The Info List - Voice Quality Symbols

Voice Quality Symbols (VoQS) are a set of phonetic symbols used for voice quality, such as to transcribe disordered speech. VoQS symbols are normally combined with curly braces that span a section of speech, just as with prosody notation in the extended IPA. The symbols may be modified with a digit to convey relative degree of the quality. For example, ⟨V!⟩ is used for harsh voice, and 3V! ... 3V! indicates that the intervening speech is very harsh. ⟨L̞⟩ indicates a lowered larynx. Thus, L̞1V! ... 1V!L̞ indicates that the intervening speech is less harsh with a lowered larynx. VoQS use mostly IPA
or extended IPA
diacritics on capital letters for the element being modified: V for 'voice', L for 'larynx', and J for 'jaw'. Degree is marked 1 for slight, 2 for moderate, and 3 for extreme. Symbols[edit] The following combinations of letters and diacritics are used.[1] They indicate an airstream mechanism, phonation or secondary articulation across a stretch of speech. For example, 'palatalized voice' indicates palatalization of the segment of speech spanned by the braces.

airstream mechanisms ↀ buccal speech (symbol is iconic for the pockets of air in the cheeks) Œ œsophageal speech (symbol derives from the letter œ of œsophagus) Ю tracheo-œsophaeal speech (symbol attempts to capture iconically the dual nature of the airstream) ↓ pulmonic ingressive speech

phonation types

The four primary phonation types, other than breathed (voiceless), receive a distinct letter:

V modal voice F falsetto W whisper (typically only the normally modal-voice segments are whispery, while the voiceless segments remain voiceless) C creak

Modifications are made with diacritics. The terms "whispery voice/murmur" and "breathy voice" follow Catford (1977) and differ from the use of "murmur/breathy voice" by the IPA. The notation Ṿ and V̤ are therefore often confused, and V̤ should perhaps be used for whispery voice with e.g. Vʱ for breathy voice.[2]

Ṿ whispery voice (murmur; the breathy voice of the IPA) V̰ creaky voice V̤ breathy voice C̣ whispery creak V͉ slack/lax voice V! harsh voice (without ventricular vibration; this may differ from the use of the word "harsh" cross-linguistically, which may be the same as "ventricular", next) V‼ ventricular phonation V̬‼ diplophonia (simultaneous ventricular and glottal vibration; see also vocal-fold cyst) Ṿ‼ whispery ventricular phonation VꜲ aryepiglottic phonation V͈ pressed phonation/tight voice (made by pressing together the arytenoid cartilages so that only the anterior ligamental vocal folds vibrate; the opposite of whisper, where the vibration is posterior) W͈ tight whisper ꟿ spasmodic dysphonia И electrolaryngeal phonation (approximates symbol for electricity)

supra-laryngeal settings L̝ raised larynx L̞ lowered larynx Vꟹ labialized voice (open rounded; that is, [◌ʷ̜]) Vʷ labialized voice (close rounded) V͍ spread-lip voice Vᶹ labio-dentalized voice V̺ linguo-apicalized voice V̻ linguo-laminalized voice V˞ retroflex voice V̪ dentalized voice (diacritic iconic for a tooth) V͇ alveolarized voice (diacritic iconic for the alveolar ridge) V͇ʲ palatoalveolarized voice Vʲ palatalized voice Vˠ velarized voice Vʶ uvularized voice (self-evidence extension of IPA
usage) Vˤ pharyngealized voice V̙ˤ laryngo-pharyngealized voice Vꟸ faucalized voice (iconic of narrowing of faucal pillars) Ṽ nasalized voice V͊ denasalized voice J̞ open-jaw voice J̝ close-jaw voice J͔ right-offset-jaw voice J͕ left-offset-jaw voice J̟ protruded-jaw voice Θ protruded-tongue voice (protrusion of the tip or blade of the tongue for extended periods)

Other combinations are possible, such as Ṿ̃ for nasal whispery voice[3] or WF̰ for whispery creaky falsetto.[2] If the number of diacritics on a letter becomes excessive, the notation may be broken up. For example, Ṿ̰̃ˠ may be replaced with VˠṼṾV̰ . See also[edit]

Extensions to the IPA International Phonetic Alphabet


^ Ball, Esling & Dickson (1995) "The VoQS System for the Transcription of Voice Quality", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 25.02, p. 71–80. Updated 2015. ^ a b Ball, Esling & Dickson (2000: 54) ^ Laver (1994) Principles of Phonet