* Alexander of Yugoslavia (1934)
Louis Barthou (1934)
* Naum Tomalevski (1930)
Dimo Hadzhidimov (1924)
VLADO CHERNOZEMSKI (Bulgarian : Владо Черноземски)
(19 October 1897 – 9 October 1934), born VELICHKO DIMITROV KERIN
(Bulgarian : Величко Димитров Керин), was a
Bulgarian revolutionary. Also known as "VLADO THE CHAUFFEUR",
Chernozemski is considered a hero in Bulgaria today, and in his time,
in Croatian circles and in the Macedonian Bulgarian diaspora. His
contribution to the independence of Macedonia has also won him a
similar status in some ethnic Macedonian circles today.
Chernozemski began his revolutionary activities in 1922, when he
Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization
Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO). Soon
after, he became an assassin for the IMRO. He killed two notable
Bulgarian politicians, communist
Dimo Hadzhidimov , and IMRO member
Naum Tomalevski . Both times he was sentenced to death, but he escaped
from his first imprisonment and was released from the second. After
his release in 1932, he became an instructor for the
Ustaše . He
trained a group of
Ustaše to assassinate Alexander of Yugoslavia ,
but eventually killed Alexander himself on 9 October 1934 in Marseille
. He was then beaten by French police and spectators, and died the
same day. He also killed French Foreign Minister
Louis Barthou in the
* 1 Life
* 2 Revolutionary activity
* 2.1 IMRO
* 2.2 Assassin of the IMRO
* 2.3 Killing of King Alexander
* 3 Gallery
* 4 Footnotes
* 5 External links
* 6 Notes
Velichko Dimitrov Kerin was born in the village of Kamenitsa, now
part of the town
Velingrad . His father, Dimitar Kerin, and his
mother, Risa Baltadzieva, were both from Kamenitsa. As a youngster,
he was prone to drinking alcohol, but later he reformed and became a
vegetarian. He joined the military in
Plovdiv . During
World War I
World War I ,
Chernozemski served in the engineer troops. He married in 1919. After
the war he worked as a driver and watchmaker. In 1923, his daughter
Latinka was born. In 1925, he divorced and remarried. He lived in
Sofia until 1932. There are no records of him beyond that year, but he
was re-identified in 1934, after his death.
A legend describing Chernozemski as Vlado the Driver (Bulgarian :
Владо Шофьора) appeared in Macedonia , since he worked for
a company in
Dupnitsa as a driver for a short time. In the early
1920s, he moved to
Bansko , when the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary
Organization (IMRO) was founded by
Todor Alexandrov . Chernozemski
joined the IMRO in 1922 in the unit
Voivode Ivan Barlyo . From 1923 to
1924, he was a member of
Trayan Lakavishki 's cheta . Chernozemski
also entered the region of
Vardar Macedonia with IMRO bands and
participated in more than 15 skirmishes with Yugoslav police. He soon
became one of the best marksmen in the organization, known for his
courage, sangfroid and discipline.
ASSASSIN OF THE IMRO
Voivode Trajan Lakashki c. 1920; second from the left is
Ivan Mihailov became the new leader of the IMRO. In this
period the organization took actions against the former left-wing
activists, assassinating several of them. Mihailov assigned
Chernozemski to assassinate MP
Dimo Hadzhidimov , a member of the
Communist Party of Bulgaria and former IMRO member. Chernozemski was
arrested and sentenced to death by hanging for Hadzhidimov's
assassination, but his execution was never carried out. In 1925,
Chernozemski escaped from a police escort.
In 1927, Chernozemski proposed to the IMRO Central Committee to enter
the main conference building of the
League of Nations
League of Nations in Paris and
detonate grenades attached to his person, in order to attract the
attention of the world and generate publicity over the question of the
Bulgarians in Macedonia, but his proposal was rejected. In 1929, the
leadership of the IMRO called on
Ante Pavelić and the
In 1930, Chernozemski, following an order by Mihailov, assassinated
another member of the IMRO, Naum Tomalevski , and his bodyguard.
Tomalevski had been a prominent member of the IMRO. For the second
time, Chernozemski was sentenced to death, but he was pardoned in
KILLING OF KING ALEXANDER
Play media Newsreel showing the murder of King Alexander of
Yugoslavia and French Foreign Minister
Louis Barthou in
Winnipeg Free Press
Winnipeg Free Press front page on 15 October 1934, mentioning
King Alexander I of Yugoslavia
After his release from the prison, Chernozemski disappeared. He moved
to Italy, where he became an instructor for the
Ustaše in a camp in
He was then transferred to the
Ustaše camp in Janka Puszta , near
Nagykanizsa in Hungary. The main purpose of this camp was planning for
the assassination of King Alexander I. Chernozemski was the instructor
of the group that was preparing to assassinate the king. On 9 October
1934, he completed the task, because concluding that members of the
group were unprepared psychologically, he decided to carry out the
assassination himself. As King Alexander's motorcade drove at a few
miles per hour down a
Marseilles street for an adoring crowd to view,
Chernozemski was able to emerge from the crowd, approach the king's
car and leap onto its running board while concealing his Mauser C96
automatic pistol in a bouquet of flowers and chanting "Vive le roi"
("long live the king"). He shot Alexander repeatedly, hitting him
twice, once in the abdomen and the other in the heart; King Alexander
died within minutes. The chauffeur—who tried to push Chernozemski
off the car—and Alexander's companion in the car, French Foreign
Louis Barthou , were also shot, the latter apparently
unintentionally. The chauffeur died almost immediately, with his foot
pressed on the brake of the car, providing the opportunity for a
photographer outside the car to photograph most of the grisly affair.
Barthou might have survived, but did not, apparently because of
inadequate medical attention.
After shooting a policeman who tried to seize him and inadvertently
killing two bystanders, Chernozemski then futilely attempted to flee
the scene but was struck by a slash from an escorting cavalryman's
sabre , stunning him. He then received a non-mortal bullet wound in
the head from a rogue police officer, and was savagely beaten by the
enraged crowd while the police stood back and watched. Chernozemski
was then brought in for interrogation. Since the assassin was in
critical condition, he was unable to say anything and succumbed to his
injuries later that evening, just 10 days before his 37th birthday.
The French police were unable to identify him; they could only
register his tattoo, a skull with crossbones and a sign reading
"V.M.R.O." (Bulgarian initials standing for Internal Macedonian
Revolutionary Organization). He was buried in an unmarked grave in the
Marseilles cemeteries with only two detectives and the gravediggers
present at the funeral.
For murdering King Alexander I, Chernozemski was posthumously
declared the most dangerous terrorist in Europe.
Ustaše uniform in 1934.
Memorial stone of Chernozemski in Kamenitsa, Bulgaria.
The central street in Kamenitsa - „Владо
Automatic pistol used by Chernozemski to assassinate Alexander of
Chernozemski's tattoo, depicting the abbreviature of the IMRO in
Wikimedia Commons has media related to VLADO CHERNOZEMSKI .
* Istoricheski pregled, Books 1-6, Bŭlgarsko istorichesko
druzhestvo, Institut za istoria (Bŭlgarska akademia na naukite),
1987, str. 49.
* Велинград - online, публикувано на 12
октомври 2010 г. В памет на Владо
* Атентатът в Марсилия, Владо
Черноземски. Живот,отдаден на
Македония, Митре Стаменов, (Издание на
ВМРО-СМД, София, 1993)
* Request of the Yugoslav government under article 11, paragraph 2,
of the Covenant: Communication from the Hungarian government, Hungary
- Yugoslavia, League of Nations, Tibor Eckhardt, Publisher League of
Nations, 1934, p. 8.
* Stefan Troebst,"Historical Politics and Historical
“Masterpieces” in Macedonia before and after 1991", New Balkan
Politics, Issue 6, 2003: "... the suicide-assassin from VMRO, Vlado
Cernozemski, who, on orders from Mihajlov and his ethno-national VMRO,
which was defined as Bulgarian, killed the Yugoslav king Alexander I
Karadzordzevic and the French Minister of Foreign Affairs Louis Bareau
Marseilles in 1934."
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* Crown of thorns, Author Stéphane Groueff, Publisher Madison
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* Balkan Firebrand - The Autobiography of a Rebel Soldier and
Statesman, Todorov Kosta, READ BOOKS, 2007, ISBN 1-4067-5375-0 , p.
* Violette Nozière: a story of murder in 1930s Paris, Author Sarah
C. Maza, Publisher University of California Press, 2011, ISBN
0-520-26070-8 , p. 230.
* Shadows on the Mountain: The Allies, the Resistance, and the
Rivalries That Doomed WWII Yugoslavia, Marcia Kurapovna, John Wiley
and Sons, 2009, ISBN 0-470-08456-1 , p. 157.
* Yugoslavia\'s ethnic nightmare: the inside story of Europe\'s
unfolding ordeal, Jasminka Udovički, James Ridgeway, Lawrence Hill
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* ^ Izvestia na Natsionalnia istoricheski muzeĭ, Tomove 16–19,
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1568331142 , p. 224.
* ^ Утрински весник, 02.03.2007, Виктор
Цветаноски, Черноземски го уби кралот,
но и многу Македонци.
* ^ Виолета Ачкоска и Никола Жежов,
"Предавствата и атентатите во
македонската историја". Издателство
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* ^ Весник Глобус, 16.10.2012, Коj не го
затвора досието на Владо Чернозамски?
* ^ Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Macedonia, Dimitar
Bechev, Scarecrow Press, 2009, ISBN 0810862956 , p.40.
* ^ Атентатът в Марсилия, Владо
Черноземски. Живот, отдаден на
Македония, Митре Стаменов (Издание на
ВМРО-СМД, София, 1993), стр. 41.
* ^ A B C Билярски, Цочо (2006). Иван
Михайлов в обектива на полиция,
дипломация, разузнаване и преса (in
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* ^ Марков, Георги (1994). Камбаните бият
сами: Насилие и политика в България
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* ^ Rothschild, Joseph (1959). The Communist Party of Bulgaria;
Origins and Development, 1883-1936. Columbia University Press. pp.
* ^ Гаджев, Иван (2003). История на
българската емиграция в Северна
Америка: поглед отвърте (in Bulgarian). Илия
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* ^ България 20-ти век (in Bulgarian). Илия Т.
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* Documentary film The Assassination of the Yugoslavian king
Alexander in 1934 on
* The King is Dead, Long Live the Balkans! Watching the Marseilles
Murders by Keith Brown - The Watson Institute for International
^ Following the
Liberation of Bulgaria
Liberation of Bulgaria in the Russo-Turkish War of
1877-78, Bulgaria re-established s