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A województwo ([vɔjɛˈvut͡stfɔ]; plural: województwa) is the highest-level administrative subdivision of Poland, corresponding to a "province" in many other countries. The term "województwo" has been in use since the 14th century, and is commonly translated in English as "province".[1] Województwo is also rendered in English by "voivodeship" (/ˈvɔɪvoʊdʃɪp/) or a variant spelling.[2] The Polish local government reforms
Polish local government reforms
adopted in 1998, which went into effect on 1 January 1999, created sixteen new voivodeships. These replaced the 49 former voivodeships that had existed from 1 July 1975, and bear greater resemblance (in territory but not in name) to the voivodeships that existed between 1950 and 1975. Today's voivodeships are mostly named after historical and geographical regions, while those prior to 1998 generally took their names from the cities on which they were centered. The new units range in area from under 10,000 km2 (3,900 sq mi) (Opole Voivodeship) to over 35,000 km2 (14,000 sq mi) (Masovian Voivodeship), and in population from one million (Lubusz Voivodeship) to over five million (Masovian Voivodeship). Administrative authority at the voivodeship level is shared between a government-appointed governor called a voivode (wojewoda), an elected assembly called a sejmik, and an executive board (zarząd województwa) chosen by that assembly, headed by a voivodeship marshal (marszałek województwa). Voivodeships are further divided into powiats (counties) and gminas (communes or municipalities): see Administrative divisions of Poland.

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Contents

1 Voivodeships since 1999

1.1 Administrative powers 1.2 List of voivodeships 1.3 Economies of Voivodeships

2 Historical development

2.1 Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

2.1.1 Greater Poland
Poland
(Wielkopolska) 2.1.2 Lesser Poland
Poland
(Małopolska) 2.1.3 Grand Duchy of Lithuania 2.1.4 Duchy of Livonia

2.2 Congress Poland 2.3 Second Polish Republic 2.4 Polish People's Republic

3 Etymology and use of "voivodeship" 4 Notes 5 References 6 External links 7 See also

Voivodeships since 1999[edit]

Map of Polish voivodeships since 1999 (abbreviations)

Administrative powers[edit] Competences and powers at voivodeship level are shared between the voivode (governor), the sejmik (regional assembly) and the marshal. In most cases these institutions are all based in one city, but in Kuyavian-Pomeranian and Lubusz Voivodeship
Lubusz Voivodeship
the voivode's offices are in a different city from those of the executive and the sejmik. Voivodeship
Voivodeship
capitals are listed in the table below. The voivode is appointed by the Prime Minister and is the regional representative of the central government. The voivode acts as the head of central government institutions at regional level (such as the police and fire services, passport offices, and various inspectorates), manages central government property in the region, oversees the functioning of local government, coordinates actions in the field of public safety and environment protection, and exercises special powers in emergencies. The voivode's offices collectively are known as the urząd wojewódzki.[citation needed] The sejmik is elected every four years, at the same time as the local authorities at powiat and gmina level. It passes bylaws, including the voivodeship's development strategies and budget. It also elects the marszałek and other members of the executive, and holds them to account. The executive (zarząd województwa), headed by the marszałek drafts the budget and development strategies, implements the resolutions of the sejmik, manages the voivodeship's property, and deals with many aspects of regional policy, including management of European Union funding. The marshal's offices are collectively known as the urząd marszałkowski. List of voivodeships[edit]

Polish voivodeships since 1999

Abbr. Flag Coat of arms Teryt. code Car plates Voivodeship Polish name Capital cities Area (km²) Population (December 31, 2012) Pop. per km²

DS

02 D Lower Silesian dolnośląskie Wrocław 19,947 2,914,362 146

KP

04 C Kuyavian-Pomeranian kujawsko-pomorskie Bydgoszcz1, Toruń2 17,972 2,096,404 117

LU

06 L Lublin lubelskie Lublin 25,122 2,165,651 86

LB

08 F Lubusz lubuskie Gorzów Wielkopolski1, Zielona Góra2 13,988 1,023,317 73

LD

10 E Łódź łódzkie Łódź 18,219 2,524,651 139

MA

12 K Lesser Poland małopolskie Kraków 15,183 3,354,077 221

MZ

14 W Masovian mazowieckie Warsaw 35,558 5,301,760 149

OP

16 O Opole opolskie Opole 9,412 1,010,203 107

PK

18 R Subcarpathian podkarpackie Rzeszów 17,846 2,129,951 119

PD

20 B Podlaskie podlaskie Białystok 20,187 1,198,690 59

PM

22 G Pomeranian pomorskie Gdańsk 18,310 2,290,070 125

SL

24 S Silesian śląskie Katowice 12,333 4,615,870 374

SK

26 T Holy Cross świętokrzyskie Kielce 11,711 1,273,995 109

WN

28 N Warmian-Masurian warmińsko-mazurskie Olsztyn 24,173 1,450,697 60

WP

30 P Greater Poland wielkopolskie Poznań 29,826 3,462,196 116

ZP

32 Z West Pomeranian zachodniopomorskie Szczecin 22,892 1,721,405 75

1 Seat of voivode. 2 Seat of sejmik and marszałek.

Economies of Voivodeships[edit] (See: List of Polish voivodeships by GDP per capita) According to 2014 Eurostat data, the GDP per capita of Polish voivodeships varies notably and there is a large gap between the richest per capita voivodeship (being the Masovian Voivodeship
Masovian Voivodeship
at 29,800 EUR) and the poorest per capita (being the Lublin
Lublin
Voivodeship at 13,000 EUR).[3]

Outline of Poland

Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
in 1619, around the time of Commonwealth's greatest extent

Voivodeships of Congress Poland

Poland's prewar and postwar borders, 1939–1945

Map of Polish voivodeships (1921–1939)

Map of Polish voivodeships (1957–1975)

Map of Polish voivodeships (1975–1998)

Historical development[edit] Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth[edit] Further information: Administrative division
Administrative division
of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
and Voivodes of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Greater Poland
Poland
(Wielkopolska)[edit]

Poznań
Poznań
Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(województwo poznańskie, Poznań) Kalisz
Kalisz
Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(województwo kaliskie, Kalisz) Gniezno
Gniezno
Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(województwo gnieźnieńskie, Gniezno) from 1768 Sieradz
Sieradz
Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(województwo sieradzkie, Sieradz) Łęczyca
Łęczyca
Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(województwo łęczyckie, Łęczyca) Brześć Kujawski
Brześć Kujawski
Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(województwo brzesko-kujawskie, Brześć Kujawski) Inowrocław
Inowrocław
Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(województwo inowrocławskie, Inowrocław) Chełmno
Chełmno
Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(województwo chełmińskie, Chełmno) Malbork
Malbork
Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(województwo malborskie, Malbork) Pomeranian Voivodeship
Pomeranian Voivodeship
(województwo pomorskie, Gdańsk) Duchy of Warmia
Warmia
(Księstwo Warmińskie, Lidzbark Warmiński) Duchy of Prussia
Duchy of Prussia
(Księstwo Pruskie, Królewiec) Płock
Płock
Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(województwo płockie, Płock) Rawa Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(województwo rawskie, Rawa Mazowiecka) Masovian Voivodeship
Masovian Voivodeship
(województwo mazowieckie, Warszawa)

Lesser Poland
Poland
(Małopolska)[edit]

Kraków
Kraków
Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(województwo krakowskie, Kraków) Sandomierz
Sandomierz
Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(województwo sandomierskie, Sandomierz) Lublin Voivodeship
Lublin Voivodeship
(województwo lubelskie, Lublin) Podlaskie Voivodeship
Podlaskie Voivodeship
(województwo podlaskie, Drohiczyn) Ruthenian Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(województwo ruskie, Lwów) Bełz
Bełz
Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(województwo belzkie, Bełz) Volhynian Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(województwo wołyńskie, Łuck) Podole Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(województwo podolskie, Kamieniec Podolski) Bracław
Bracław
Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(województwo bracławskie, Bracław) Kijów Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(województwo kijowskie, Kijów) Czernihów Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(województwo czernichowskie, Czernihów)

Grand Duchy of Lithuania[edit]

Wilno Voivodship (województwo wileńskie, Wilno) Troki Voivodship
Troki Voivodship
(województwo trockie, Troki) Nowogrodek Voivodship (województwo nowogrodzkie, Nowogródek) Brest-Litovsk Voivodship
Brest-Litovsk Voivodship
(województwo brzesko-litewskie, Brześć Litewski) Minsk Voivodship
Minsk Voivodship
(województwo mińskie, Mińsk) Mscislaw Voivodship
Mscislaw Voivodship
(województwo mścisławskie, Mścisław) Smolensk Voivodship
Smolensk Voivodship
(województwo smoleńskie, Smoleńsk) Vitebsk Voivodship
Vitebsk Voivodship
(województwo witebskie, Witebsk) Polock Voivodship
Polock Voivodship
(województwo połockie, Połock) Duchy of Samogita (księstwo żmudzkie, Miedniki-Wornie)

Duchy of Livonia[edit]

Wenden Voivodship
Wenden Voivodship
(województwo wendeńskie, Wenden) since 1598 till the 1620s Dorpat Voivodship
Dorpat Voivodship
(województwo dorpackie, Dorpat) since 1598 till the 1620s Parnawa Voivodship
Parnawa Voivodship
(województwo parnawskie, Parnava) since 1598 till the 1620s Inflanty Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(województwo inflanckie Dyneburg) since the 1620s Duchy of Courland and Semigalia
Duchy of Courland and Semigalia
(księstwo Kurlandii i Semigalii), Mitawa)

Congress Poland[edit] Further information: Administrative division
Administrative division
of Congress Poland From 1816 to 1837 there were 8 voivodeships in Congress Poland.

Augustów Voivodeship Kalisz
Kalisz
Voivodeship Kraków
Kraków
Voivodeship Lublin
Lublin
Voivodeship Mazowsze Voivodeship Płock
Płock
Voivodeship Podlaskie Voivodeship Sandomierz
Sandomierz
Voivodeship

Second Polish Republic[edit] Further information: Administrative division
Administrative division
of Second Polish Republic The administrative division of Poland
Poland
in the interwar period included 16 voivodeships and Warsaw
Warsaw
(with voivodeship rights). The voivodeships that remained in Poland
Poland
after World War II as a result of Polish–Soviet border agreement of August 1945
Polish–Soviet border agreement of August 1945
were very similar to the current voivodeships. Collapsed list of car plates since 1937, please use table-sort buttons.

Car plates (since 1937) Voivodeship[4] Polish name Capital city modern name in parentheses Area in km² (1930) Population (1931)

20–24 Białystok białostockie Białystok 26,000 1,263,300

25–29 Kielce kieleckie Kielce 22,200 2,671,000

30–34 Kraków krakowskie Kraków 17,600 2,300,100

35–39 Lublin lubelskie Lublin 26,600 2,116,200

40–44 Lwów lwowskie Lwów
Lwów
(Lviv) 28,400 3,126,300

45–49 Łódź łódzkie Łódź 20,400 2,650,100

50–54 Nowogródek nowogródzkie Nowogródek
Nowogródek
(Navahrudak) 23,000 1,057,200

55–59 Polesie poleskie Brześć nad Bugiem (Brest) 36,700 1,132,200

60–64 Pomeranian pomorskie Toruń 25,700 1,884,400

65–69 Poznań poznańskie Poznań 28,100 2,339,600

70–74 Stanisławów stanisławowskie Stanisławów (Ivano-Frankivsk) 16,900 1,480,300

75–79? Silesian śląskie Katowice 5,100 1,533,500

80–84 Tarnopol tarnopolskie Tarnopol (Ternopil) 16,500 1,600,400

85–89 Warsaw
Warsaw
(voivodeship) warszawskie Warsaw 31,700 2,460,900

00–19 Warsaw
Warsaw
(city) Warszawa Warsaw 140 1,179,500

90–94 Wilno wileńskie Wilno (Vilnius) 29,000 1,276,000

95–99 Wołyń wołyńskie Łuck
Łuck
(Lutsk) 35,700 2,085,600

Polish People's Republic[edit] After World War II, the new administrative division of the country within the new national borders was based on the prewar one and included 14 (+2) voivodeships, then 17 (+5). The voivodeships in the east that had not been annexed by the Soviet Union had their borders left almost unchanged. The newly acquired territories in the west and north were organized into the new voivodeships of Szczecin, Wrocław and Olsztyn, and partly joined to Gdańsk, Katowice
Katowice
and Poznań voivodeships. Two cities were granted voivodeship status: Warsaw
Warsaw
and Łódź. In 1950, new voivodeships were created: Koszalin
Koszalin
(previously part of Szczecin), Opole
Opole
(previously part of Katowice), and Zielona Góra (previously part of Poznań, Wrocław
Wrocław
and Szczecin
Szczecin
voivodeships). In 1957, three more cities were granted voivodeship status: Wrocław, Kraków
Kraków
and Poznań. Collapsed list of car plates since 1956, please use table-sort buttons.

Car plates (since 1956) Voivodeship(Polish name) Capital Area in km² (1965) Population (1965)

A białostockie Białystok 23,136 1,160,400

B bydgoskie Bydgoszcz 20,794 1,837,100

G gdańskie Gdańsk 10,984 1,352,800

S katowickie Katowice 9,518 3,524,300

C kieleckie Kielce 19,498 1,899,100

E koszalińskie1 Koszalin 17,974 755,100

K krakowskie Kraków 15,350 2,127,600

? Kraków
Kraków
(city)2 Kraków 230 520,100

F łódzkie Łódź 17,064 1,665,200

I Łódź
Łódź
(city) Łódź 214 744,100

L lubelskie Lublin 24,829 1,900,500

O olsztyńskie Olsztyn 20,994 956,600

H opolskie ¹ Opole 9,506 1,009,200

P poznańskie Poznań 26,723 2,126,300

? Poznań
Poznań
(city)2 Poznań 220 438,200

R rzeszowskie Rzeszów 18,658 1,692,800

M szczecińskie Szczecin 12,677 847,600

T warszawskie Warsaw 29,369 2,453,000

W Warszawa (city) Warsaw 446 1,252,600

X wrocławskie Wrocław 18,827 1,967,000

? Wrocław
Wrocław
(city)2 Wrocław 225 474,200

Z zielonogórskie1 Zielona Góra 14,514 847,200

1 New voivodeships created in 1950. 2 Cities separated in 1957.

Poland's voivodeships 1975–1998 See also: Administrative divisions of the People's Republic of Poland and Voivodeships of Poland
Poland
(1975–98) Administrative division
Administrative division
of Poland
Poland
between 1979 and 1998 included 49 voivodeships upheld after the establishment of the Third Polish Republic in 1989 for another decade. This reorganization of administrative division of Poland
Poland
was mainly a result of local government reform acts of 1973–1975. In place of the three-level administrative division (voivodeship, county, commune), a new two-level administrative division was introduced (49 small voivodeships, and communes). The three smallest voivodeships – Warsaw, Kraków
Kraków
and Łódź
Łódź
– had the special status of municipal voivodeship; the city president (mayor) was also provincial governor. Collapsed list of Voivodeships: 1975–1998, please use table-sort buttons.

Abbr. Voivodeship Polish name Capital Area km² (1998) Population (1980) No. of cities No. of communes

bp Biała Podlaska
Biała Podlaska
Voivodeship bialskopodlaskie Biała Podlaska 5,348 286,400 6 35

bk Białystok
Białystok
Voivodeship białostockie Białystok 10,055 641,100 17 49

bb Bielsko-Biała
Bielsko-Biała
Voivodeship bielskie Bielsko-Biała 3,704 829,900 18 47

by Bydgoszcz
Bydgoszcz
Voivodeship bydgoskie Bydgoszcz 10,349 1,036,000 27 55

ch Chełm
Chełm
Voivodeship chełmskie Chełm 3,865 230,900 4 25

ci Ciechanów
Ciechanów
Voivodeship ciechanowskie Ciechanów 6,362 405,400 9 45

cz Częstochowa
Częstochowa
Voivodeship częstochowskie Częstochowa 6,182 747,900 17 49

el Elbląg
Elbląg
Voivodeship elbląskie Elbląg 6,103 441,500 15 37

gd Gdańsk
Gdańsk
Voivodeship gdańskie Gdańsk 7,394 1,333,800 19 43

go Gorzów Voivodeship gorzowskie Gorzów Wielkopolski 8,484 455,400 21 38

jg Jelenia Góra
Jelenia Góra
Voivodeship jeleniogórskie Jelenia Góra 4,378 492,600 24 28

kl Kalisz
Kalisz
Voivodeship kaliskie Kalisz 6,512 668,000 20 53

ka Katowice
Katowice
Voivodeship katowickie Katowice 6,650 3,733,900 43 46

ki Kielce
Kielce
Voivodeship kieleckie Kielce 9,211 1,068,700 17 69

kn Konin
Konin
Voivodeship konińskie Konin 5,139 441,200 18 43

ko Koszalin
Koszalin
Voivodeship koszalińskie Koszalin 8,470 462,200 17 35

kr Kraków
Kraków
Voivodeship krakowskie Kraków 3,254 1,167,500 10 38

ks Krosno
Krosno
Voivodeship krośnieńskie Krosno 5,702 448,200 12 37

lg Legnica
Legnica
Voivodeship legnickie Legnica 4,037 458,900 11 31

le Leszno
Leszno
Voivodeship leszczyńskie Leszno 4,254 357,600 19 28

lu Lublin
Lublin
Voivodeship lubelskie Lublin 6,793 935,200 16 62

lo Łomża
Łomża
Voivodeship łomżyńskie Łomża 6,684 325,800 12 39

ld Łódź
Łódź
Voivodeship łódzkie Łódź 1523 1,127,800 8 11

ns Nowy Sącz
Nowy Sącz
Voivodeship nowosądeckie Nowy Sącz 5,576 628,800 14 41

ol Olsztyn
Olsztyn
Voivodeship olsztyńskie Olsztyn 12,327 681,400 21 48

op Opole
Opole
Voivodeship opolskie Opole 8,535 975,000 29 61

os Ostrołęka
Ostrołęka
Voivodeship ostrołęckie Ostrołęka 6,498 371,400 9 38

pi Piła
Piła
Voivodeship pilskie Piła 8,205 437,100 24 35

pt Piotrków Voivodeship piotrkowskie Piotrków Trybunalski 6,266 604,200 10 51

pl Płock
Płock
Voivodeship płockie Płock 5,117 496,100 9 44

po Poznań
Poznań
Voivodeship poznańskie Poznań 8,151 1,237,800 33 57

pr Przemyśl
Przemyśl
Voivodeship przemyskie Przemyśl 4,437 380,000 9 35

ra Radom
Radom
Voivodeship radomskie Radom 7,295 702,300 15 61

rz Rzeszów
Rzeszów
Voivodeship rzeszowskie Rzeszów 4,397 648,900 13 41

se Siedlce
Siedlce
Voivodeship siedleckie Siedlce 8,499 616,300 12 66

si Sieradz
Sieradz
Voivodeship sieradzkie Sieradz 4,869 392,300 9 40

sk Skierniewice
Skierniewice
Voivodeship skierniewickie Skierniewice 3,959 396,900 8 36

sl Słupsk
Słupsk
Voivodeship słupskie Słupsk 7,453 369,800 11 31

su Suwałki
Suwałki
Voivodeship suwalskie Suwałki 10,490 422,600 14 42

sz Szczecin
Szczecin
Voivodeship szczecińskie Szczecin 9,981 897,900 29 50

tg Tarnobrzeg
Tarnobrzeg
Voivodeship tarnobrzeskie Tarnobrzeg 6,283 556,300 14 46

ta Tarnów
Tarnów
Voivodeship tarnowskie Tarnów 4,151 607,000 9 41

to Toruń
Toruń
Voivodeship toruńskie Toruń 5,348 610,800 13 41

wb Wałbrzych
Wałbrzych
Voivodeship wałbrzyskie Wałbrzych 4,168 716,100 31 30

wa Warsaw
Warsaw
Voivodeship warszawskie Warsaw (Warszawa) 3,788 2,319,100 27 32

wl Włocławek
Włocławek
Voivodeship włocławskie Włocławek 4,402 413,400 14 30

wr Wrocław
Wrocław
Voivodeship wrocławskie Wrocław 6,287 1,076,200 16 33

za Zamość
Zamość
Voivodeship zamojskie Zamość 6,980 472,100 5 47

zg Zielona Góra
Zielona Góra
Voivodeship zielonogórskie Zielona Góra 8,868 609,200 26 50

Etymology and use of "voivodeship"[edit] Some English-language sources, in historic contexts, speak of "palatinates" rather than "voivodeships". The term "palatinate" traces back to the Latin
Latin
palatinus ("palatine"). More commonly used now is "province" or "voivodeship". The latter is a loanword-calque hybrid formed on the Polish "województwo". Some writers argue against rendering "województwo" in English as "province" on historic grounds. Before the Third and last Partition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, which occurred in 1795, each of the main constituent Regions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth—Greater Poland, Lesser Poland, Lithuania, and Royal Prussia—was sometimes idiosyncratically referred to as a "Province" ("prowincyja"). According to the argument, a "Province" (such as Greater Poland) cannot consist of a number of subdivisions ("województwa", the plural of "województwo") that are likewise called "provinces". However, this is an antiquarian consideration, since "province" has not been used in this sense in Poland
Poland
for over two centuries, and in any case the former larger political units—all now obsolete—can be referred to in English as "Regions" (which, in English parlance, is what they were). The Polish "województwo", designating a second-tier Polish or Polish–Lithuanian administrative unit, derives from "wojewoda" (etymologically, a "warlord", "war leader" or "leader of warriors", but now simply the governor of a województwo) and the suffix "-ztwo" (a "state or condition"). The English "voivodeship", which is a hybrid of the loanword "voivode" and "-ship" (the latter a suffix that calques the Polish suffix "-ztwo"), has never been much used and is absent from many dictionaries. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, it first appeared in 1792, spelled "woiwodship", in the sense of "the district or province governed by a voivode." The word subsequently appeared in 1886 also in the sense of "the office or dignity of a voivode."[5] Poland's Commission on Standardization of Geographic Names outside the Republic of Poland, recommends the spelling "voivodship", without the e.[1] [2] [3] Notes[edit]

^ The word "voivodeship", as an equivalent for "województwo", appears in some large English dictionaries such as the OED
OED
and Webster's Third New International Dictionary but is not in common English usage. Hence the word "province" is a recommended translation: "Jednostki podziału administracyjnego Polski tłumaczymy tak: województwo—province..." ("Polish administrative units are translated as follows: województwo—province..."). Arkadiusz Belczyk, "Tłumaczenie polskich nazw geograficznych na język angielski" (" Translation
Translation
of Polish Geographical Names into English"), 2002-2006. Examples: New Provinces of Poland
Poland
(1998), Map of Poland, English names of Polish provinces. More examples:

"Following the reform of the administrative structure in 1973-1975, the number of provinces (województwa) was increased from 22 to 49... [I]ncreasing the number of provinces meant the reduction of each in size. In this way Warsaw
Warsaw
was able to dilute the political importance of the provincial party chiefs." "Poland", The Encyclopedia Americana, 1986, volume 22, p. 312. " Poland
Poland
is divided into 49 provinces." "Poland", The Columbia Encyclopedia, sixth edition, edited by Paul Lagassé, Columbia University Press, 2000, p. 2256. "Local government in Poland
Poland
is organized on three levels. The largest units, at the regional level, are the województwa (provinces)..." "Poland", Encyclopædia Britannica, 15th edition, 2010, Macropaedia, volume 25, p. 937. "GOVERNMENT... Administrative divisions: 16 provinces (wojewodztwa, singular–wojewodztwo)..." "Poland," in Central Intelligence Agency, The CIA World Factbook
The CIA World Factbook
2010, New York, Skyhorse Publishing, Inc., 2009, ISBN 9781602397279, p. 546. The same information appears in the current online CIA World Factbook --> " Poland
Poland
--> Administrative divisions". Note that in this source, where "English translations" of province names are given, they are in the noun ("Silesia"), not the adjective ("Silesian"), form. Professor Paul Best, of Southern Connecticut State University, writes: "[I]n standard dictionaries the Polish word [województwo] is translated as 'province.'" Paul Best, review of Bogdan Horbal, Lemko Studies: A Handbook (2010), in The Polish Review, vol. 58, no. 4 (2013), pp. 125–26.

^ Alternate English renderings include "voivodship," "voievodship," "voievodeship" and "woiwodship". ^ "Eurostat - Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) map". ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 2017-02-16.  ^ data as per April 1, 1937 ^ "Voivodeship," The Oxford English Dictionary, second edition, volume XIX, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1989, p. 739.

References[edit]

"Poland", Encyclopædia Britannica, 15th edition, 2010, Macropaedia, volume 25, p. 937. "Poland", The Columbia Encyclopedia, sixth edition, edited by Paul Lagassé, Columbia University Press, 2000, p. 2256. "Poland", The Encyclopedia Americana, 1986, volume 22, p. 312. "Poland," in Central Intelligence Agency, The CIA World Factbook
The CIA World Factbook
2010, New York, Skyhorse Publishing, Inc., 2009, ISBN 9781602397279, p. 546. "Voivodeship," The Oxford English Dictionary, second edition, volume XIX, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1989, p. 739.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Voivodeships of Poland.

Map of Polish Regions Administrative division
Administrative division
of Poland
Poland
(from Commission on Standardization of Geographical Names Outside Poland
Poland
website, in English) Official map by Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography Regions of Poland Toponymic Guidelines Of Poland
Poland
for Map Editors and Other Users Head Office Of Geodesy And Cartography, 2002 CIA World Factbook --> " Poland
Poland
--> Administrative divisions"

See also[edit]

Poland
Poland
portal European Union
European Union
portal

Coats of arms of Polish voivodeships Flags of Polish voivodeships ISO 3166-2:PL Prowincja Regions of Poland Voivodeship

v t e

Polish terms for country subdivisions

Current

National: voivodeship powiat gmina Urban: dzielnica osiedle Rural: sołectwo

Historical

departament gromada gubernia jurydyka księstwo obwód okręg opole prowincja rejencja starostwo ziemia

See also

Crown of the Kingdom of Poland

v t e

Past administrative divisions of Poland

Kingdom of Poland Crown of the Polish Kingdom Partitions Duchy of Warsaw Congress Poland Privislinsky Krai Second Polish Republic World War II People's Republic of Poland

v t e

First-level administrative divisions in European countries

Sovereign states

Albania Andorra Armenia2 Austria Azerbaijan1 Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus2 Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia1 Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Kazakhstan1 Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia1 San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey1 Ukraine United Kingdom

States with limited recognition

Abkhazia2 Kosovo Nagorno-Karabakh2 Northern Cyprus2 South Ossetia2 Transnistria

1 Has part of its territory outside Europe. 2 Considered European for cultural, political and historical reasons but is geographically in Western Asia.

Table of administrative divisions by country

v t e

Voivodeships of Poland

Greater Poland Kuyavian-Pomeranian Lesser Poland Łódź Lower Silesian Lublin Lubusz Masovian Opole Podkarpackie Podlaskie Pomeranian Silesian Świętokrzyskie Warmian-Masurian West Pomeranian

Authority control

.