The voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represent this sound are ⟨t͡ɕ⟩, ⟨t͜ɕ⟩, ⟨c͡ɕ⟩ and ⟨c͜ɕ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are
c_s\, though transcribing the stop component with ⟨c⟩ (
c in X-SAMPA) is rare. The tie bar is sometimes omitted, yielding ⟨tɕ⟩ or ⟨cɕ⟩ in the IPA and
cs\ in X-SAMPA. This is potentially problematic in case of at least some affricates, because there are languages that contrast certain affricates with stop-fricative sequences. Polish words czysta ('clean (f.)', pronounced with an affricate /t͡ʂ/) and trzysta ('three hundred', pronounced with a sequence /tʂ/) are an example of a minimal pair based on such a contrast.
Neither [t] nor [c] are a completely narrow transcription of the stop component, which can be narrowly transcribed as [t̠ʲ] (retracted and palatalized [t]) or [c̟] (advanced [c]). The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are
c_+, respectively. There is also a dedicated symbol ⟨ȶ⟩, which is not a part of the IPA. Therefore, narrow transcriptions of the voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate include [t̠ʲɕ], [c̟ɕ] and [ȶɕ].
This affricate used to have a dedicated symbol ⟨ʨ⟩, which was one of the six dedicated symbols for affricates in the International Phonetic Alphabet. It occurs in languages such as Mandarin Chinese, Polish, Serbo-Croatian, and Russian, and is the sibilant equivalent of voiceless palatal affricate.
Features of the voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate:
|Catalan||All dialects||fletxa||[ˈfɫet͡ɕə]||'arrow'||See Catalan phonology|
|Chinese||Cantonese||豬/jyū||[tɕyː˥]||'pig'||Contrasts with aspirated form. Allophone of /t͡s/, usually in front of the front high vowels /iː/, /ɪ/, /yː/. See Cantonese phonology|
|Mandarin||北京 / Běijīng||[peɪ˨˩ t͡ɕiŋ˥] (help·info)||'Beijing'||Contrasts with aspirated form. Pronounced by some speakers as a palatalized dental. In complementary distribution with [t͡s], [k], and [ʈ͡ʂ] series. See Standard Chinese phonology|
|Danish||tjener||[ˈt͡ɕe̝ːnɐ]||'servant'||Normal realization of the sequence /tj/. See Danish phonology|
|Irish||Some dialects||[example needed]||Realization of the palatalized alveolar stop /tʲ/ in dialects such as Erris, Teelin and Tourmakeady. See Irish phonology|
|Japanese||知人 / chijin||[t͡ɕid͡ʑĩɴ]||'acquaintance'||See Japanese phonology|
|Korean||제비 / jebi||[t͡ɕebi]||'swallow'||See Korean phonology|
|Polish||ćma||[t͡ɕmä] (help·info)||'moth'||See Polish phonology|
|Romanian||Banat dialect||frate||[frat͡ɕe][stress?]||'brother'||One of the most distinct phonological features of the Banat dialect. Corresponds to [t][in which environments?] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology|
|Russian||чуть||[t͡ɕʉtʲ]||'barely'||See Russian phonology|
|Sema||akichi||[à̠kìt͡ɕì]||'mouth'||Possible allophone of /t͡ʃ/ before /i, e/; can be realized as [t͡ʃ] instead.|
|Serbo-Croatian||Ловћен / Lovćen||[ɫǒ̞ʋt͡ɕe̞n]||'Lovćen'||Merges into /t͡ʃ/ in dialects that don't distinguish /ʈ͡ʂ/ from /t͡ɕ/.|
|Swedish||Finland||kjol||[t͡ɕuːl]||'skirt'||See Swedish phonology|
|Thai||จาน||[t͡ɕaːn]||'dish'||Contrasts with aspirated form.|
|Vietnamese||cha||[t͡ɕa]||'father'||See Vietnamese phonology|
|Yi||ꏢ/ji||[t͡ɕi˧]||'sour'||Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms|