Vladimir, Russia
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Vladimir ( rus, Влади́мир, p=vlɐ'dʲimʲɪr, a=Ru-Владимир.ogg) is a
city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a permanent and s ...
and the
administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administration of a Township, commune is located. In countries with French as one of their administrative languages ( ...
of
Vladimir Oblast Vladimir Oblast (russian: Влади́мирская о́бласть, ''Vladimirskaya oblast'') is a federal subject of Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe a ...
,
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of Europe. There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly becau ...

Russia
, located on the
Klyazma River The Klyazma (, ''Klyaz'ma'') is a river in the Moscow Oblast, Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Nizhny Novgorod, Ivanovo Oblast, Ivanovo and Vladimir Oblast, Vladimir Oblasts in Russia, a left tributary of the Oka (river), Oka.
, to the east of
Moscow Moscow (, ; rus, links=no, Москва, r=Moskva, p=mɐˈskva, a=Москва.ogg) is the capital and largest city of Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe ...

Moscow
. It is served by a railway and the M7 motorway. Its population is


History

Vladimir was one of the medieval capitals of Russia, with significant buildings surviving from the 12th century. Two of its Russian Orthodox cathedrals, a monastery, and associated buildings have been designated as among the
White Monuments of Vladimir and Suzdal The White Monuments of Vladimir, Russia, Vladimir and Suzdal in Russian Federation have been designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The patrimony embraces eight medieval limestone monuments of Zalesye from the late 12th and early 13th centuries ...
, a UNESCO
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for ha ...
. In the past, the city was also known as Vladimir-on-Klyazma () and Vladimir-Zalessky (), to distinguish it from another Vladimir in Volhynia (modern Ukraine).


Foundation

The founding date of Vladimir is disputed between 990 and 1108. In the ''Novgorod First Chronicle'', Vladimir is mentioned under the year 1108, and during the Soviet period, this year was established as its foundation date with the view that attributes the founding of the city, and its name, to Vladimir II Monomakh, Vladimir Monomakh, who inherited the region as part of the Vladimir-Suzdal, Rostov-Suzdal Principality in 1093. It is named there as ''Volodimer''. The chronicles also describe how inhabitants from neighbouring towns, namely Suzdal and Rostov, alluded to Vladimir as a young town. Accordingly, the 850th anniversary of the city foundation was celebrated in 1958, with many monuments from the celebrations adorning the city. In the 1990s, a new opinion developed that the city was instead founded in 990 by Vladimir the Great, with local historians supporting the alternative foundation date and citing various chronicle sources. Scholars reinterpreted certain passages in the ''Hypatian Codex,'' which mentions that the region was visited by Vladimir the Great, the "father" of Russian Orthodox Church, Russian Orthodoxy, in 990, so as to move the city foundation date to that year. The Charter of Vladimir, the basic law of the city passed in 2005, explicitly mentions 990 as the date of the city's foundation.Charter of Vladimir, Article 3. The city administration officially recognizes 990 as the foundation date.


Golden Age

The city's most historically significant events occurred after the turn of the 12th century. Serving its original purpose as a defensive outpost for the Vladimir-Suzdal#Rostov-Suzdal, Rostov-Suzdal Principality, Vladimir had little political or military influence throughout the reign of Vladimir Monomakh (1113–1125), or his son Yury Dolgoruky ("Far-Reaching") (1154–1157). Under Dolgoruky's son, Andrey Bogolyubsky (1157–1175) (also known as Andrew the Pious), the city became the center of the Vladimir-Suzdal, Vladimir-Suzdal Principality. It had a Golden Age, which lasted until the Mongol invasion of Rus' in 1237. During this time, Vladimir enjoyed immense growth and prosperity. Andrey oversaw the building of the city's Golden Gate (Vladimir), Golden Gates and the Dormition Cathedral, Vladimir, Dormition Cathedral. In 1164, Andrey attempted to establish a new metropolitanate in Vladimir, separate from that of Kiev. He was rebuffed by the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, Patriarch of Constantinople. Scores of Russian, Germans, German, and Georgians, Georgian masons worked on Vladimir's white stone cathedrals, monastery, towers, and palaces. Unlike any other northern buildings, their exterior was elaborately carved with high relief stone sculptures. Only three of these edifices stand today: the Dormition Cathedral, the Cathedral of Saint Demetrius, and the Golden Gate. They are included among the
White Monuments of Vladimir and Suzdal The White Monuments of Vladimir, Russia, Vladimir and Suzdal in Russian Federation have been designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The patrimony embraces eight medieval limestone monuments of Zalesye from the late 12th and early 13th centuries ...
, designated as a UNESCO
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for ha ...
. During Andrey's reign, a royal palace in Bogolyubovo was built, as well as the world-famous Church of the Intercession on the Nerl, now considered one of the jewels of ancient Russian architecture. Andrey was assassinated at his palace at Bogolyubovo in 1175.


Decline

Vladimir was besieged by the Mongol-Tatars of the Golden Horde under Batu Khan. It was finally overrun on February 8, 1238. A great fire destroyed thirty-two limestone buildings on the first day alone, while the grand prince's family perished in a church where they sought refuge from the flames. The grand prince escaped, but was killed at the Battle of the Sit River the following month. After the Mongols, Vladimir never fully recovered. The most important Ruthenian prince (usually the Prince of Moscow, but sometimes a Tver or another principality) was styled the Grand Prince of Vladimir, but the title had become an honorific symbol of majesty. From 1299 to 1325, the city was seat of the Metropolitan bishop, metropolitans of Kiev and All Rus', until Metropolitan Peter moved the See to
Moscow Moscow (, ; rus, links=no, Москва, r=Moskva, p=mɐˈskva, a=Москва.ogg) is the capital and largest city of Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe ...

Moscow
in 1325. The Grand Princes of Vladimir were originally crowned in Vladimir's Assumption Cathedral, but when Moscow superseded Vladimir in the 14th Century as the seat of the Grand Prince, the Dormition Cathedral, Moscow, Assumption Cathedral in the Moscow Kremlin became the site of their coronation. The Moscow cathedral was loosely copied by the Italian architect Aristotele Fioravanti from Vladimir's original. After the rise of Moscow, Grand Princes of Moscow continued to build several new churches in Vladimir. Notable examples include the Annunciation Church at Snovitsy (ca. 1501), three kilometers northwest of the city, and a church in the Knyaginin Nunnery (ca. 1505), which today includes murals dating from 1648. Remains of the prince-saint Alexander Nevsky were kept in the ancient Nativity Abbey of Vladimir until 1703, when Peter the Great had them transferred to the Alexander Nevsky Lavra, Monastery (now Lavra) of Alexander Nevsky in Saint Petersburg, St. Petersburg. The Nativity Church (built from 1191 to 1196) collapsed several years later, after workmen tried to fashion more windows in its walls in an effort to brighten the interior. The city was the center of , part of Moscow Governorate from its establishment by Peter the Great in 1708. Vladimir was separated from Moscow Governorate and made the center of a new by a ukase of Catherine the Great in 1778. In 1796, Paul I of Russia, Paul I's administrative reform transformed the viceroyalty into the in the same borders. In the years 1838-1840, Alexander Herzen was exiled in Vladimir, passing through the city on the infamous ''Vladimirka''. In December 1858 the city began to operate telegraph. On June 14, 1861, the began to operate through Vladimir. In 1866, construction of a running water supply was completed, with telephone lines being put up in 1887 and the first electrical power lines on December 5, 1908. In November 29, 1898 Vladimir provincial scientific archival commission was established.


Soviet period

After the establishment of Soviet power, many streets were renamed in Vladimir; most of the parish churches were closed and condemned to be demolished. In the first decades of Soviet rule industrialization occurred in Vladimir. On January 14, 1929, the Vladimir Governorate was abolished and the city became part of the newly formed Ivanovo Industrial Oblast. On August 14, 1944, Vladimir became the administrative center of a new
Vladimir Oblast Vladimir Oblast (russian: Влади́мирская о́бласть, ''Vladimirskaya oblast'') is a federal subject of Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe a ...
carved from Ivanovo Oblast. In 1950 from the basis of the teachers' institute the Vladimir Pedagogical Institute was created. On November 5, 1952 the first trolleybus line began to operate in the city. In 1958 the was created, composed of a group of unique architectural monuments of Russian defense and church architecture. The monuments are located in three cities—Vladimir, Suzdal and Gus-Khrustalny (town), Gus-Khrustalny—as well as villages of Bogolyubovo and Kideksha. Architecture of the Soviet period is represented by such structures as building complexes and polytechnic colleges, the Torpedo Stadium (Vladimir), Torpedo Stadium (built 1952), a reinforced concrete arch bridge over the river Klyaz'ma (1960), the Hotel Vladimir (1956), the Drama Theatre (1971) and others. In 1971 the city was awarded the Order of Red Banner of Labor.


Administrative and municipal status

Vladimir is the
administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administration of a Township, commune is located. In countries with French as one of their administrative languages ( ...
of the oblast.Law #130-OZ Within the subdivisions of Russia#Administrative divisions, framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with seventeen types of inhabited localities in Russia, rural localities, incorporated as the City of federal subject significance, City of Vladimir—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the administrative divisions of Vladimir Oblast, districts. As a subdivisions of Russia#Municipal divisions, municipal division, the City of Vladimir is incorporated as Vladimir Urban Okrug.Law #189-OZ


Economy and military

Vladimir is home to several electrical and chemical factories, several food processing plants and two large thermal power stations. Tourism related to the historical sites is a major contributor to the city economy. The headquarters of the 27th Guards Rocket Army of the Strategic Missile Troops is located in the city. During the Cold War, Vladimir was host to the Dobrynskoye air force base.


Transportation

Since 1861, there has been a railway connection between Vladimir and Moscow. Vladimir is also linked to Moscow and Nizhny Novgorod by the M7 highway (Russia), M7 highway. Local transport includes buses, trolleybuses, fixed-route minivans, and taxis. Vladimir bus service links the city to all the district centers of Vladimir Oblast, as well as Moscow, Ivanovo, Kostroma, Nizhny Novgorod, Ryazan, Yaroslavl and other cities. At least 20 pairs of long-distance trains pass daily through Vladimir station, giving Vladimir year-round direct rail links to Moscow (Kursky railway station, Kursk Station), St. Petersburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Since the summer of 2010 Vladimir (on the Nizhny Novgorod line) is a stopping point for the "Sapsan, Peregrine Falcon" high-speed train. Developed suburban rail: Vladimir was the only city in Russia with concurrent commuter trains two Russian cities with subways. The city is served by the Semyazino Airport 5 km west of the city center.


Gallery

File:Vladimir railway station Russia1.jpg, Vladimir railway station, August 2008 File:ЗиУ-682Г016.02 заводской номер 9028 во Владимире (№ 184).jpg, Trolleybus ZiU-9 File:Владимирский троллейбус - 2007 год.jpg, Trolza-5275 low-entry trolleybus File:2018-03-21 Vladimir, RUS - A trolleybus route No.1.jpg, A trolleybus route #1 File:2018-03-21 Vladimir, RUS - A bus in Vladimir.jpg, A bus route #26 File:Vladimir Bus Station 3.jpg, The bus terminal in Vladimir


Climate

Vladimir experiences a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification ''Dfb'') with long, cold winters and short, warm summers.


Sightseeing

Modern Vladimir is a part of the Golden Ring of Russia, Golden Ring of ancient Russian cities and a popular tourist destination. Its three chief monuments,
White Monuments of Vladimir and Suzdal The White Monuments of Vladimir, Russia, Vladimir and Suzdal in Russian Federation have been designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The patrimony embraces eight medieval limestone monuments of Zalesye from the late 12th and early 13th centuries ...
, inscribed by UNESCO on the World Heritage List, are the following: #The magnificent five-domed Assumption Cathedral in Vladimir, Dormition Cathedral was designed as the burial place of grand princes and dedicated to the holy icon the Theotokos of Vladimir, which had been brought to the city by Andrey Bogolyubsky. The cathedral was constructed in 1158–1160, expanded in 1185–1189, and painted by the great Andrei Rublev and Daniil Chyorny in 1408. In 1810, a lofty bell-tower was added in Neoclassicism, Neoclassical style. #The helmet-domed Cathedral of Saint Demetrius was built in 1194–1197 as a private chapel of Vsevolod the Big Nest in the courtyard of his palace and was consecrated to his holy patron, Saint Demetrius, St. Demetrius. For all its formal unity, the cathedral represents an international project of Russian and Byzantine masters, Friedrich Barbarossa's masons, and carvers sent by Queen Tamar of Georgia. #The Golden Gate (Vladimir), Golden Gate, originally a tower over the city's main gate, was built in 1158–1164. The gate acquired its present form after having been reconstructed in the late 18th century, to prevent the dilapidated structure from tumbling down. Other remarkable monuments of pre-Mongol Russian architecture are scattered in the vicinity. For more information on them, see Suzdal, Yuryev-Polsky (town), Yuriev-Polsky, Bogolyubovo, and Kideksha. File:Владимир, вид на Успенский собор.JPG, View of Vladimir File:Public Park in Vladimir - Russia.JPG, Public park in Vladimir File:Ансамбль Успенского собора.jpg, Assumption Cathedral File:Dmitrovsky sobor6000.jpg, Cathedral of Saint Demetrius File:Vladimir asv2019-01 img05 Golden Gate.jpg, Golden Gate


Education

Vladimir is the site of the following education establishments: *Vladimir State University *Vladimir branch of the Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration *Vladimir branch of Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation *Vladimir branch of the Russian University of Cooperation *Vladimir Law Institute under the Ministry of Justice *Vladimir Business Institute *Vladimir Aviation Mechanics College *Vladimir Pedagogical College *Vladimir Polytechnic College *Vladimir Basic Medical College *Vladimir Construction College *Vladimir Regional College of Music *Vladimir Economy and Technology College *Vladimir College of Technology *Vladimir Industrial College *Vladimir Chemical and Mechanical College *College of Innovative Technologies and Entrepreneurship at Vladimir State University Vladimir is also home to the Federal Centre for Animal Health and Welfare.


Sports

The city association football team, FC Torpedo Vladimir, currently plays in the Football Championship of the National League, second tier of Russian football having entered the league after seventeen years of competing in Russian third and fourth tiers. Vladimir VC (previously known as Skat and Dinamo Vladimir) represents the city in Volleyball Major League B – Zone Europe. Vladimir is also home to Polaris-Vladimir ice hockey club, which competes in regional hockey competitions and Russian minor leagues, and Luch, which has both male and female table-tennis teams.


Twin towns – sister cities

Vladimir is twin towns and sister cities, twinned with: * Anghiari, Italy * Antalya, Turkey * Babruysk, Belarus * Baoji, China * Bloomington–Normal, United States * Bukhara, Uzbekistan * Campobasso, Italy * Canterbury, England, United Kingdom * Chongqing, China * Erlangen, Germany * Gagra, Georgia * Haikou, China * Jelenia Góra, Poland * Kardzhali Municipality, Kardzhali, Bulgaria * Karlovo, Bulgaria * Kerava, Finland * Khujand, Tajikistan * Leninsky District, Belarus, Leninsky (Minsk), Belarus * Saintes, Charente-Maritime, Saintes, France * Sarasota, United States * Skive Municipality, Skive, Denmark * Ústí nad Labem, Czech Republic * Vawkavysk, Belarus


Notable people

*Valentin Afonin, association football player *Yuri Lodigin, association football player *Nikolai Andrianov, gymnast *Vladimir Artemov, gymnast *Aleksey Batalov, actor *Mikhail Lazarev, admiral *Yuri Levitan, radio announcer *Anna Loginova, fashion model *Alexey Prokurorov, cross-country skier *Yuri Ryazanov, gymnast *Vasily Shulgin, politician *Mikhail Speransky, statesman *Aleksandr Stoletov, physicist *Nikolai Stoletov, general *Sergei Taneyev, composer *Dmitri Vyazmikin, association football player *Venedikt Yerofeyev, writer *Denis Yevsikov, association football player *Nikolay Yegorovich Zhukovsky, Nikolay Zhukovsky, scientist


References


Notes


Sources

* * * *


Further reading

* *


External links


Tourism portal of the Vladimir region, RussiaOfficial website of Vladimir

Tourist information on VladimirThe American Home in Vladimir
{{Use mdy dates, date=October 2012 Vladimir, Russia, Golden Ring of Russia Holy cities Vladimirsky Uyezd World Heritage Sites in Russia