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Voigtländer
Voigtländer
(German pronunciation: [ˈfoːktlɛndɐ]) was a significant long-established company within the optics and photographic industry, headquartered in Braunschweig, Germany,[1] and today continues as a trademark for a range of photographic products.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early beginnings 1.2 Photography
Photography
optics and cameras 1.3 Contemporary times

2 Lenses 3 Models 4 Further reading 5 References 6 External links

History[edit] The Voigtländer
Voigtländer
roots was founded in Vienna, Archduchy of Austria
Archduchy of Austria
in 1756, by Johann Christoph Voigtländer (de). Voigtländer produced mathematical instruments, precision mechanical products, optical instruments, including optical measuring instruments and opera glasses, and is the oldest name in cameras.[1] Early beginnings[edit] Johann Christoph Voigtländer
Voigtländer
(November 19, 1732 in Leipzig
Leipzig
– June 27, 1797 in Vienna), the son of a carpenter, came to Prague
Prague
in 1755, and to Vienna
Vienna
in the same year, and worked from 1757 to 1762 in the workshop of Meinicke, who produced mathematical instruments.[1] Through Johann Voigtländer's skilful achievements, the Minister of State of the Habsburg Monarchy—Prince Wenzel von Kaunitz, drew attention to Voigtländer
Voigtländer
and Empress Maria Theresa
Maria Theresa
of Austria granted Voigtländer
Voigtländer
in 1763 a so-called trade "Protection Decree" (German Schutzdekret/Schutzdecret): "on the making of mathematical instruments and on an unspecified number of workers", upon which Voigtländer founded his own workshop and whereby he could sell his products relatively unrivalled.[1] In 1767, Voigtländer
Voigtländer
invented two important tools: a linear device for natural and tapered gauges, and a circular device for elevation, astrolabe, and cartography etc. Including, a screw cutting machine, a metal lathe and finishing rollers for sheep wool and silk factories. The production program was supplemented by compasses, tweezers, levelling devices, dioptres and other fine mechanical products.[1] In recognition of Voigtländer's achievements and dexterity, Voigtländer
Voigtländer
received in 1797 a so-called "national commercial license with all advantages and privileges" (German Landesfabriksbefugnis); this license privileged Voigtländer
Voigtländer
under certain circumstances the prestige to display the imperial eagle of the Habsburg monarchy, but above all the right to establish branch sales offices in all major cities of the empire. In the same year, Voigtländer
Voigtländer
died and his successful family business was continued by his widow, their three sons and one daughter.[1]

Photo of Johann Christoph Voigtländer's grandson: Peter Wilhelm Friedrich Ritter
Ritter
von Voigtländer
Voigtländer
(November 17, 1812 in Vienna
Vienna
– April 7, 1878 in Braunschweig). Portrait photo on daguerreotype by Johann Baptist Isenring, ca. 1843

From 1840, Voigtländer's grandson Peter Wilhelm Friedrich Ritter
Ritter
von Voigtländer (de) established "Voigtländer" as a leading photographic company of its time on introducing and producing the Petzval objective lens.[1][2][3] Photography
Photography
optics and cameras[edit]

Share of the Voigtländer
Voigtländer
& Sohn AG, issued September 1925

Former headquarters and production site of Voigtländer, at Campe-Straße in Braunschweig, Germany

From 1839, the year, when the invention of photography was being published, came objective optics and from 1840 complete cameras for photography. The Voigtländer
Voigtländer
objectives were revolutionary because they were the first mathematically calculated precision objectives in the history of photography, developed by the German-Hungarian mathematics professor Josef Maximilian Petzval, with technical advice provided by Peter Voigtländer.[1][2][3] Voigtländer
Voigtländer
went on to produce the first Petzval portrait photographic lens (the fastest lens at that time: f/3.6) in 1840,[1][2] and the world's first all-metal daguerreotype camera (Ganzmetallkamera) in 1840,[1] also bringing out photographic plate cameras shortly afterwards. An original of the 1840 all-metal daguerreotype camera with "No. 84 Voigtländer
Voigtländer
& Sohn in Vienna" is exhibited in the "Deutsches Museum" in Munich. In 1845, Peter Voigtländer
Voigtländer
married the daughter of a respected Braunschweig
Braunschweig
lawyer, whom he met on one of his photographic sales journeys in Braunschweig.[1] Voigtländer
Voigtländer
had previously set up a branch sales office in Braunschweig, Duchy of Brunswick, at that time the central hub in the German rail network. Compared to Vienna, Braunschweig
Braunschweig
offered a location advantage regarding the distribution of Voigtländer
Voigtländer
objectives and daguerreotype camera products due to the greater proximity to the German overseas ports.[1] During the rising social and political tensions in the Austrian Empire leading to the Revolutions of 1848, Peter Voigtländer
Voigtländer
had joined the political cause of the Democrats and also became adjutant to the commander of the Vienna
Vienna
national civil guard—General Wenzel Messenhauser (de).[1] As the revolutions escalated during the Vienna
Vienna
Uprising of October 1848, the counter-revolution had strengthened with full force, and General Messenhauser of the revolting national civil guard, like many others—were executed.[1] Voigtländer
Voigtländer
at that time had in perception of the power relations withdrawn from the Vienna
Vienna
national civil guard and with his family took refuge in a suburb of Vienna.[1] On the wishes of Peter Voigtländer's wife and when the March revolutions of 1848 hindered the further development of the young photographic company, the family promptly re-located from Vienna
Vienna
to his wife's hometown Braunschweig, where from 1849 Voigtländer
Voigtländer
established a subsidiary production site, granted on a provisional "Concession for the pursuit of a trade", issued by the city directorate with a term of five years.[1][3] In September 1852, Peter Voigtländer
Voigtländer
was successfully awarded a so-called "land-cooperative" (German Markgenossenschaft) and issued the desired unrestricted "Concession for the pursuit of a trade" in the city Braunschweig.[1] In 1864, Peter Voigtländer
Voigtländer
was honoured by Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria
Franz Joseph I of Austria
with the Knight's Cross
Knight's Cross
of the Order of Franz Joseph; becoming known as Peter Wilhelm Friedrich Ritter
Ritter
von Voigtländer.[3] On the death of Voigtländer's Vienna
Vienna
works manager, the Vienna
Vienna
business was closed in 1868.[3] Voigtländer
Voigtländer
Braunschweig changed status to a public Aktiengesellschaft
Aktiengesellschaft
( Voigtländer
Voigtländer
& Sohn AG) in 1898, in 1923 a majority of the shares (99.7%) were acquired by Schering AG's photo division and large-scale production then took place in 1925.[1] Over the next three decades, Voigtländer
Voigtländer
became a technology leader and the first manufacturer to introduce several new kinds of product that later became commonplace. These include the first zoom lens for 35mm still photography (36–82/2.8 Zoomar) in 1959[4] and the first 35mm compact camera with built-in electronic flash (Vitrona) in 1965. Schering sold its share of the company to the Carl Zeiss Foundation
Carl Zeiss Foundation
in 1956, and Zeiss-Ikon and Voigtländer-Vertriebsgesellschaft integrated in 1965. Due to falling sales, on 4 August 1971 Zeiss-Ikon/Voigtländer-Vertriebsgesellschaft ended producing cameras and closed the Voigtländer
Voigtländer
factory, which employed at the time 2,037 persons. Subsequently, the company moved to the collective enterprise Optische Werke Voigtländer
Voigtländer
(Optical Works Voigtländer), in which Carl Zeiss AG, the state of Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
and the Braunschweig
Braunschweig
camera manufacturer Rollei
Rollei
each participated to one-third; Later Rollei
Rollei
took over all the shares. On the collapse of Rollei
Rollei
in 1982, Plusfoto took over the name, selling it in 1997 to Ringfoto. Contemporary times[edit] Since 1999, Voigtländer-branded products have been manufactured and marketed by the Japanese optics and camera company Cosina, under license from RINGFOTO GmbH & Co. ALFO Marketing KG; for these, see Cosina
Cosina
Voigtländer. Lenses[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2008)

See also: List of Voigtländer
Voigtländer
Bessamatic/Ultramatic DKL-mount lenses See also: Cosina
Cosina
Voigtländer Below is a list of original Voigtländer
Voigtländer
lens designs (in all variants).

Voigtar Vaskar Helomar Skopar, Skoparex, Skoparet, Skopagon, Color-Skopar, Color-Skopar X Heliar Dynarex, Dynaret, Color-Dynarex, Super-Dynarex, Super-Dynaret Septon Color-Lanthar Color-Ultron Zoomar Nokton

Models[edit]

Voigtländer
Voigtländer
Vitomatic IIa with Ultron 50mm 1:2

Voigtländer
Voigtländer
Bessa & Bessa RF

Voigtländer
Voigtländer
Vito II

Voigtländer
Voigtländer
Vitoret S

Voigtländer
Voigtländer
Vitoret DR

Voigtländer
Voigtländer
Vitessa T with German manual

Voigtländer
Voigtländer
Superb

Voigtländer
Voigtländer
Bessy

Bessamatic series Brillant/Brilliant Vitomatic Ultramatic series

Further reading[edit]

Grabenhorst, Carsten (2002). Voigtländer
Voigtländer
& Sohn: Die Firmengeschichte von 1756 bis 1914 [ Voigtländer
Voigtländer
& Son: The company history from 1756 to 1914] (in German). Braunschweig: Museum für Photographie - Appelhans Verlag. ISBN 9783930292257. 

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Grabenhorst, Carsten (2002). Voigtländer
Voigtländer
& Sohn: Die Firmengeschichte von 1756 bis 1914 [ Voigtländer
Voigtländer
& Son: The company history from 1756 to 1914] (in German). Braunschweig: Museum für Photographie - Appelhans Verlag. ISBN 9783930292257.  ^ a b c Day, Lance; McNeil, Ian (1996). Biographical Dictionary of the History of Technology. London: Routledge. pp. 958–959. ISBN 0415060427.  ^ a b c d e Deutschen Biographischen Enzyklopädie [German Biographical Encyclopaedia] (in German). 10. Munich: K.G. Saur Verlag. 2008. p. 292. ISBN 9783598250408.  ^ Deschin, Jacob (15 March 1959). "Zoom Lens For Stills". The New York Times. Retrieved September 12, 2017. [dead link]

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Voigtländer
Voigtländer
cameras.

Voigtländer
Voigtländer
Heliar Lens Article http://www.voigtlaender.com/ Voigtländer
Voigtländer
Historical Lenses Complete list of all Voigtländer
Voigtländer
cameras and their images Canon EOS Technoclopedia: Voigtländer
Voigtländer
AF/MF Lenses for Canon EF - a lens chart with technical data, comments and tes

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