpa), dough-based dishes (qistibi, pilmän, öçpoçmaq, peremech, etc.) and sweets (çäkçäk, göbädiä, etc.). Traditional Tatar
Tatar
beverages include ayran, katyk and kumys. Population figures[edit] In the 1910s, they numbered about half a million in the area of Kazan.[16] Nearly 2 million Volga Tatars
Tatars
died in the 1921–22 famine in Tatarstan. Some 15,000 belonging to the same stem had either migrated to Ryazan
Ryazan
in the center of Russia
Russia
(what is now European Russia) or had been settled as prisoners during the 16th and 17th centuries in Lithuania[16] (Vilnius, Grodno, and Podolia). Some 2,000 resided in St. Petersburg. Volga-Ural Tatars
Tatars
number nearly 7 million, mostly in Russia
Russia
and the republics of the former Soviet Union. While the bulk of the population is found in Tatarstan
Tatarstan
(around 2 million) and neighbouring regions, significant number of Volga-Ural Tatars
Tatars
live in Siberia, Central Asia, and the Caucasus. Outside of Tatarstan, urban Tatars
Tatars
usually speak Russian as their first language (in cities such as Moscow, Saint-Petersburg, Nizhniy Novgorod, Ufa, and cities of the Ural and Siberia). Volga Tatar
Tatar
diaspora[edit]

Tatar-inhabited areas in Russia
Russia
according to the Russian Census of 2010

A Tatar
Tatar
cemetery in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast.

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Places where Volga Tatars
Tatars
live include:

Ural and Upper Kama (since 15th century) 15th century—colonization, 16th–17th century—re-settled by Russians; 17th–19th—exploring of the Urals, working in the plants West Siberia
Siberia
(since 16th century): 16th—from Russian repressions after conquering of Khanate of Kazan
Khanate of Kazan
by Russians 17th–19th—exploring of West Siberia; end of 19th—first half of 20th—industrialization, railways constructing; 1930s–Joseph Stalin's repressions; 1970s–1990s—oil workers Moscow
Moscow
(since 17th century): Tatar
Tatar
feudals in the service of Russia, tradesmen, since 18th—Saint-Petersburg Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
(since 18th century): 18th–19th centuries—Russian army officers and soldiers; 1930s–industrialization, since 1950s—settlers on virgin lands - re-emigration in 1990s Finland
Finland
(since 1804): (mostly Mişärs) – 19th – Russian military forces officers and soldiers, and others Central Asia (since 19th century) (Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan; for China
China
see Chinese Tatars) – 19th Russian officers and soldiers, tradesmen, religious emigrants, 1920–1930s – industrialization, Soviet education program for Central Asia peoples, 1948, 1960 – help for Ashgabat and Tashkent ruined by earthquakes. - re-emigration in 1980s Caucasus, especially Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
(since 19th century) – oil workers (1890s), bread tradesmen Brazil
Brazil
(19th century): With the end of the colonial period, after the abolitionist movement, Brazil
Brazil
stimulated the coming of Europeans to the country, mainly Italians, Germans and Slavs. Among these Slavs came Tatars
Tatars
who went mainly to Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul Northern China
China
(since 1910s) – railway builders (1910s) - re-emigrated in 1950s East Siberia
Siberia
(since 19th century) - resettled farmers (19th), railroad builders (1910s, 1980s), exiled by the Soviet government in 1930s Germany and Austria - 1914, 1941 – prisoners of war, 1990s - emigration Turkey, Japan, Iran, China, Egypt (since 1918) – emigration England, USA, Australia, Canada – (1920s) re-emigration from Germany, Turkey, Japan and China. 1950s – prisoners of war from Germany, which did not go back to the USSR, 1990s – emigration after the breakup of USSR Sakhalin, Kaliningrad, Belarus, Ukraine, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Karelia – after 1944-45 builders, Soviet military personnel Murmansk Oblast, Khabarovsk Krai, Northern Poland and Northern Germany (1945–1990) - Soviet military personnel Israel – wives or husbands of Jews (1990s)

See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tatar
Tatar
people.

Tatars Tatar
Tatar
nobility Chinese Tatars Crimean Tatars Lipka Tatars Finnish Tatars Tatars
Tatars
of Kazakhstan Tartary Little Tartary Idel-Ural State 1921–1922 famine in Tatarstan

References[edit]

^ Russian Census 2010: Population by ethnicity (in Russian) ^ " Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
– Ethnic minorities" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-06-03. [permanent dead link] ^ Агентство Республики Казахстан по статистике: Численность населения Республики Казахстан по отдельным этносам на 1 января 2012 года Archived 2012-11-15 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "About number and composition population of Ukraine
Ukraine
by data All-Ukrainian census of the population 2001". Ukraine
Ukraine
Census 2001. State Statistics Committee of Ukraine. Retrieved 27 September 2012.  ^ Asgabat.net-городской социально-информационный портал :Итоги всеобщей переписи населения Туркменистана по национальному составу в 1995 году. ^ "National composition of the population" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 13, 2013.  ^ http://www.azstat.org/statinfo/demoqraphic/en/AP_/1_5.xls ^ Joshua Project. " Tatar
Tatar
in Turkey". Retrieved 10 May 2015.  ^ "Population by ethnic nationality". Statistics Estonia. Retrieved 30 March 2016.  ^ Template:Http://portalus.ru/modules/english russia/rus readme.php?subaction=showfull&id=1190293300&archive=&start from=&ucat=& ^ " Kazan
Kazan
Tatars
Tatars
See No Future for Themselves in Putin's Russia". The Interpreter. 24 March 2014.  ^ a b c "TATAR. THE LANGUAGE OF THE LARGEST MINORITY IN RUSSIA". Princeton University. Archived from the original on 2006-12-13.  ^ a b c d Azade-Ayshe Rorlich. "1. The Origins of the Volga Tatars". Stanford University.  ^ a b c "Tatar". Encyclopædia Britannica.  ^ a b c DMITRY GORENBURG. "TATARS AS MESO-NATION" (PDF).  ^ a b c  Kropotkin, Peter; Eliot, Charles (1911). "Tatars". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 26 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 448–449.  ^ "A. Rorlich - Origin of the Volga Tatars". Retrieved 10 May 2015.  ^ Great Soviet Encyclopedia, article on Tatarstan. ^ Viktor Aleksandrovich Shnirelʹman, Who gets the past?: competition for ancestors among non-Russian intellectuals in Russia, Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996, ISBN 0-8018-5221-8, ISBN 978-0-8018-5221-3. Limited preview at Google Books [1] (Chapter The Rivalry for the Bulgar Legacy). ^ Татары (Серия «Народы и культуры» РАН). М.: Наука, 2001. — P.36. ^ James S. Olson, ed. (1994). "An Ethnohistorical Dictionary of the Russian and Soviet Empires". pp. 624–625.  ^ Brower 2001, p. 271. ^ Mizelle 2002, p. 18. ^ Werth, Nicolas; Panné, Jean-Louis; Paczkowski, Andrzej; Bartosek, Karel; Margolin, Jean-Louis (October 1999), Courtois, Stéphane, ed., The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression, Harvard University Press, pp. 92–97; 116–21, ISBN 978-0-674-07608-2  ^ Dronin & Bellinger 2005, p. 98. ^ Mizelle 2002, p. 281. ^ Millar 2004, p. 56. ^ Millar 2004, p. 270. ^ Haven, Cynthia (4 April 2011). "How the U.S. saved a starving Soviet Russia: PBS film highlights Stanford scholar's research on the 1921-23 famine". Stanford News Service. Retrieved 28 April 2017. 

Sources[edit]

Millar, James R. (2004). Encyclopedia of Russian History Volume 2: A-D (PDF). New York, USA: Macmillan Reference. ISBN 0-02-865907-4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-04-29.  Mizelle, Peter Christopher (May 2002). "Battle with Famine:" Soviet Relief and the Tatar
Tatar
Republic 1921-1922. District of Columbia, USA: University of Virginia. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tatar
Tatar
xalıq kiemnäre.

Tatars
Tatars
in Congress Library (1989) The Origins of the Volga Tatars Tatar.Net (in Russian) [2] (in Russian) Tatar
Tatar
Name (in Russian) Tatar
Tatar
history (in Russian) Tatar
Tatar
world-wide server (in Russian) Tatar
Tatar
Names (in Russian) Anthropology of Tatars. By R.K. Urazmanova and S.V. Cheshko (in Russian) (in Tatar) Tatar
Tatar
Electronic Library (in Russian) (in Tatar) Tatar
Tatar
music & video catalog

Further reading[edit]

Bukharaev, Ravil (2013). Islam in Russia: The Four Seasons. Routledge.  Danier R. Brower; Edward J. Lazzerini (2001). Russia's Orient: Imperial Borderlands and Peoples, 1700-1917. Indiana University Press. 

v t e

Tatars

Astrakhan Crimean Lipka Siberian

Tobol-Irtysh Baraba Tomsk

Volga

Kazan Mishars Qasim Nağaybäk Noqrat Ostyak Kryashens

v t e

Turkic peoples

Altays Afshar Azerbaijanis Balkars Bashkirs Bulaqs Bulgars Chelkans Chulyms Chuvash Crimean Karaites Crimean Tatars Cumans Dolgans Dughlats Gagauz Iraqi Turkmen Karachays Karakalpaks Karluks Kazakhs Khakas Khalajs Khazars Khorasani Turks Kimek Kipchaks Kryashens Krymchaks Kumandins Kumyks Kyrgyz Lipka Tatars Meskhetian Turks Mishar Tatars

Finnish Tatars

Nağaybäk Naimans Nogais Oghuz Turks Qarapapaqs Qashqai Qizilbash Salar Siberian Tatars Shatuo Shors Syrian Turkmen Telengits Teleuts Tofalar Tubalar Turgesh Turks (proper)

diaspora

Turkmens Tuvans Uyghurs Uzbeks Volga Tatars Yakuts Yugur

Italics indicate extinct group

v t e

Ethnic groups in Russia

Titular Nationalities

Adyghe

Cherkess Kabardians

Altay Balkars Bashkirs Belarusians Buryats Chechens Chuvash Ingush Kalmyks Karachays Karelians Khakas Komi Mari Mordvins

Mokshas

Ossetians Russians Tatars Tuvans Udmurts Ukrainians Yakuts

Other indigenous peoples

Far North

Ainus Aleuts Alyutors Chukchis Chuvans Dolgans Enets Itelmens Kereks Koryaks Nenets Nganasans Sami Siberian Yupik

Naukan Sirenik

Veps Yukaghir

Far East

Nanai Negidals Nivkh Oroch Orok Taz Udege Ulchs

Siberia

Central

Chulyms Evenks Evens Kets Khanty Mansi Selkups Teleuts

Southern

Chelkans Kumandins Shors Soyots Telengits Tofalars Tubalar Tozhu Tuvans

Dagestan

Aghuls Avars Azerbaijanis Dargins Kumyks Laks Lezgins Nogais Rutuls Tabasarans Tats Tsakhurs others

Other

Abaza–Abkhaz Besermyan Izhorians Jews Nag

.