Vladimir Oblast
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Vladimir Oblast (russian: Влади́мирская о́бласть, ''Vladimirskaya oblast'') is a
federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъекты Российской Федерации, subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects of the federation (russian: ...
of
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of Europe. There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly becau ...

Russia
(an
oblast An oblast (; ; Cyrillic , bg, кирилица , mk, кирилица , russian: кириллица , sr, ћирилица, uk, кирилиця , fam1 = Egyptian hieroglyphs , fam2 = Proto-Sinaitic , fam3 = Phoenici ...
). Its
administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administration of a Township, commune is located. In countries with French as one of their administrative languages ( ...
is the
city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a permanent and s ...
of
Vladimir Vladimir or Wladimir may refer to: Names * Vladimir (name) for the Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Macedonian, Romanian, Russian, Serbian, Slovak and Slovenian spellings of a Slavic name * Uladzimir for the Belarusian version of the name * Volodymyr f ...
, which is located east of
Moscow Moscow (, ; rus, links=no, Москва, r=Moskva, p=mɐˈskva, a=Москва.ogg) is the capital and largest city of Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe ...

Moscow
. As of the
2010 Census2010 census may refer to: * 2010 Chinese Census * 2010 Dominican Republic Census * 2010 Indonesian census * 2010 Malaysian Census * 2010 Russian Census * 2010 Turkish census * 2010 United States Census * 2010 Zambian census {{Disambiguation ...
, the oblast's population was 1,443,693. The
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a List of specialized agencies of the United Nations, specialised agency of th ...

UNESCO
World Heritage List A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for ha ...
includes the 12th-century cathedrals of
Vladimir Vladimir or Wladimir may refer to: Names * Vladimir (name) for the Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Macedonian, Romanian, Russian, Serbian, Slovak and Slovenian spellings of a Slavic name * Uladzimir for the Belarusian version of the name * Volodymyr f ...
,
Suzdal Suzdal ( rus, Суздаль, p=ˈsuzdəlʲ) is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different ...

Suzdal
,
BogolyubovoBogolyubovo (russian: Боголюбово, translated as "God-loving") is the name of several rural localities in Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northe ...
, and
Kideksha Kideksha (russian: Кидекша) is a village A village is a clustered human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a ...
.


Geography

Vladimir Oblast borders
Moscow Moscow (, ; rus, links=no, Москва, r=Moskva, p=mɐˈskva, a=Москва.ogg) is the capital and largest city of Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe ...

Moscow
,
Yaroslavl Yaroslavl ( rus, Ярослáвль, p=jɪrɐˈsɫavlʲ) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science E ...

Yaroslavl
,
Ivanovo Ivanovo ( rus, Иваново, p=ɪˈvanəvə) is a types of inhabited localities in Russia, city in Russia. It is the administrative center and largest city of Ivanovo Oblast, located northeast of Moscow and approximately from Yaroslavl, Vladi ...
,
Ryazan Ryazan ( rus, Рязань, p=rʲɪˈzanʲ, a=ru-Ryazan.ogg) is the largest and of , . The city is located on right bank of the in , southeast of . Ryazan is among the most ancient cities of Russia. As of the 2010 Census, Ryazan had a popu ...
, and
Nizhny Novgorod Oblast Nizhny Novgorod Oblast (russian: link=no, Нижегородская область, ''Nizhegorodskaya oblast''), is a federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: суб ...
s. The
oblast An oblast (; ; Cyrillic , bg, кирилица , mk, кирилица , russian: кириллица , sr, ћирилица, uk, кирилиця , fam1 = Egyptian hieroglyphs , fam2 = Proto-Sinaitic , fam3 = Phoenici ...
is situated in the center of the
East European Plain The East European Plain (also called the Russian Plain, "Extending from eastern Poland through the entire European Russia to the Ural Mountaina, the ''East European Plain'' encompasses all of the Baltic states and Belarus, nearly all of Ukraine, and ...
. The
Klyazma The Klyazma (, ''Klyaz'ma'') is a river in the Moscow Oblast, Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Nizhny Novgorod, Ivanovo Oblast, Ivanovo and Vladimir Oblast, Vladimir Oblasts in Russia, a left tributary of the Oka (river), Oka.
and the Oka are the most important rivers. There are approximately three hundred lakes. The oblast is situated in a zone of
mixed forests Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest is a temperate climate terrestrial habitat type defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961 that wor ...
.


Fauna

The oblast's
fauna Fauna is all of the animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals Heterotroph, consume organic material, Cellular r ...

fauna
currently includes more than fifty species of mammals (some examples including
elk The elk (''Cervus canadensis''), also known as the wapiti, is one of the largest species within the deer Deer or true deer are ed s forming the Cervidae. The two main groups of deer are the , including the , the (wapiti), the , a ...

elk
,
wild boar The wild boar (''Sus scrofa''), also known as the wild swine, common wild pig, Eurasian wild pig, or simply wild pig, is a suid native to much of Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continental area on Earth, comprising all of Europe and ...

wild boar
,
roe deer The roe deer (''Capreolus capreolus''), also known as the roe, western roe deer, or European roe, is a species of deer Deer or true deer are hoofed ruminant Ruminants are herbivorous mammals of the suborder Ruminantia that are able to acq ...

roe deer
,
red Red is the color at the long wavelength end of the visible spectrum of light, next to orange and opposite violet. It has a dominant wavelength Image:dominant wavelength.png, frame, Dominant/complementary wavelength example on the CIE color ...

red
and
sika deer The sika deer (''Cervus nippon''), also known as the spotted deer or the Japanese deer, is a species of deer native to much of East Asia and introduced to other parts of the world. Previously found from northern Vietnam in the south to the Russ ...
,
lynx A lynx (; plural lynx or lynxes) is any of the four species (the Canada lynx, Iberian lynx, Eurasian lynx, or bobcat) within the medium-sized wild cat genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is ...

lynx
, wolf, squirrel, rabbit, marten, fox, weasel, badger and other fur-bearing animals), five species of reptiles, and ten species of amphibians. The semiaquatic
Russian desman The Russian desman (''Desmana moschata'') (russian: выхухоль ''vykhukhol'') is a small List of semiaquatic tetrapods, semiaquatic mammal that inhabits the Volga river, Volga, Don River, Russia, Don and Ural River basins in Russia, Ukraine ...
is listed in the Russian Red Book of endangered species. The region is inhabited by 216 species of birds, among which are the capercaillie, black grouse, grouse, partridge, woodcock, goose, duck, etc. The lesser white-fronted goose is listed in the Red Book. Hunting season runs from October to February with the following license and permit restrictions: *Elk, wild boar, red deer, and sika deer from mid-November through mid-January *Hare from October through January *Grouse, black grouse, woodcock, duck and goose for 10 days in April. Bodies of water in the region are rich in numerous species (about 40) of fresh-water fish (e.g. eel, Cyprinidae, roach, Esox, pike, perch, bream, rudd, and sturgeon in the Klyazma River), which support ice fishing in winter. Additionally, the oblast has several hunting farms.


Hydrography

The total expanse of the oblast's surface waters is 32.9 hectares. The region has hundreds of rivers with a total length of more than 8.6 million kilometers—there are 560 rivers and streams throughout the oblast. The Klyazma River flows into the Oka River on the south-eastern edge of the oblast's border with the Nizhny Novgorod Region. The Klyazma River's major tributaries in the Vladimir Region are the Sherna River, Sherna (with the Molokcha flowing into it), the Kirzhach River, Kirzhach (with its own tributaries being the Big and Small Kirzhach), the Peksha River, Peksha, the Koloksha, the Nerl River (Klyazma), Nerl, the Sudogda River, Sudogda, the Uvod River, Uvod, the Lukh River, Lukh and the Suvorosch. Tributaries of the Oka within Vladimir oblast are the Gus, Unzha, and Ushna rivers. The Dubna River (Volga basin), Dubna River, a tributary of the Volga River, originates near the town of Alexandrov, Vladimir Oblast, Alexandrov. The Oka River is navigable throughout the region (157 km). The rivers in the region are characterized by their flat currents, broad valleys and meandering channels. Water levels are characterized by their high spring tides, low water periods over summer-autumn with occasional flooding during heavy rains, and stable/low levels throughout the winter. There are about three hundred lakes covering an area of five thousand hectares. Most of them are small and undrained and many are overgrown with a peat layer. The origin of the lakes varies. Numerous oxbow lakes are scattered along the river valleys. The largest of them are Lake Urvanovskoe (12 km long) and Lake Visha (length about 10 km). In the Meshchera Lowlands and in the northwest of the oblast are lakes of ancient Alluvium, alluvial valleys: Isikhry, Svyatoe and others. Lakes of karst origin, located in the lower reaches of the Klyazma and in the center of Vyaznikovsky District (a northeastern district in the oblast), have highly mineralized water and are associated with underground watercourses. The largest and deepest of them is Lake Kshchara. In the districts of Alexandrovsky District, Vladimir Oblast, Alexandrov and Yuryev-Polsky District, Yuryev-Polsky glacial lakes are small in size. The main masses of wetlands in the region (total area of 37.4 thousand hectares ) occur in Meshchera and Balakhna Lowlands, Balakhna (in the northeast of the oblast) lowlands.


History

The territory of modern Vladimir Oblast has been populated since ancient times. The oldest known traces of human settlement date to the Upper Paleolithic. A settlement of Homo Sapiens dating back to 25,000 BCE was discovered in the area of Sungir. The region of Vladimir were inhabited by different people like Slavs, Tatars, Finno-Ugrics and Balts. The East Slavic tribe of the Buzhans originated in the Vladimir region. Archaeological excavations of Volga Finns, Volga Finn settlements document also the Finno-Ugric roots of this land. Merya, Muromian, and Meshchera inhabited territory of the region during this period. Since the 10th century CE, Slavic colonization of the area began in Murom and
Suzdal Suzdal ( rus, Суздаль, p=ˈsuzdəlʲ) is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different ...

Suzdal
. The current territory of Vladimir Oblast became part of the History of Russia, Old Russian state. In the 11th century, the region became part of the Rostov-Suzdal principality and in the 12th century the Vladimir-Suzdal, Vladimir-Suzdal principality. In the early 12th century, Vladimir emerged as did Vyazniki, Vladimir Oblast, Yaropolch-Zalessky. The Vladimir region rapidly developed in the mid-12th century during the rule of Yuri Dolgorukiy and Andrey Bogolyubsky. New townships arose--Yuryev-Polsky (town), Yuriev-Polsky, Gorokhovets, Vladimir Oblast, Gorokhovets, Starodub-on-the-Klyazma, Mstislavl—along with the princely residences
Kideksha Kideksha (russian: Кидекша) is a village A village is a clustered human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a ...
and
BogolyubovoBogolyubovo (russian: Боголюбово, translated as "God-loving") is the name of several rural localities in Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northe ...
. The visibility of historical monuments preserves cities reminiscent of medieval Russian history and detailed documents about the history of the last hundred years records the peak of the cultural development of these places (List of governorates of the Russian Empire, Vladimirskaya guberniya, Vladimir Highway). Most, if not all, of modern Vladimir, during the Soviet period, seems to have been part of Ivanovo Oblast until it became a separate Federal Subject in 1944.


Politics

During the Soviet Union, Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Vladimir CPSU Committee (who in reality had the biggest authority), the chairman of the oblast Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Oblast administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected Regional parliaments of Russia, regional parliament. The Charter of Vladimir Oblast is the fundamental law of the region. The Legislative Assembly of Vladimir Oblast is the province's standing legislative (representative) body. The Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.


Administrative divisions


Economy and transportation

The largest companies in the region include the local branches of Mondelez International (revenues of $ million in 2017) and Ferrero SpA ($ million), Treyd Servis (baby food manufacturer, $ million), Starodvorskiye Kolbasy (sausage producer, $ million). The Gusevskoye peat narrow gauge railway for hauling peat operates in the Gus-Khrustalny District.


Demographics

Population: 1,443,693 (
2010 Census2010 census may refer to: * 2010 Chinese Census * 2010 Dominican Republic Census * 2010 Indonesian census * 2010 Malaysian Census * 2010 Russian Census * 2010 Turkish census * 2010 United States Census * 2010 Zambian census {{Disambiguation ...
); *Births (2012): 16 445 (11.5 per 1000) *Deaths (2012): 23 733 (16.6 per 1000) *Total fertility rate: 2009 - 1.46 , 2010 - 1.46 , 2011 - 1.50 , 2012 - 1.62 , 2013 - 1.59 , 2014 - 1.64 , 2015 - 1.73 , 2016 - 1.72(e) Ethnic composition (2010): *Russians: 95.6% *Ukrainians: 0.9% *Tatars: 0.5% *Armenians: 0.5% *Belarusians: 0.3% *Others: 2.2% *95,410 people were registered from administrative databases, and did not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.


Settlements


Religion

According to a 2012 survey 42.3% of the population of Vladimir Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 5.1% are nondenominational Christianity, unaffiliated Christians, 1.2% are Eastern Orthodox Christian believers who don't belong to the church or belong to other (non-Russian) Eastern Orthodox churches, and 0.5% of the population are adherents of the Slavic native faith (Rodnovery). In addition, 32% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 13.9% is atheism, atheist, and 4.8% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.


Notable people

*Edward Shatov, Russian Catholic priest, director of Center for Family of Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Mother of God at Moscow


Sister regions

* Seine-Saint-Denis, France


References


Notes


Sources

* {{Use mdy dates, date=March 2013 Vladimir Oblast, States and territories established in 1944