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The Volga (Russian: Во́лга, IPA: [ˈvoɫɡə] ( listen)) is the longest river in Europe. It is also Europe's largest river in terms of discharge and watershed. The river flows through central Russia
Russia
and into the Caspian Sea, and is widely regarded as the national river of Russia. Eleven of the twenty largest cities of Russia, including the capital, Moscow, are located in the Volga's watershed. Some of the largest reservoirs in the world can be found along the Volga. The river has a symbolic meaning in Russian culture
Russian culture
and is often referred to as Волга-матушка Volga-Matushka (Mother Volga) in Russian literature
Russian literature
and folklore.

Contents

1 Nomenclature 2 Description

2.1 Confluences (downstream to upstream) 2.2 Reservoirs (downstream to upstream) 2.3 Human history

2.3.1 20th-century conflicts

3 Ethnic groups 4 Navigation 5 Satellite imagery 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Nomenclature[edit]

Cruise ships on the Volga.

The Russian hydronym Volga (Волга) derives from Proto-Slavic *vòlga "wetness, moisture", which is preserved in many Slavic languages, including Ukrainian volóha (воло́га) "moisture", Russian vlaga (влага) "moisture", Bulgarian vlaga (влага) "moisture", Czech vláha "dampness", Serbian vlaga (влага ) "moisture", and Slovene vlaga "moisture" among others.[3] The Slavic name is a loan translation of earlier Scythian Rā (Ῥᾶ) "Volga",[4] literally "wetness", cognate with Avestan Raŋhā "mythical stream" (also compare the derivation Sogdian r’k "vein, blood vessel" (*raha-ka),[5] Persian رگ rag "vein"[6]) and Sanskrit rasā́- (रसा) "dew, liquid, juice; mythical river".[7] The Scythian name survives in modern Mordvin Rav (Рав) "Volga". The Turkic peoples
Turkic peoples
living along the river formerly referred to it as Itil or Atil
Atil
"big river". In modern Turkic languages, the Volga is known as İdel (Идел) in Tatar, Атăл (Atăl) in Chuvash, Idhel in Bashkir, Edil in Kazakh, and İdil in Turkish. The Turkic peoples associated the Itil's origin with the Kama. Thus, a left tributary to the Kama was named the Aq Itil "White Itil" which unites with the Kara Itil "Black Itil" at the modern city of Ufa. The name Indyl (Indɨl) is used in Adyge (Cherkess) language. Among Asians,[clarification needed] the river was known by its other Turkic name Sarı-su "yellow water", but the Oirats
Oirats
also used their own name, Ijil mörön or "adaptation river". Presently the Mari, another Uralic group, call the river Jul (Юл), meaning "way" in Tatar. Formerly, they called the river Volgydo, a borrowing from Old Russian. Description[edit] The Volga is the longest river in Europe.[1] It belongs to the closed basin of the Caspian Sea, being the longest river to flow into a closed basin. Rising in the Valdai Hills
Valdai Hills
225 meters (738 ft) above sea level northwest of Moscow
Moscow
and about 320 kilometers (200 mi) southeast of Saint Petersburg, the Volga heads east past Lake Sterzh, Tver, Dubna, Rybinsk, Yaroslavl, Nizhny Novgorod, and Kazan. From there it turns south, flows past Ulyanovsk, Tolyatti, Samara, Saratov
Saratov
and Volgograd, and discharges into the Caspian Sea below Astrakhan
Astrakhan
at 28 meters (92 ft) below sea level.[1] At its most strategic point, it bends toward the Don ("the big bend"). Volgograd, formerly Stalingrad, is located there.

The Saratov
Saratov
Bridge, Saratov
Saratov
Oblast

The Volga has many tributaries, most importantly the rivers Kama, the Oka, the Vetluga, and the Sura. The Volga and its tributaries form the Volga river system, which flows through an area of about 1,350,000 square kilometres (521,238 square miles) in the most heavily populated part of Russia.[1] The Volga Delta
Volga Delta
has a length of about 160 kilometres (99 miles) and includes as many as 500 channels and smaller rivers. The largest estuary in Europe, it is the only place in Russia where pelicans, flamingos, and lotuses may be found.[citation needed] The Volga freezes for most of its length for three months each year.[1] The Volga drains most of Western Russia. Its many large reservoirs provide irrigation and hydroelectric power. The Moscow
Moscow
Canal, the Volga–Don Canal, and the Volga–Baltic Waterway
Volga–Baltic Waterway
form navigable waterways connecting Moscow
Moscow
to the White Sea, the Baltic Sea, the Caspian Sea, the Sea of Azov
Sea of Azov
and the Black Sea. High levels of chemical pollution have adversely affected the river and its habitats. The fertile river valley provides large quantities of wheat, and also has many mineral riches. A substantial petroleum industry centers on the Volga valley. Other resources include natural gas, salt, and potash. The Volga Delta
Volga Delta
and the nearby Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
offer superb fishing grounds. Astrakhan, at the delta, is the center of the caviar industry. Confluences (downstream to upstream)[edit]

Rzhev
Rzhev
is the uppermost town situated on the Volga (photographed c. 1910)

A suspension bridge (Stariy Most/Старый Мост) across the Volga in Tver
Tver
(built 1897–1900, damaged during the war, repaired in 1947 and rebuilt in 1980)

Volga near Nizhny Novgorod, 2010

Akhtuba (near Volzhsky), a distributary Samara
Samara
(in Samara) Kama (south of Kazan) Kazanka (in Kazan) Sviyaga (west of Kazan) Vetluga (near Kozmodemyansk) Sura (in Vasilsursk) Kerzhenets (near Lyskovo) Oka (in Nizhny Novgorod) Uzola (near Balakhna) Unzha (near Yuryevets) Kostroma
Kostroma
(in Kostroma) Kotorosl
Kotorosl
(in Yaroslavl) Sheksna (in Cherepovets) Mologa
Mologa
(near Vesyegonsk) Kashinka (near Kalyazin) Nerl (near Kalyazin) Medveditsa (near Kimry) Dubna
Dubna
(in Dubna) Shosha (near Konakovo) Tvertsa (in Tver) Vazuza (in Zubtsov) Selizharovka (in Selizharovo)

Reservoirs (downstream to upstream)[edit] A number of large hydroelectric reservoirs were constructed on the Volga during the Soviet era. They are:

Volgograd
Volgograd
Reservoir Saratov
Saratov
Reservoir Kuybyshev Reservoir – the largest in Europe
Europe
by surface Cheboksary Reservoir Gorky Reservoir Rybinsk
Rybinsk
Reservoir Uglich Reservoir Ivankovo Reservoir

Human history[edit]

Many Orthodox shrines and monasteries are located along the banks of the Volga

The area downstream of the Volga, widely believed to have been a cradle of the Proto-Indo-European civilization, was settled by Huns and other Turkic peoples
Turkic peoples
in the first millennium AD, replacing the Scythians. The ancient scholar Ptolemy
Ptolemy
of Alexandria
Alexandria
mentions the lower Volga in his Geography (Book 5, Chapter 8, 2nd Map of Asia). He calls it the Rha, which was the Scythian name for the river. Ptolemy believed the Don and the Volga shared the same upper branch, which flowed from the Hyperborean
Hyperborean
Mountains. Subsequently, the river basin played an important role in the movements of peoples from Asia
Asia
to Europe. A powerful polity of Volga Bulgaria once flourished where the Kama joins the Volga, while Khazaria
Khazaria
controlled the lower stretches of the river. Such Volga cities as Atil, Saqsin, or Sarai were among the largest in the medieval world. The river served as an important trade route connecting Scandinavia, Rus', and Volga Bulgaria
Volga Bulgaria
with Khazaria
Khazaria
and Persia.

Ilya Yefimovich Repin's painting Barge Haulers on the Volga

Khazars were replaced by Kipchaks, Kimeks and Mongols, who founded the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
in the lower reaches of the Volga. Later their empire divided into the Khanate of Kazan
Kazan
and Khanate of Astrakhan, both of which were conquered by the Russians in the course of the 16th century Russo- Kazan
Kazan
Wars. The Russian people's deep feeling for the Volga echoes in national culture and literature, starting from the 12th-century Lay of Igor's Campaign.[8] The Volga Boatman's Song
The Volga Boatman's Song
is one of many songs devoted to the national river of Russia. Construction of Soviet Union-era dams often involved enforced resettlement of huge numbers of people, as well as destruction of their historical heritage. For instance, the town of Mologa
Mologa
was flooded for the purpose of constructing the Rybinsk
Rybinsk
Reservoir
Reservoir
(then the largest artificial lake in the world). The construction of the Uglich Reservoir
Reservoir
caused the flooding of several monasteries with buildings dating from the 15th and 16th centuries. In such cases the ecological and cultural damage often outbalanced any economic advantage.[9] 20th-century conflicts[edit]

Soviet Marines charge the Volga river bank.

Main articles: Battle of Stalingrad
Battle of Stalingrad
and Kazan
Kazan
Operation During the Russian Civil War, both sides fielded warships on the Volga. In 1918, the Red Volga Flotilla participated in driving the Whites eastward, from the Middle Volga at Kazan
Kazan
to the Kama and eventually to Ufa
Ufa
on the Belaya.[10] In modern times, the city on the big bend of the Volga, currently known as Volgograd, witnessed the Battle of Stalingrad, possibly the bloodiest battle in human history, in which the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the German forces were deadlocked in a stalemate battle for access to the river. The Volga was (and still is) a vital transport route between central Russia
Russia
and the Caspian Sea, which provides access to the oil fields of the Apsheron Peninsula. Hitler
Hitler
planned to use access to the oil fields of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
to fuel future German conquests. Apart from that, whoever held both sides of the river could move forces across the river, to defeat the enemy's fortifications beyond the river.[11] By taking the river, Hitler's Germany would have been able to move supplies, guns, and men into the northern part of Russia. At the same time, Germany could permanently deny this transport route by the Soviet Union, hampering its access to oil and to supplies via the Persian Corridor. For this reason, many amphibious military assaults were brought about in an attempt to remove the other side from the banks of the river. In these battles, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was the main offensive side, while the German troops used a more defensive stance, though much of the fighting was close quarters combat, with no clear offensive or defensive side. Ethnic groups[edit]

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The Volga in the Zhiguli Mountains.

The first recorded people along the upper Volga were the Mari (Мари) and their west ethnic group named Merya
Merya
(Мäрӹ). In the 8th and 9th centuries Slavic colonization began from Kievan Rus'. The Slavs brought Christianity to the upper Volga, and a portion of the local people adopted Christianity and gradually became East Slavs. The remainder of the Mari people
Mari people
migrated to the west far inland. In the course of several centuries the Slavs assimilated the indigenous Finnic populations, such as the Merya
Merya
and Meshchera
Meshchera
peoples. The surviving peoples of Volga Finnic ethnicity include the Maris and Mordvins
Mordvins
of the middle Volga. Apart from the Huns, the earliest Turkic tribes arrived in the 7th century and assimilated some Finnic and Indo-European population on the middle and lower Volga. The Christian Chuvash and Muslim
Muslim
Tatars are descendants of the population of medieval Volga Bulgaria. Another Turkic group, the Nogais, formerly inhabited the lower Volga steppes. The Volga region is home to a German minority group, the Volga Germans. Catherine the Great
Catherine the Great
had issued a Manifesto in 1763 inviting all foreigners to come and populate the region, offering them numerous incentives to do so. This was partly to develop the region but also to provide a buffer zone between the Russians and the Mongols
Mongols
to the East. Because of conditions in German territories, Germans responded in the largest numbers. Under the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
a slice of the region was turned into the Volga German Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. Others were executed or dispersed throughout the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
prior to and after World War II.[citation needed] Navigation[edit]

The Volga at Volgograd

In some locations, the Volga has a rocky right bank.

The Volga, widened for navigation purposes with construction of huge dams during the years of Joseph Stalin's industrialization, is of great importance to inland shipping and transport in Russia: all the dams in the river have been equipped with large (double) ship locks, so that vessels of considerable dimensions can travel from the Caspian Sea almost to the upstream end of the river. Connections with the river Don and the Black Sea
Black Sea
are possible through the Volga–Don Canal. Connections with the lakes of the North (Lake Ladoga, Lake Onega), Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
and the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
are possible through the Volga–Baltic Waterway; and commerce with Moscow
Moscow
has been realised by the Moscow
Moscow
Canal connecting the Volga and the Moskva River. This infrastructure has been designed for vessels of a relatively large scale (lock dimensions of 290 by 30 metres (951 ft × 98 ft) on the Volga, slightly smaller on some of the other rivers and canals) and it spans many thousands of kilometers. A number of formerly state-run, now mostly privatized, companies operate passenger and cargo vessels on the river; Volgotanker, with over 200 petroleum tankers, is one of them. In the later Soviet era, up to the modern times, grain and oil have been among the largest cargo exports transported on the Volga. [12] Until recently access to the Russian waterways was granted to foreign vessels on a very limited scale. The increasing contacts between the European Union and Russia
Russia
have led to new policies with regard to the access to the Russian inland waterways. It is expected that vessels of other nations will be allowed on Russian rivers soon.[13] Satellite imagery[edit]

View of the river and Volgograd
Volgograd
from space.

Volga river delta, Terra/MODIS 2010-07-17.

Terra/MODIS, 2002-05-17.

Terra/MODIS, 2001-10-10.

See also[edit]

Geography portal

The Song of the Volga Boatmen List of rivers of Russia Volga River
River
Steamers Caspian Depression

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g Scheffel, Richard L.; Wernet, Susan J., eds. (1980). Natural Wonders of the World. United States of America: Reader's Digest Association, Inc. p. 406. ISBN 0-89577-087-3.  ^ Volga at GEOnet Names Server ^ See Max Vasmer's dictionary under "Волга". ^ J.P. Mallory & D.Q. Adams, Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, s.v. "dew" (London: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997), 158-9. ^ Michiel de Vaan, Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the Other Italian Languages, s.v. "rōs, rōris" (Leiden: Brill, 2008), 526-7. ^ Nourai, Ali. 2013. An Etymological Dictionary of Persian, English and Other Indo-European Languages. Index of Words in Different Languages Vol. 1 Vol. 1. p.130. ^ Lebedynsky, Iaroslav. Les Sarmates : Amazones et lanciers cuirassés entre Oural et Danube. Paris: Editions Errance, 2002. ^ "The Volga" ( Microsoft FrontPage
Microsoft FrontPage
12.0). www.volgawriter.com. Retrieved 2010-06-11.  ^ "In all, Soviet dams flooded 2,600 villages and 165 cities, almost 78,000 sq. km. – the area of Maryland, Delaware, Massachusetts, and New Jersey combined – including nearly 31,000 sq. km. of agricultural land and 31,000 sq. km. of forestland". Quoted from: Paul R. Josephson. Industrialized Nature: Brute Force Technology and the Transformation of the Natural World. Island Press, 2002. ISBN 1-55963-777-3. Page 31. ^ Brian Pearce, Introduction to Fyodor Raskolnikov
Fyodor Raskolnikov
s "Tales of Sub-lieutenant Ilyin." ^ "::The Battle of Stalingrad::". Historylearningsite.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-06-11.  ^ Korotenko, K. A.; Mamedov, R. M.; Mooers, C. N. K. (2000). "Prediction of the Dispersal of Oil Transport in the Caspian Sea Resulting from a Continuous Release". Spill Science & Technology Bulletin. 6 (5–6): 323. doi:10.1016/S1353-2561(01)00050-0.  ^ "NoorderSoft Waterways Database". Noordersoft.com. Archived from the original on November 9, 2005. Retrieved 2010-06-11. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Volga.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Volga.

Volga Delta
Volga Delta
from Space Photos of the Volga coasts Geographic data related to Volga River
River
at OpenStreetMap Video about the source of the Volga

v t e

Volga River

Tributaries

Selizharovka Vazuza Tvertsa Shosha Dubna Medveditsa Nerl Kashinka Sit Mologa Suda Sheksna Sogozha Kotorosl Kostroma Nyomda Unzha Uzola Oka Kudma Kerzhenets Sura Vetluga Rutka Tsivil Great Kokshaga Little Kokshaga Anish Ilet Sviyaga Sumka Kazanka Kama Aktay Bezdna Cheremshan Sok Samara Chapayevka Little Irgiz Irgiz Tereshka Yeruslan Akhtuba (distributary)

Reservoirs

Lake Volgo Ivankovo Uglich Rybinsk Gorky Cheboksary Kuybyshev Saratov Volgograd

Hydroelectric stations

Ivankovo Uglich Rybinsk Nizhny Novgorod Cheboksary Zhiguli Saratov Volga

Canals

Moscow
Moscow
Canal Volga–Baltic Waterway Volga–Don Canal

Cities

Astrakhan Volgograd Saratov Samara Kazan Ulyanovsk Nizhny Novgorod Yaroslavl Tver

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 244994202 GND: 40793

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