Voice Quality Symbols (VoQS) are a set of phonetic symbols used for
voice quality, such as to transcribe disordered speech.
VoQS symbols are normally combined with curly braces that span a
section of speech, just as with prosody notation in the extended IPA.
The symbols may be modified with a digit to convey relative degree of
the quality. For example, ⟨V!⟩ is used for harsh voice, and 3V!
... 3V! indicates that the intervening speech is very harsh.
⟨L̞⟩ indicates a lowered larynx. Thus, L̞1V! ... 1V!L̞
indicates that the intervening speech is less harsh with a lowered
VoQS use mostly
airstream mechanisms ↀ buccal speech (symbol is iconic for the pockets of air in the cheeks) Œ œsophageal speech (symbol derives from the letter œ of œsophagus) Ю tracheo-œsophaeal speech (symbol attempts to capture iconically the dual nature of the airstream) ↓ pulmonic ingressive speech
The four primary phonation types, other than breathed (voiceless), receive a distinct letter:
V modal voice F falsetto W whisper (typically only the normally modal-voice segments are whispery, while the voiceless segments remain voiceless) C creak
Modifications are made with diacritics. The terms "whispery voice/murmur" and "breathy voice" follow Catford (1977) and differ from the use of "murmur/breathy voice" by the IPA. The notation Ṿ and V̤ are therefore often confused, and V̤ should perhaps be used for whispery voice with e.g. Vʱ for breathy voice.
Ṿ whispery voice (murmur; the breathy voice of the IPA) V̰ creaky voice V̤ breathy voice C̣ whispery creak V͉ slack/lax voice V! harsh voice (without ventricular vibration; this may differ from the use of the word "harsh" cross-linguistically, which may be the same as "ventricular", next) V‼ ventricular phonation V̬‼ diplophonia (simultaneous ventricular and glottal vibration; see also vocal-fold cyst) Ṿ‼ whispery ventricular phonation VꜲ aryepiglottic phonation V͈ pressed phonation/tight voice (made by pressing together the arytenoid cartilages so that only the anterior ligamental vocal folds vibrate; the opposite of whisper, where the vibration is posterior) W͈ tight whisper ꟿ spasmodic dysphonia И electrolaryngeal phonation (approximates symbol for electricity)
L̝ raised larynx
L̞ lowered larynx
Vꟹ labialized voice (open rounded; that is, [◌ʷ̜])
Vʷ labialized voice (close rounded)
V͍ spread-lip voice
Vᶹ labio-dentalized voice
V̺ linguo-apicalized voice
V̻ linguo-laminalized voice
V˞ retroflex voice
V̪ dentalized voice (diacritic iconic for a tooth)
V͇ alveolarized voice (diacritic iconic for the alveolar ridge)
V͇ʲ palatoalveolarized voice
Vʲ palatalized voice
Vˠ velarized voice
Vʶ uvularized voice (self-evidence extension of
Other combinations are possible, such as Ṿ̃ for nasal whispery voice or WF̰ for whispery creaky falsetto. If the number of diacritics on a letter becomes excessive, the notation may be broken up. For example, Ṿ̰̃ˠ may be replaced with VˠṼṾV̰ . See also
Extensions to the IPA International Phonetic Alphabet
^ Ball, Esling & Dickson (1995) "The VoQS System for the Transcription of Voice Quality", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 25.02, p. 71–80. Updated 2015. ^ a b Ball, Esling & Dickson (2000: 54) ^ Laver (1994) Principles of Phonet