Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov,[a] better known by the alias Lenin[b]
(/ˈlɛnɪn/; 22 April 1870 – 21 January 1924), was a Russian
communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist. He served
as head of government of Soviet
Russia from 1917 to 1924 and of the
Soviet Union from 1922 to 1924. Under his administration,
then the wider
Soviet Union became a one-party communist state
governed by the Russian Communist Party. Ideologically a Marxist, he
developed political theories known as Leninism.
Born to a wealthy middle-class family in Simbirsk,
revolutionary socialist politics following his brother's 1887
execution. Expelled from
Kazan Imperial University for participating
in protests against the Russian Empire's Tsarist government, he
devoted the following years to a law degree. He moved to Saint
Petersburg in 1893 and became a senior Marxist activist. In 1897, he
was arrested for sedition and exiled to
Shushenskoye for three years,
where he married Nadezhda Krupskaya. After his exile, he moved to
Western Europe, where he became a prominent theorist in the Marxist
Russian Social Democratic Labour Party
Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP). In 1903, he took a key
role in a RSDLP ideological split, leading the Bolshevik faction
against Julius Martov's Mensheviks. Encouraging insurrection during
Revolution of 1905, he later campaigned for the First
War to be transformed into a Europe-wide proletarian revolution,
which as a Marxist he believed would cause the overthrow of capitalism
and its replacement with socialism. After the 1917 February Revolution
Tsar and established a Provisional Government, he returned
Russia to play a leading role in the October Revolution, in which
Bolsheviks overthrew the new regime.
Lenin's Bolshevik government initially shared power with the Left
Socialist Revolutionaries, elected soviets, and a multi-party
Constituent Assembly, although by 1918 it had centralised power in the
new Communist Party. Lenin's administration redistributed land among
the peasantry and nationalised banks and large-scale industry. It
withdrew from the
First World War
First World War by signing a treaty with the Central
Powers and promoted world revolution through the Communist
International. Opponents were suppressed in the Red Terror, a violent
campaign administered by the state security services; tens of
thousands were killed or interned in concentration camps. His
administration defeated right and left-wing anti-Bolshevik armies in
Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War from 1917 to 1922 and oversaw the
Polish–Soviet War of 1919–1921. Responding to wartime devastation,
famine, and popular uprisings, in 1921
Lenin encouraged economic
growth through the market-oriented New Economic Policy. Several
non-Russian nations secured independence after 1917, but three
Russia through the formation of the
Soviet Union in
1922. In increasingly poor health,
Lenin expressed opposition to the
growing power of his successor, Joseph Stalin, before dying at his
dacha in Gorki.
Widely considered one of the most significant and influential figures
of the 20th century,
Lenin was the posthumous subject of a pervasive
personality cult within the
Soviet Union until its dissolution in
1991. He became an ideological figurehead behind Marxism–Leninism
and thus a prominent influence over the international communist
movement. A controversial and highly divisive individual,
viewed by supporters as a champion of socialism and the working class,
while critics on both the left and right emphasize his role as founder
and leader of an authoritarian regime responsible for political
repression and mass killings.
1 Early life
1.1 Childhood: 1870–1887
1.2 University and political radicalisation: 1887–1893
2 Revolutionary activity
2.1 Early activism and imprisonment: 1893–1900
2.2 Munich, London, and Geneva: 1900–1905
Revolution of 1905
Revolution of 1905 and its aftermath: 1905–1914
2.4 First World War: 1914–1917
February Revolution and the July Days: 1917
2.6 October Revolution: 1917
3 Lenin's government
3.1 Organising the Soviet government: 1917–1918
3.2 Social, legal, and economic reform: 1917–1918
3.3 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk: 1917–1918
3.4 Anti-Kulak campaigns, Cheka, and Red Terror: 1918–1922
War and the Polish–Soviet War: 1918–1920
3.6 Comintern and world revolution: 1919–1920
3.7 Famine and the New Economic Policy: 1920–1922
3.8 Declining health and arguments with Stalin: 1920–1923
3.9 Death and funeral: 1923–1924
4 Political ideology
Marxism and Leninism
Democracy and the national question
5 Personal life and characteristics
6.1 Within the Soviet Union
6.2 In the international communist movement
7 See also
10 Further reading
11 External links
Main article: Early life of Vladimir Lenin
Lenin's father, Ilya Nikolayevich Ulyanov, was from a family of serfs;
his ethnic origins remain unclear, with suggestions being made that he
was Russian, Chuvash, Mordvin, or Kalmyk. Despite this lower-class
background he had risen to middle-class status, studying physics and
Kazan Imperial University before teaching at the Penza
Institute for the Nobility. Ilya married Maria Alexandrovna Blank
in mid-1863. Well educated and from a relatively prosperous
background, she was the daughter of a German–Swedish woman and a
Jewish physician who had converted to Christianity. It is
Lenin was unaware of his mother's
Jewish ancestry, which
was only discovered by his sister Anna after his death. Soon after
their wedding, Ilya obtained a job in Nizhny Novgorod, rising to
become Director of Primary Schools in the Simbirsk district six years
later. Five years after that, he was promoted to Director of Public
Schools for the province, overseeing the foundation of over 450
schools as a part of the government's plans for modernisation. His
dedication to education earned him the Order of St. Vladimir, which
bestowed on him the status of hereditary nobleman.
Lenin's childhood home in Simbirsk
Lenin was born in Simbirsk on 22 April 1870 and baptised several
days later; as a child, he gained the nickname of "Volodya," a
dimunitive of Vladimir. He was one of eight children, having two
older siblings, Anna (born 1864) and Alexander (born 1868). They were
followed by three more children, Olga (born 1871), Dmitry (born 1874),
and Maria (born 1878). Two later siblings died in infancy. Ilya
was a devout member of the
Russian Orthodox Church
Russian Orthodox Church and baptised his
children into it, although Maria—a Lutheran by upbringing—was
largely indifferent to Christianity, a view that influenced her
Both parents were monarchists and liberal conservatives, being
committed to the emancipation reform of 1861 introduced by the
Tsar Alexander II; they avoided political radicals and there
is no evidence that the police ever put them under surveillance for
subversive thought. Every summer they holidayed at a rural manor
in Kokushkino. Among his siblings,
Lenin was closest to his sister
Olga, whom he often bossed around; he had an extremely competitive
nature and could be destructive, but usually admitted his
misbehaviour. A keen sportsman, he spent much of his free time
outdoors or playing chess, and excelled at school, the disciplinarian
and conservative Simbirsk Classical Gimnazia.
In January 1886, when
Lenin was 16, his father died of a brain
haemorrhage. Subsequently, his behaviour became erratic and
confrontational and he renounced his belief in God. At the time,
Lenin's elder brother Alexander—whom he affectionately knew as
Sasha—was studying at
Saint Petersburg University. Involved in
political agitation against the absolute monarchy of the reactionary
Tsar Alexander III, Alexander studied the writings of banned leftists
and organised anti-government protests. He joined a revolutionary cell
bent on assassinating the
Tsar and was selected to construct a bomb.
Before the attack could take place the conspirators were arrested and
tried, and in May, Alexander was executed by hanging. Despite the
emotional trauma of his father's and brother's deaths,
studying, graduated with a gold medal for exceptional performance, and
decided to study law at
University and political radicalisation: 1887–1893
Lenin came under the influence of Karl Marx.
Kazan University in August 1887,
Lenin moved into a
nearby flat. There, he joined a zemlyachestvo, a form of
university society that represented the men of a particular
region. This group elected him as its representative to the
university's zemlyachestvo council, and in December, he took part in a
demonstration against government restrictions that banned student
societies. The police arrested
Lenin and accused him of being a
ringleader in the demonstration; he was expelled from the university,
and the Ministry of Internal Affairs exiled him to his family's
Kokushkino estate. There, he read voraciously, becoming enamoured
with Nikolay Chernyshevsky's 1863 pro-revolutionary novel What Is To
Lenin's mother was concerned by her son's radicalisation, and was
instrumental in convincing the Interior Ministry to allow him to
return to the city of Kazan, but not the university. On his
return, he joined Nikolai Fedoseev's revolutionary circle, through
which he discovered Karl Marx's 1867 book Capital. This sparked his
interest in Marxism, a socio-political theory that argued that society
developed in stages, that this development resulted from class
struggle, and that capitalist society would ultimately give way to
socialist society and then communist society. Wary of his
political views, Lenin's mother bought a country estate in Alakaevka
village, Samara Oblast, in the hope that her son would turn his
attention to agriculture. He had little interest in farm management,
and his mother soon sold the land, keeping the house as a summer
In September 1889, the Ulyanov family moved to the city of Samara,
Lenin joined Alexei Sklyarenko's socialist discussion
Lenin fully embraced
Marxism and produced a Russian
language translation of Marx and Friedrich Engels's 1848 political
pamphlet, The Communist Manifesto. He began to read the works of
the Russian Marxist Georgi Plekhanov, agreeing with Plekhanov's
Russia was moving from feudalism to capitalism and so
socialism would be implemented by the proletariat, or urban working
class, rather than the peasantry. This Marxist perspective
contrasted with the view of the agrarian-socialist Narodnik movement,
which held that the peasantry could establish socialism in
forming peasant communes, thereby bypassing capitalism. This Narodnik
view developed in the 1860s with the People's Freedom Party and was
then dominant within the Russian revolutionary movement. Lenin
rejected the premise of the agrarian-socialist argument, but was
influenced by agrarian-socialists like
Pyotr Tkachev and Sergei
Nechaev, and befriended several Narodniks.
In May 1890, Maria—who retained societal influence as the widow of a
nobleman—persuaded the authorities to allow
Lenin to take his exams
externally at the University of St Petersburg, where he obtained the
equivalent of a first-class degree with honours. The graduation
celebrations were marred when his sister Olga died of typhoid.
Lenin remained in Samara for several years, working first as a legal
assistant for a regional court and then for a local lawyer. He
devoted much time to radical politics, remaining active in
Sklyarenko's group and formulating ideas about how
Marxism applied to
Russia. Inspired by Plekhanov's work,
Lenin collected data on Russian
society, using it to support a Marxist interpretation of societal
development and counter the claims of the Narodniks. He wrote a
paper on peasant economics; it was rejected by the liberal journal
Main article: Revolutionary activity of Vladimir Lenin
Early activism and imprisonment: 1893–1900
In late 1893,
Lenin moved to Saint Petersburg. There, he worked as
a barrister's assistant and rose to a senior position in a Marxist
revolutionary cell that called itself the "Social-Democrats" after the
Marxist Social Democratic Party of Germany. Publicly championing
Marxism within the socialist movement, he encouraged the founding of
revolutionary cells in Russia's industrial centres. By late 1894,
he was leading a Marxist workers' circle, and meticulously covered his
tracks, knowing that police spies tried to infiltrate the
movement. He began a romantic relationship with Nadezhda "Nadya"
Krupskaya, a Marxist schoolteacher. He also authored a political
tract criticising the Narodnik agrarian-socialists, What the "Friends
of the People" Are and How They Fight the Social-Democrats, based
largely on his experiences in Samara; around 200 copies were illegally
printed in 1894.
Lenin hoped to cement connections between his Social-Democrats and
Emancipation of Labour, a group of Russian Marxist émigrés based in
Switzerland; he visited the country to meet group members Plekhanov
and Pavel Axelrod. He proceeded to Paris to meet Marx's son-in-law
Paul Lafargue and to research the
Paris Commune of 1871, which he
considered an early prototype for a proletarian government.
Financed by his mother, he stayed in a Swiss health spa before
travelling to Berlin, where he studied for six weeks at the
Staatsbibliothek and met the Marxist activist Wilhelm Liebknecht.
Russia with a stash of illegal revolutionary
publications, he travelled to various cities distributing literature
to striking workers. While involved in producing a news sheet,
Rabochee delo ("Workers' Cause"), he was among 40 activists arrested
in St. Petersburg and charged with sedition.
Lenin (seated centre) with other members of the League of Struggle for
Emancipation of the Working Class in 1897
Refused legal representation or bail,
Lenin denied all charges against
him but remained imprisoned for a year before sentencing. He spent
this time theorising and writing. In this work he noted that the rise
of industrial capitalism in
Russia had caused large numbers of
peasants to move to the cities, where they formed a proletariat. From
his Marxist perspective,
Lenin argued that this Russian proletariat
would develop class consciousness, which would in turn lead them to
violently overthrow Tsarism, the aristocracy, and the bourgeoisie and
to establish a proletariat state that would move toward socialism.
In February 1897, he was sentenced without trial to three years' exile
in eastern Siberia. He was granted a few days in
Saint Petersburg to
put his affairs in order and used this time to meet with the
Social-Democrats, who had renamed themselves the League of Struggle
Emancipation of the Working Class. His journey to eastern
Siberia took 11 weeks, for much of which he was accompanied by his
mother and sisters. Deemed only a minor threat to the government, he
was exiled to a peasant's hut in Shushenskoye, Minusinsky District,
where he was kept under police surveillance; he was nevertheless able
to correspond with other revolutionaries, many of whom visited him,
and permitted to go on trips to swim in the
Yenisei River and to hunt
duck and snipe.
In May 1898, Nadya joined him in exile, having been arrested in August
1896 for organising a strike. She was initially posted to Ufa, but
persuaded the authorities to move her to Shushenskoye, claiming that
Lenin were engaged; they married in a church on 10 July
1898. Settling into a family life with Nadya's mother Elizaveta
Shushenskoye the couple translated English socialist
literature into Russian. Keen to keep up with developments in
German Marxism – where there had been an ideological split,
with revisionists like
Eduard Bernstein advocating a peaceful,
electoral path to socialism –
Lenin remained devoted to violent
revolution, attacking revisionist arguments in A Protest by Russian
Social-Democrats. He also finished The Development of Capitalism
Russia (1899), his longest book to date, which criticised the
agrarian-socialists and promoted a Marxist analysis of Russian
economic development. Published under the pseudonym of "Vladimir
Ilin", upon publication it received predominantly poor reviews.
Munich, London, and Geneva: 1900–1905
Lenin in 1916, while in Switzerland
After his exile,
Lenin settled in
Pskov in early 1900. There, he
began raising funds for a newspaper,
Iskra ("Spark"), a new organ of
the Russian Marxist party, now calling itself the Russian Social
Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP). In July 1900,
Lenin left Russia
for Western Europe; in Switzerland he met other Russian Marxists, and
Corsier conference they agreed to launch the paper from Munich,
Lenin relocated in September. Containing contributions from
prominent European Marxists,
Iskra was smuggled into Russia,
becoming the country's most successful underground publication for 50
years. He first adopted the pseudonym "Lenin" in December 1901,
possibly based on the River Lena; he often used the fuller
pseudonym of "N. Lenin", and while the N did not stand for anything, a
popular misconception later arose that it represented "Nikolai".
Under this pseudonym, he published the political pamphlet What Is To
Be Done? in 1902; his most influential publication to date, it dealt
with Lenin's thoughts on the need for a vanguard party to lead the
proletariat to revolution.
Lenin in Munich, becoming his personal secretary.
They continued their political agitation, as
Lenin wrote for
drafted the RSDLP programme, attacking ideological dissenters and
external critics, particularly the Socialist Revolutionary Party
(SR), a Narodnik agrarian-socialist group founded in 1901.
Despite remaining a Marxist, he accepted the Narodnik view on the
revolutionary power of the Russian peasantry, accordingly penning the
1903 pamphlet To the Village Poor. To evade Bavarian police, Lenin
moved to London with
Iskra in April 1902, there becoming friends
with fellow Russian Marxist Leon Trotsky. In London,
ill with erysipelas and was unable to take such a leading role on the
Iskra editorial board; in his absence, the board moved its base of
operations to Geneva.
The second RSDLP Congress was held in London in July 1903. At the
conference, a schism emerged between Lenin's supporters and those of
Julius Martov. Martov argued that party members should be able to
express themselves independently of the party leadership; Lenin
disagreed, emphasising the need for a strong leadership with complete
control over the party. Lenin's supporters were in the majority,
Lenin termed them the "majoritarians" (bol'sheviki in Russian;
thus Bolsheviks); in response, Martov termed his followers the
"minoritarians" (men'sheviki in Russian; thus Mensheviks).
Mensheviks continued after the
Bolsheviks accused their rivals of being opportunists
and reformists who lacked discipline, while the
Lenin of being a despot and autocrat. Enraged at the Mensheviks,
Lenin resigned from the
Iskra editorial board and in May 1904
published the anti-Menshevik tract One Step Forward, Two Steps
Back. The stress made
Lenin ill, and to recuperate he went on a
hiking holiday in rural Switzerland. The Bolshevik faction grew in
strength; by the spring, the whole RSDLP Central Committee was
Bolshevik, and in December they founded the newspaper Vpered
Revolution of 1905
Revolution of 1905 and its aftermath: 1905–1914
In January 1905, the Bloody Sunday massacre of protesters in St.
Petersburg sparked a spate of civil unrest known as the
Bolsheviks to take a greater role in the events,
encouraging violent insurrection. In doing so, he adopted SR
slogans regarding "armed insurrection", "mass terror", and "the
expropriation of gentry land", resulting in Menshevik accusations that
he had deviated from orthodox Marxism. In turn, he insisted that
Bolsheviks split completely with the Mensheviks; many Bolsheviks
refused, and both groups attended the Third RSDLP Congress, held in
London in April 1905.
Lenin presented many of his ideas in the
pamphlet Two Tactics of Social
Democracy in the Democratic Revolution,
published in August 1905. Here, he predicted that Russia's liberal
bourgeoisie would be sated by a transition to constitutional monarchy
and thus betray the revolution; instead he argued that the proletariat
would have to build an alliance with the peasantry to overthrow the
Tsarist regime and establish the "provisional revolutionary democratic
dictatorship of the proletariat and the peasantry".
The uprising has begun. Force against Force. Street fighting is
raging, barricades are being thrown up, rifles are cracking, guns are
booming. Rivers of blood are flowing, the civil war for freedom is
blazing up. Moscow and the South, the
Caucasus and Poland are ready to
join the proletariat of St. Petersburg. The slogan of the workers has
become: Death or Freedom!
Lenin on the
Revolution of 1905
In response to the revolution of 1905,
Nicholas II accepted a
series of liberal reforms in his October Manifesto, after which Lenin
felt it safe to return to St. Petersburg. Joining the editorial
board of Novaya Zhizn ("New Life"), a radical legal newspaper run by
Maria Andreyeva, he used it to discuss issues facing the RSDLP. He
encouraged the party to seek out a much wider membership, and
advocated the continual escalation of violent confrontation, believing
both to be necessary for a successful revolution. Recognising that
membership fees and donations from a few wealthy sympathisers were
insufficient to finance the Bolsheviks' activities,
Lenin endorsed the
idea of robbing post offices, railway stations, trains, and banks.
Under the lead of Leonid Krasin, a group of
Bolsheviks began carrying
out such criminal actions, the best known taking place in June 1907,
when a group of
Bolsheviks acting under the leadership of Joseph
Stalin committed an armed robbery of the State Bank in Tiflis,
Although he briefly supported the idea of reconciliation between
Bolsheviks and Mensheviks, Lenin's advocacy of violence and
robbery was condemned by the
Mensheviks at the Fourth Party Congress,
Stockholm in April 1906.
Lenin was involved in setting up
a Bolshevik Centre in Kuokkala, Grand Duchy of Finland, which was at
the time a semi-autonomous part of the Russian Empire, before the
Bolsheviks regained dominance of the RSDLP at its Fifth Congress, held
in London in May 1907. As the Tsarist government cracked down on
opposition – both by disbanding Russia's legislative assembly, the
Second Duma, and by ordering its secret police, the Okhrana, to arrest
Lenin fled Finland for Switzerland. There he
tried to exchange those banknotes stolen in
Tiflis that had
identifiable serial numbers on them.
Alexander Bogdanov and other prominent
Bolsheviks decided to relocate
the Bolshevik Centre to Paris; although
Lenin disagreed, he moved to
the city in December 1908.
Lenin disliked Paris, lambasting it as
"a foul hole", and while there he sued a motorist who knocked him off
Lenin became very critical of Bogdanov's view that
Russia's proletariat had to develop a socialist culture in order to
become a successful revolutionary vehicle. Instead,
Lenin favoured a
vanguard of socialist intelligentsia who would lead the
working-classes in revolution. Furthermore, Bogdanov –
influenced by Ernest Mach – believed that all concepts of the
world were relative, whereas
Lenin stuck to the orthodox Marxist view
that there was an objective reality independent of human
observation. Bogdanov and
Lenin holidayed together at Maxim
Gorky's villa in
Capri in April 1908; on returning to Paris, Lenin
encouraged a split within the Bolshevik faction between his and
Bogdanov's followers, accusing the latter of deviating from
Lenin undertook research at the
British Museum in London.
In May 1908,
Lenin lived briefly in London, where he used the British
Museum Reading Room to write Materialism and Empirio-criticism, an
attack on what he described as the "bourgeois-reactionary falsehood"
of Bogdanov's relativism. Lenin's factionalism began to alienate
increasing numbers of Bolsheviks, including his former close
Alexei Rykov and Lev Kamenev. The
Okhrana exploited his
factionalist attitude by sending a spy, Roman Malinovsky, to act as a
Lenin supporter within the party. Various
their suspicions about Malinovsky to Lenin, although it is unclear if
the latter was aware of the spy's duplicity; it is possible that he
used Malinovsky to feed false information to the Okhrana.
In August 1910,
Lenin attended the Eighth Congress of the Second
International – an international meeting of socialists – in
Copenhagen as the RSDLP's representative, following this with a
Stockholm with his mother. With his wife and sisters
he then moved to France, settling first in Bombon and then Paris.
Here, he became a close friend to the French Bolshevik Inessa Armand;
some biographers suggest that they had an extra-marital affair from
1910 to 1912. Meanwhile, at a Paris meeting in June 1911, the
RSDLP Central Committee decided to move their focus of operations back
to Russia, ordering the closure of the Bolshevik Centre and its
newspaper, Proletari. Seeking to rebuild his influence in the
Lenin arranged for a party conference to be held in
January 1912, and although 16 of the 18 attendants were Bolsheviks, he
was heavily criticised for his factionalist tendencies and failed to
boost his status within the party.
Kraków in the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, a
culturally Polish part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, he used
Jagellonian University's library to conduct research. He stayed
in close contact with the RSDLP, which was operating in the Russian
Empire, convincing the Duma's Bolshevik members to split from their
parliamentary alliance with the Mensheviks. In January 1913,
Stalin – whom
Lenin referred to as the "wonderful
Georgian" – visited him, and they discussed the future of
non-Russian ethnic groups in the Empire. Due to the ailing health
Lenin and his wife, they moved to the rural town of Biały
Dunajec, before heading to
Bern for Nadya to have surgery on her
First World War: 1914–1917
The [First World] war is being waged for the division of colonies and
the robbery of foreign territory; thieves have fallen out–and to
refer to the defeats at a given moment of one of the thieves in order
to identify the interests of all thieves with the interests of the
nation or the fatherland is an unconscionable bourgeois lie.
Lenin on his interpretation of the First World War
Lenin was in Galicia when the
First World War
First World War broke out. The war
Russian Empire against the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and due
to his Russian citizenship,
Lenin was arrested and briefly imprisoned
until his anti-Tsarist credentials were explained.
Lenin and his
wife returned to Bern, before relocating to
Zürich in February
Lenin was angry that the German Social-Democratic Party was
supporting the German war effort – a direct contravention of the
Second International's Stuttgart resolution that socialist parties
would oppose the conflict – and thus saw the
Second International as
defunct. He attended the
Zimmerwald Conference in September 1915
Kienthal Conference in April 1916, urging socialists
across the continent to convert the "imperialist war" into a
continent-wide "civil war" with the proletariat pitted against the
bourgeoisie and aristocracy. In July 1916, Lenin's mother died,
but he was unable to attend her funeral. Her death deeply
affected him, and he became depressed, fearing that he too would die
before seeing the proletarian revolution.
In September 1917,
Lenin published Imperialism, the Highest Stage of
Capitalism, which argued that imperialism was a product of monopoly
capitalism, as capitalists sought to increase their profits by
extending into new territories where wages were lower and raw
materials cheaper. He believed that competition and conflict would
increase and that war between the imperialist powers would continue
until they were overthrown by proletariat revolution and socialism
established. He spent much of this time reading the works of
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Ludwig Feuerbach, and Aristotle, all of
whom had been key influences on Marx. This changed Lenin's
interpretation of Marxism; whereas he once believed that policies
could be developed based on predetermined scientific principles, he
concluded that the only test of whether a policy was correct was its
practice. He still perceived himself as an orthodox Marxist, but
he began to diverge from some of Marx's predictions about societal
development; whereas Marx had believed that a "bourgeoisie-democratic
revolution" of the middle-classes had to take place before a
"socialist revolution" of the proletariat,
Lenin believed that in
Russia, the proletariat could overthrow the Tsarist regime without an
February Revolution and the July Days: 1917
In February 1917, the
February Revolution broke out in St. Petersburg
Petrograd at the beginning of the
First World War
First World War – as
industrial workers went on strike over food shortages and
deteriorating factory conditions. The unrest spread to other parts of
Russia, and fearing that he would be violently overthrown, Tsar
Nicholas II abdicated. The State Duma took over control of the
country, establishing a Provisional Government and converting the
Empire into a new Russian Republic. When
Lenin learned of this
from his base in Switzerland, he celebrated with other
dissidents. He decided to return to
Russia to take charge of the
Bolsheviks, but found that most passages into the country were blocked
due to the ongoing conflict. He organised a plan with other dissidents
to negotiate a passage for them through Germany, with whom
then at war. Recognising that these dissidents could cause problems
for their Russian enemies, the German government agreed to permit 32
Russian citizens to travel in a "sealed" train carriage through their
territory, among them
Lenin and his wife. The group travelled by
Zürich to Sassnitz, proceeding by ferry to Trelleborg,
Sweden, and from there to the Haparanda–
Tornio border crossing and
Helsinki before taking the final train to Petrograd.
The engine that pulled the train on which
Lenin arrived at Petrograd's
Finland Station in April 1917 was not preserved. So Engine #293, by
Lenin escaped to Finland and then returned to
Russia later in
the year, serves as the permanent exhibit, installed at a platform on
Arriving at Petrograd's Finland Station,
Lenin gave a speech to
Bolshevik supporters condemning the Provisional Government and again
calling for a continent-wide European proletarian revolution.
Over the following days, he spoke at Bolshevik meetings, lambasting
those who wanted reconciliation with the
Mensheviks and revealing his
April Theses, an outline of his plans for the Bolsheviks, which he had
written on the journey from Switzerland. He publicly condemned
Mensheviks and the Social Revolutionaries – who dominated
Petrograd Soviet – for supporting the Provisional
Government, denouncing them as traitors to socialism. Considering the
government to be just as imperialist as the Tsarist regime, he
advocated immediate peace with Germany and Austria-Hungary, rule by
soviets, the nationalisation of industry and banks, and the state
expropriation of land, all with the intention of establishing a
proletariat government and pushing toward a socialist society. By
Mensheviks believed that
Russia was insufficiently
developed to transition to socialism and accused
Lenin of trying to
plunge the new Republic into civil war. Over the coming months,
he campaigned for his policies, attending the meetings of the
Bolshevik Central Committee, prolifically writing for the Bolshevik
newspaper Pravda, and giving public speeches in
Petrograd aimed at
converting workers, soldiers, sailors, and peasants to his cause.
Sensing growing frustration among Bolshevik supporters, Lenin
suggested an armed political demonstration in
Petrograd to test the
government's response. Amid deteriorating health, he left the
city to recuperate in the Finnish village of Neivola. The
Bolsheviks' armed demonstration, the July Days, took place while Lenin
was away, but upon learning that demonstrators had violently clashed
with government forces, he returned to
Petrograd and called for
calm. Responding to the violence, the government ordered the
Lenin and other prominent Bolsheviks, raiding their offices,
and publicly alleging that he was a German agent provocateur.
Lenin hid in a series of
Petrograd safe houses.
Fearing that he would be killed,
Lenin and fellow senior Bolshevik
Grigory Zinoviev escaped
Petrograd in disguise, relocating to
Lenin began work on the book that became The State
and Revolution, an exposition on how he believed the socialist state
would develop after the proletariat revolution, and how from then on
the state would gradually wither away, leaving a pure communist
society. He began arguing for a Bolshevik-led armed insurrection
to topple the government, but at a clandestine meeting of the party's
central committee this idea was rejected.
Lenin then headed by
train and by foot to Finland, arriving at
Helsinki on 10 August, where
he hid away in safe houses belonging to Bolshevik sympathisers.
October Revolution: 1917
Lenin in front of the
Smolny Institute by Isaak Brodsky
In August 1917, while
Lenin was in Finland, General Lavr Kornilov, the
Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Army, sent troops to
what appeared to be a military coup attempt against the Provisional
Alexander Kerensky turned to the
– including its Bolshevik members – for help, allowing the
revolutionaries to organise workers as Red Guards to defend the city.
The coup petered out before it reached Petrograd, but the events had
Bolsheviks to return to the open political arena.
Fearing a counter-revolution from right-wing forces hostile to
Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries who dominated
Petrograd Soviet had been instrumental in pressurising the
government to normalise relations with the Bolsheviks. Both the
Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries had lost much popular support
because of their affiliation with the Provisional Government and its
unpopular continuation of the war. The
Bolsheviks capitalised on this,
and soon the pro-Bolshevik Marxist Trotsky was elected leader of the
Petrograd Soviet. In September, the
Bolsheviks gained a majority
in the workers' sections of both the Moscow and Petrograd
Recognising that the situation was safer for him,
Lenin returned to
Petrograd. There he attended a meeting of the Bolshevik Central
Committee on 10 October, where he again argued that the party should
lead an armed insurrection to topple the Provisional Government. This
time the argument won with ten votes against two. Critics of the
plan, Zinoviev and Kamenev, argued that Russian workers would not
support a violent coup against the regime and that there was no clear
evidence for Lenin's assertion that all of Europe was on the verge of
proletarian revolution. The party began plans to organise the
offensive, holding a final meeting at the
Smolny Institute on 24
October. This was the base of the Military Revolutionary
Committee (MRC), an armed militia largely loyal to the
had been established by the
Petrograd Soviet during Kornilov's alleged
In October, the MRC was ordered to take control of Petrograd's key
transport, communication, printing and utilities hubs, and did so
Bolsheviks besieged the government in the
Winter Palace, and overcame it and arrested its ministers after the
cruiser Aurora, controlled by Bolshevik seamen, fired on the
building. During the insurrection,
Lenin gave a speech to the
Petrograd Soviet announcing that the Provisional Government had been
Bolsheviks declared the formation of a new
Council of People's Commissars
Council of People's Commissars or "Sovnarkom". Lenin
initially turned down the leading position of Chairman, suggesting
Trotsky for the job, but other
Bolsheviks insisted and ultimately
Lenin and other
Bolsheviks then attended the
Second Congress of Soviets
Second Congress of Soviets on 26 and 27 October, and announced the
creation of the new government. Menshevik attendees condemned the
illegitimate seizure of power and the risk of civil war. In these
early days of the new regime,
Lenin avoided talking in Marxist and
socialist terms so as not to alienate Russia's population, and instead
spoke about having a country controlled by the workers.
Bolsheviks expected proletariat revolution to sweep across
Europe in days or months.
Main article: Government of Vladimir Lenin
Organising the Soviet government: 1917–1918
The Provisional Government had planned for a Constituent Assembly to
be elected in November 1917; against Lenin's objections, Sovnarkom
agreed for the vote to take place as scheduled. In the
constitutional election, the
Bolsheviks gained approximately a quarter
of the vote, being defeated by the agrarian-focused Socialist
Lenin argued that the election was not a
fair reflection of the people's will, that the electorate had not had
time to learn the Bolsheviks' political programme, and that the
candidacy lists had been drawn up before the Left Socialist
Revolutionaries split from the Socialist Revolutionaries.
Nevertheless, the newly elected
Russian Constituent Assembly
Russian Constituent Assembly convened
Petrograd in January 1918.
Sovnarkom argued that it was
counter-revolutionary because it sought to remove power from the
soviets, but the Socialist Revolutionaries and
Bolsheviks presented the Assembly with a motion that
would strip it of most of its legal powers; when the Assembly rejected
Sovnarkom declared this as evidence of its
counter-revolutionary nature and forcibly disbanded it.
Lenin rejected repeated calls – including from some
to establish a coalition government with other socialist parties.
Sovnarkom partially relented; although refusing a coalition with the
Mensheviks or Socialist Revolutionaries, in December 1917 they allowed
Left Socialist Revolutionaries five posts in the cabinet. This
coalition only lasted four months, until March 1918, when the Left
Socialist Revolutionaries pulled out of the government over a
disagreement about the Bolsheviks' approach to ending the First World
War. At their 7th Congress in March 1918, the
their official name from the "Russian Social Democratic Labour Party"
to the "Russian Communist Party", as
Lenin wanted to both distance his
group from the increasingly reformist German Social Democratic Party
and to emphasise its ultimate goal: a communist society.
The Moscow Kremlin, which
Lenin moved into in 1918
Although ultimate power officially rested with the country's
government in the form of
Sovnarkom and the Executive Committee
(VTSIK) elected by the
All-Russian Congress of Soviets
All-Russian Congress of Soviets (ARCS), the
Communist Party was de facto in control in Russia, as acknowledged by
its members at the time. By 1918,
Sovnarkom began acting
unilaterally, claiming a need for expediency, with the ARCS and VTSIK
becoming increasingly marginalised, so the soviets no longer had
a role in governing Russia. During 1918 and 1919, the government
Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries from the
Russia had become a one-party state.
Within the party was established a Political Bureau ("Politburo") and
Organisation Bureau ("Orgburo") to accompany the existing Central
Committee; the decisions of these party bodies had to be adopted by
Sovnarkom and the Council of Labour and Defence.
Lenin was the
most significant figure in this governance structure; as well as being
the Chairman of
Sovnarkom and sitting on the Council of Labour and
Defence, he was on the Central Committee and Politburo of the
Communist Party. The only individual to have anywhere near this
influence was Lenin's right-hand man, Yakov Sverdlov, who died in
March 1919 during a flu pandemic. In November 1917,
Lenin and his
wife took a two-room flat within the Smolny Institute; the following
month they left for a brief holiday in Halia, Finland. In January
1918, he survived an assassination attempt in Petrograd; Fritz
Platten, who was with
Lenin at the time, shielded him and was injured
by a bullet.
Concerned that the German Army posed a threat to Petrograd, in March
Sovnarkom relocated to Moscow, initially as a temporary
measure. There, Lenin, Trotsky, and other Bolshevik leaders moved
into the Kremlin, where
Lenin lived with his wife and sister Maria in
a first floor apartment adjacent to the room in which the Sovnarkom
meetings were held.
Lenin disliked Moscow, but rarely left
the city centre during the rest of his life. It was in the city
in August 1918 that he survived a second assassination attempt; he was
shot following a public speech and injured badly. A Socialist
Revolutionary, Fanny Kaplan, was arrested and executed. The
attack was widely covered in the Russian press, generating much
sympathy for him and boosting his popularity. As a respite, in
Lenin was driven to the Gorki estate, just outside
Moscow, recently acquired for him by the government.
Social, legal, and economic reform: 1917–1918
To All Workers, Soldiers and Peasants. The Soviet authority will at
once propose a democratic peace to all nations and an immediate
armistice on all fronts. It will safeguard the transfer without
compensation of all land – landlord, imperial, and monastery – to
the peasants' committees; it will defend the soldiers' rights,
introducing a complete democratisation of the army; it will establish
workers' control over industry; it will ensure the convocation of the
Constituent Assembly on the date set; it will supply the cities with
bread and the villages with articles of first necessity; and it will
secure to all nationalities inhabiting
Russia the right of
self-determination ... Long live the revolution!
—Lenin's political programme, October 1917
Upon taking power, Lenin's regime issued a series of decrees. The
first was a Decree on Land, which declared that the landed estates of
the aristocracy and the Orthodox Church should be nationalised and
redistributed to peasants by local governments. This contrasted with
Lenin's desire for agricultural collectivisation but provided
governmental recognition of the widespread peasant land seizures that
had already occurred. In November 1917, the government issued the
Decree on the Press that closed many opposition media outlets deemed
counter-revolutionary. They claimed the measure would be temporary;
the decree was widely criticised, including by many Bolsheviks, for
compromising freedom of the press.
In November 1917,
Lenin issued the Declaration of the
Rights of the
Peoples of Russia, which stated that non-Russian ethnic groups living
inside the Republic had the right to cede from Russian authority and
establish their own independent nation-states. Many nations
declared independence: Finland and Lithuania in December 1917, Latvia
and Ukraine in January 1918, Estonia in February 1918, Transcaucasia
in April 1918, and Poland in November 1918. Soon, the Bolsheviks
actively promoted communist parties in these independent
nation-states, while in July 1918, at the Fifth All-Russian
Congress of the Soviets, a constitution was approved that reformed the
Russian Republic into the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist
Republic. Seeking to modernise the country, the government
Russia from the
Julian calendar to the Gregorian
calendar used in Europe.
In November 1917,
Sovnarkom issued a decree abolishing Russia's legal
system, calling on the use of "revolutionary conscience" to replace
the abolished laws. The courts were replaced by a two-tier
system: Revolutionary Tribunals to deal with counter-revolutionary
crimes, and People's Courts to deal with civil and other criminal
offences. They were instructed to ignore pre-existing laws, and base
their rulings on the
Sovnarkom decrees and a "socialist sense of
justice". November also saw an overhaul of the armed forces;
Sovnarkom implemented egalitarian measures, abolished previous ranks,
titles, and medals, and called on soldiers to establish committees to
elect their commanders.
Bolshevik political cartoon poster from 1920, showing
away monarchs, clergy, and capitalists
In October 1917,
Lenin issued a decree limiting work for everyone in
Russia to eight hours per day. He also issued the Decree on
Popular Education that stipulated that the government would guarantee
free, secular education for all children in Russia, and a decree
establishing a system of state orphanages. To combat mass
illiteracy, a literacy campaign was initiated; an estimated 5 million
people enrolled in crash courses of basic literacy from 1920 to
1926. Embracing the equality of the sexes, laws were introduced
that helped to emancipate women, by giving them economic autonomy from
their husbands and removing restrictions on divorce. A Bolshevik
women's organisation, Zhenotdel, was established to further these
aims. Militantly atheist,
Lenin and the Communist Party wanted to
demolish organised religion, and in January 1918 the government
decreed the separation of church and state and prohibited religious
instruction in schools.
In November 1917,
Lenin issued the Decree on Workers' Control, which
called on the workers of each enterprise to establish an elected
committee to monitor their enterprise's management. That month
they also issued an order requisitioning the country's gold, and
nationalised the banks, which
Lenin saw as a major step toward
socialism. In December,
Sovnarkom established a Supreme Council
of the National Economy (VSNKh), which had authority over industry,
banking, agriculture, and trade. The factory committees were
subordinate to the trade unions, which were subordinate to VSNKh;
thus, the state's centralised economic plan was prioritised over the
workers' local economic interests. In early 1918, Sovnarkom
cancelled all foreign debts and refused to pay interest owed on
them. In April 1918, it nationalised foreign trade, establishing
a state monopoly on imports and exports. In June 1918, it decreed
nationalisation of public utilities, railways, engineering, textiles,
metallurgy, and mining, although often these were state-owned in name
only. Full-scale nationalisation did not take place until
November 1920, when small-scale industrial enterprises were brought
under state control.
A faction of the
Bolsheviks known as the "Left Communists" criticised
Sovnarkom's economic policy as too moderate; they wanted
nationalisation of all industry, agriculture, trade, finance,
transport, and communication.
Lenin believed that this was
impractical at that stage, and that the government should only
nationalise Russia's large-scale capitalist enterprises, such as the
banks, railways, larger landed estates, and larger factories and
mines, allowing smaller businesses to operate privately until they
grew large enough to be successfully nationalised.
disagreed with the Left Communists about economic organisation; in
June 1918, he argued that centralised economic control of industry was
needed, whereas Left Communists wanted each factory to be controlled
by its workers, a syndicalist approach that
detrimental to the cause of socialism.
Adopting a left libertarian perspective, both the Left Communists and
other factions in the Communist Party critiqued the decline of
democratic institutions in Russia. Internationally, many
socialists decried Lenin's regime and denied that he was establishing
socialism; in particular, they highlighted the lack of widespread
political participation, popular consultation, and industrial
democracy. In late 1918, the Czech-Austrian Marxist Karl Kautsky
authored an anti-Leninist pamphlet condemning the anti-democratic
nature of Soviet Russia, to which
Lenin published a vociferous
reply. German Marxist
Rosa Luxemburg echoed Kautsky's views,
while the Russian anarchist
Peter Kropotkin described the Bolshevik
seizure of power as "the burial of the Russian Revolution".
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk: 1917–1918
[By prolonging the war] we unusually strengthen German imperialism,
and the peace will have to be concluded anyway, but then the peace
will be worse because it will be concluded by someone other than
ourselves. No doubt the peace which we are now being forced to
conclude is an indecent peace, but if war commences our government
will be swept away and the peace will be concluded by another
Lenin on peace with the Central Powers
Upon taking power,
Lenin believed that a key policy of his government
must be to withdraw from the
First World War
First World War by establishing an
armistice with the
Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary.
He believed that ongoing war would create resentment among war-weary
Russian troops – to whom he had promised peace – and that these
troops and the advancing German Army threatened both his own
government and the cause of international socialism. By contrast,
Bolsheviks – in particular
Nikolai Bukharin and the Left
Communists – believed that peace with the
Central Powers would be a
betrayal of international socialism and that
Russia should instead
wage "a war of revolutionary defence" that would provoke an uprising
of the German proletariat against their own government.
Lenin proposed a three-month armistice in his
Decree on Peace
Decree on Peace of
November 1917, which was approved by the Second Congress of Soviets
and presented to the German and Austro-Hungarian governments. The
Germans responded positively, viewing this as an opportunity to focus
on the Western Front and stave off looming defeat. In November,
armistice talks began at Brest-Litovsk, the headquarters of the German
high command on the Eastern Front, with the Russian delegation being
led by Trotsky and Adolph Joffe. Meanwhile, a ceasefire until
January was agreed. During negotiations, the Germans insisted on
keeping their wartime conquests – which included Poland, Lithuania,
Courland – whereas the
Russians countered that this was a
violation of these nations' rights to self-determination. Some
Bolsheviks had expressed hopes of dragging out negotiations until
proletarian revolution broke out throughout Europe. On 7 January
1918, Trotsky returned from
Brest-Litovsk to St. Petersburg with an
ultimatum from the Central Powers: either
Russia accept Germany's
territorial demands or the war would resume.
The signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
In January and again in February,
Lenin urged the
Bolsheviks to accept
Germany's proposals. He argued that the territorial losses were
acceptable if it ensured the survival of the Bolshevik-led government.
The majority of
Bolsheviks rejected his position, hoping to prolong
the armistice and call Germany's bluff. On 18 February, the
German Army launched Operation Faustschlag, advancing further into
Russian-controlled territory and conquering
Dvinsk within a day.
At this point,
Lenin finally convinced a small majority of the
Bolshevik Central Committee to accept the Central Powers'
demands. On 23 February, the
Central Powers issued a new
Russia had to recognise German control not only of Poland
and the Baltic states but also of Ukraine, or face a full-scale
On 3 March, the
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was signed. It resulted
in massive territorial losses for Russia, with 26% of the former
Empire's population, 37% of its agricultural harvest area, 28% of its
industry, 26% of its railway tracks, and three-quarters of its coal
and iron deposits being transferred to German control.
Accordingly, the Treaty was deeply unpopular across Russia's political
spectrum, and several
Bolsheviks and Left Socialist
Revolutionaries resigned from
Sovnarkom in protest. After the
Sovnarkom focused on trying to foment proletarian revolution
in Germany, issuing an array of anti-war and anti-government
publications in the country; the German government retaliated by
expelling Russia's diplomats. The Treaty nevertheless failed to
stop the Central Powers' defeat; in November 1918, the German Emperor
Wilhelm II resigned and the country's new administration signed the
Armistice with the Allies. As a result,
Sovnarkom proclaimed the
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk void.
Anti-Kulak campaigns, Cheka, and Red Terror: 1918–1922
See also: Decossackisation
[The bourgeoisie] practised terror against the workers, soldiers and
peasants in the interests of a small group of landowners and bankers,
whereas the Soviet regime applies decisive measures against
landowners, plunderers and their accomplices in the interests of the
workers, soldiers and peasants.
Lenin on the Red Terror
By early 1918, many cities in western
Russia faced famine as a result
of chronic food shortages.
Lenin blamed this on the kulaks, or
wealthier peasants, who allegedly hoarded the grain that they had
produced to increase its financial value. In May 1918, he issued a
requisitioning order that established armed detachments to confiscate
grain from kulaks for distribution in the cities, and in June called
for the formation of
Committees of Poor Peasants
Committees of Poor Peasants to aid in
requisitioning. This policy resulted in vast social disorder and
violence, as armed detachments often clashed with peasant groups,
helping to set the stage for the civil war. A prominent example
of Lenin's views was his August 1918 telegram to the
Penza, which called upon them to suppress a peasant insurrection by
publicly hanging at least 100 "known kulaks, rich men, [and]
Requisitioning disincentivised peasants from producing more grain than
they could personally consume, and thus production slumped. A
booming black market supplemented the official state-sanctioned
Lenin called on speculators, black marketeers and
looters to be shot. Both the Socialist Revolutionaries and Left
Socialist Revolutionaries condemned the armed appropriations of grain
at the Fifth
All-Russian Congress of Soviets
All-Russian Congress of Soviets in July 1918.
Realising that the Committees of the Poor Peasants were also
persecuting peasants who were not kulaks and thus contributing to
anti-government feeling among the peasantry, in December 1918 Lenin
Lenin repeatedly emphasised the need for terror and violence in
overthrowing the old order and ensuring the success of the
revolution. Speaking to the All-Russian Central Executive
Committee of the Soviets in November 1917, he declared that "the state
is an institution built up for the sake of exercising violence.
Previously, this violence was exercised by a handful of moneybags over
the entire people; now we want ... to organise violence in the
interests of the people." He strongly opposed suggestions to
abolish capital punishment. Fearing anti-Bolshevik forces would
overthrow his administration, in December 1917
Lenin ordered the
establishment of the Emergency Commission for Combating
Revolution and Sabotage, or Cheka, a political police force
led by Felix Dzerzhinsky.
Lenin with his wife and sister in a car after watching a Red Army
parade at Khodynka Field in Moscow, May Day 1918
In September 1918,
Sovnarkom passed a decree that inaugurated the Red
Terror, a system of repression orchestrated by the Cheka.
Although sometimes described as an attempt to eliminate the entire
Lenin did not want to exterminate all members of
this class, merely those who sought to reinstate their rule. The
majority of the Terror's victims were well-to-do citizens or former
members of the Tsarist administration; others were non-bourgeois
Bolsheviks and perceived social undesirables such as
Cheka claimed the right to both sentence and
execute anyone whom it deemed to be an enemy of the government,
without recourse to the Revolutionary Tribunals. Accordingly,
Cheka carried out killings, often in
large numbers. For example, the
Cheka executed 512
people in a few days. There are no surviving records to provide
an accurate figure of how many perished in the Red Terror; later
estimates of historians have ranged between 10,000 and 15,000,
and 50,000 to 140,000.
Lenin never witnessed this violence or participated in it
first-hand, and publicly distanced himself from it. His
published articles and speeches rarely called for executions, but he
regularly did so in his coded telegrams and confidential notes.
Bolsheviks expressed disapproval of the Cheka's mass executions
and feared the organisation's apparent unaccountability. The
Party tried to restrain its activities in February 1919, stripping it
of its powers of tribunal and execution in those areas not under
official martial law, but the
Cheka continued as before in swathes of
the country. By 1920, the
Cheka had become the most powerful
institution in Soviet Russia, exerting influence over all other state
A decree in April 1919 resulted in the establishment of concentration
camps, which were entrusted to the Cheka, later administered by a
new government agency, Gulag. By the end of 1920, 84 camps had
been established across Soviet Russia, holding about 50,000 prisoners;
by October 1923, this had grown to 315 camps and about 70,000
inmates. Those interned in the camps were used as slave
labour. From July 1922, intellectuals deemed to be opposing the
Bolshevik government were exiled to inhospitable regions or deported
Lenin personally scrutinised the lists of
those to be dealt with in this manner. In May 1922,
a decree calling for the execution of anti-Bolshevik priests, causing
between 14,000 and 20,000 deaths. The
Russian Orthodox Church
Russian Orthodox Church was
worst affected; the government's anti-religious policies also impacted
on Roman Catholic and
Jewish synagogues, and
War and the Polish–Soviet War: 1918–1920
The existence of the Soviet Republic alongside the imperialist states
over the long run is unthinkable. In the end, either the one or the
other will triumph. And until that end will have arrived, a series of
the most terrible conflicts between the Soviet Republic and the
bourgeois governments is unavoidable. This means that the ruling
class, the proletariat, if it only wishes to rule and is to rule, must
demonstrate this also with its military organization.
Lenin on war
Lenin expected Russia's aristocracy and bourgeoisie to oppose his
government, but he believed that the numerical superiority of the
lower classes, coupled with the Bolsheviks' ability to effectively
organise them, guaranteed a swift victory in any conflict. In
this, he failed to anticipate the intensity of the violent opposition
to Bolshevik rule in Russia. The ensuing
Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War pitted
the pro-Bolshevik Reds against the anti-Bolshevik Whites, but also
encompassed ethnic conflicts on Russia's borders and conflict between
both Red and White armies and local peasant groups, the Green armies,
throughout the former Empire. Accordingly, various historians
have seen the civil war as representing two distinct conflicts: one
between the revolutionaries and the counter-revolutionaries, and the
other between different revolutionary factions.
The White armies were established by former Tsarist military
officers, and included Anton Denikin's
Volunteer Army in South
Russia, Alexander Kolchak's forces in Siberia, and Nikolai
Yudenich's troops in the newly independent Baltic states. The
Whites were bolstered when 35,000 members of the Czech Legion –
prisoners of war from the conflict with the
Central Powers – turned
Sovnarkom and allied with the Committee of Members of the
Constituent Assembly (Komuch), an anti-Bolshevik government
established in Samara. The Whites were also backed by Western
governments who perceived the
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk as a betrayal of
the Allied war effort and feared the Bolsheviks' calls for world
revolution. In 1918, the United Kingdom, France, United States,
Canada, Italy, and Serbia landed 10,000 troops in Murmansk, seizing
Kandalaksha, while later that year British, American, and Japanese
forces landed in Vladivostok. Western troops soon pulled out of
the civil war, instead only supporting the Whites with officers,
technicians and armaments, but Japan remained because they saw the
conflict as an opportunity for territorial expansion.
Lenin tasked Trotsky with establishing a Workers' and Peasants' Red
Army, and with his support, Trotsky organised a Revolutionary Military
Council in September 1918, remaining its chairman until 1925.
Recognising their valuable military experience,
Lenin agreed that
officers from the old Tsarist army could serve in the Red Army,
although Trotsky established military councils to monitor their
activities. The Reds held control of Russia's two largest cities,
Moscow and Petrograd, as well as most of Great Russia, while the
Whites were located largely on the former Empire's peripheries.
The latter were therefore hindered by being both fragmented and
geographically scattered, and because their ethnic Russian
supremacism alienated the region's national minorities.
Anti-Bolshevik armies carried out the White Terror, a campaign of
violence against perceived Bolshevik supporters which was typically
more spontaneous than the state-sanctioned Red Terror. Both White
and Red Armies were responsible for attacks against Jewish
Lenin to issue a condemnation of anti-Semitism,
blaming prejudice against Jews on capitalist propaganda.
A White Russian anti-Bolshevik propaganda poster, in which
depicted in a red robe, aiding other
Bolsheviks in sacrificing Russia
to a statue of Marx
In July 1918, Sverdlov informed
Sovnarkom that the Ural Regional
Soviet had overseen the execution of the former
Tsar and his immediate
Yekaterinburg to prevent them from being rescued by
advancing White troops. Although lacking proof, biographers and
Richard Pipes and
Dmitri Volkogonov have expressed the
view that the killing was probably sanctioned by Lenin;
conversely, historian James Ryan cautioned that there was "no reason"
to believe this. Whether sanctioned by
Lenin or not, he still
regarded it as necessary, highlighting the precedent set by the
execution of Louis XVI in the French Revolution.
Brest-Litovsk Treaty, the
Left Socialist Revolutionaries had
abandoned the coalition and increasingly viewed the
traitors to the revolution. In July 1918, the Left Socialist
Yakov Grigorevich Blumkin assassinated the German
ambassador to Russia, Wilhelm von Mirbach, hoping that the ensuing
diplomatic incident would lead to a relaunched revolutionary war
against Germany. The
Left Socialist Revolutionaries then launched
a coup in Moscow, shelling the
Kremlin and seizing the city's central
post office before being stopped by Trotsky's forces. The party's
leaders and many members were arrested and imprisoned, but were
treated more leniently than other opponents of the Bolsheviks.
By 1919, the White armies were in retreat and by the start of 1920
were defeated on all three fronts. Although
victorious, the territorial extent of the Russian state had been
reduced, for many non-Russian ethnic groups had used the disarray to
push for national independence. In some cases—such as the
north-eastern European nations of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and
Finland—the Soviets recognised their independence and concluded
peace treaties. In other cases, the
Red Army suppressed
secessionist movements; by 1921 they had defeated the Ukrainian
national movements and occupied the Caucasus, although fighting in
Central Asia lasted until the late 1920s.
After the German
Ober Ost garrisons were withdrawn from the Eastern
Front following the Armistice, both Soviet Russian armies and Polish
ones moved in to fill the vacuum. The newly independent Polish
state and the Soviet government each sought territorial expansion in
the region. Polish and Russian troops first clashed in February
1919, with the conflict developing into the Polish–Soviet
War. Unlike the Soviets' previous conflicts, this had greater
implications for the export of revolution and the future of
Europe. Polish forces pushed into Ukraine and by May 1920 had
Kiev from the Soviets. After forcing the
Polish Army back,
Lenin urged the
Red Army to invade Poland itself, believing that the
Polish proletariat would rise up to support the Russian troops and
thus spark European revolution. Trotsky and other
sceptical, but agreed to the invasion. The Polish proletariat did not
rise, and the
Red Army was defeated at the Battle of Warsaw. The
Polish armies pushed the
Red Army back into Russia, forcing Sovnarkom
to sue for peace; the war culminated in the
Peace of Riga, in which
Russia ceded territory to Poland.
Comintern and world revolution: 1919–1920
Main article: Revolutions of 1917–23
Lenin in 1919, taken by Grigori Petrovich Goldstein
After the Armistice on the Western Front,
Lenin believed that the
breakout of European revolution was imminent. Seeking to promote
Sovnarkom supported the establishment of Béla Kun's communist
government in Hungary in March 1919, followed by the communist
Bavaria and various revolutionary socialist uprisings in
other parts of Germany, including that of the Spartacus League.
During Russia's Civil War, the
Red Army was sent into the newly
independent national republics on Russia's borders to aid Marxists
there in establishing soviet systems of government. In Europe,
this resulted in the creation of new communist-led states in Estonia,
Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, and Ukraine, all of which were officially
independent of Russia, while further east it led to the creation
of communist governments in Georgia, and then in Outer Mongolia.
Bolsheviks wanted these absorbed into the Russian
Lenin insisted that national sensibilities should be respected,
but reassured his comrades that these nations' new Communist Party
administrations were under the de facto authority of Sovnarkom.
In late 1918, the British Labour Party called for the establishment of
an international conference of socialist parties, the Labour and
Lenin saw this as a revival of the
Second International, which he had despised, and formulated his own
rival international socialist conference to offset its impact.
Organised with the aid of Zinoviev, Trotsky, Christian Rakovsky, and
Angelica Balabanoff, the First Congress of this Communist
International ("Comintern") opened in Moscow in March 1919. It
lacked global coverage; of the 34 assembled delegates, 30 resided
within the countries of the former Russian Empire, and most of the
international delegates were not recognised by any socialist parties
in their own nations. Accordingly, the
Lenin subsequently authoring a series of
regulations that meant that only socialist parties endorsing the
Bolsheviks' views were permitted to join Comintern. During the
Lenin spoke to the delegates, lambasting the
parliamentary path to socialism espoused by revisionist Marxists like
Kautsky and repeating his calls for a violent overthrow of Europe's
bourgeoisie governments. While Zinoviev became Comintern's
Lenin retained significant influence over it.
The Second Congress of the
Communist International opened in
Smolny Institute in July 1920, representing the last time
Lenin visited a city other than Moscow. There, he encouraged
foreign delegates to emulate the Bolsheviks' seizure of power, and
abandoned his longstanding viewpoint that capitalism was a necessary
stage in societal development, instead encouraging those nations under
colonial occupation to transform their pre-capitalist societies
directly into socialist ones. For this conference, he authored
"Left-Wing" Communism: An Infantile Disorder, a short book
articulating his criticism of elements within the British and German
communist parties who refused to enter their nations' parliamentary
systems and trade unions; instead he urged them to do so to advance
the revolutionary cause. The conference had to be suspended for
several days due to the ongoing war with Poland, and was
relocated to Moscow, where it continued to hold sessions until
August. Lenin's predicted world revolution did not materialise,
as the Hungarian communist government was overthrown and the German
Marxist uprisings suppressed.
Famine and the New Economic Policy: 1920–1922
Within the Communist Party, there was dissent from two factions, the
Group of Democratic Centralism and the Workers' Opposition, both of
which accused the Russian state of being too centralised and
bureaucratic. The Workers' Opposition, which had connections to
the official state trade unions, also expressed the concern that the
government had lost the trust of the Russian working class. They
were angered by Trotsky's suggestion that the trade unions be
eliminated. He deemed the unions to be superfluous in a "workers'
Lenin disagreed, believing it best to retain them; most
Bolsheviks embraced Lenin's view in the 'trade union discussion'.
To deal with the dissent, at the Tenth Party Congress in February
Lenin introduced a ban on factional activity within the party,
under pain of expulsion.
Victims of the famine in Buzuluk, Volga region, next to Saratov
Caused in part by a drought, the
Russian famine of 1921
Russian famine of 1921 was the most
severe that the country had experienced since that of 1891,
resulting in around five million deaths. The famine was
exacerbated by government requisitioning, as well as the export of
large quantities of Russian grain. To aid the famine victims, the
US government established an
American Relief Administration
American Relief Administration to
Lenin was suspicious of this aid and had it
closely monitored. During the famine,
Patriarch Tikhon called on
Orthodox churches to sell unnecessary items to help feed the starving,
an action endorsed by the government. In February 1922 Sovnarkom
went further by calling on all valuables belonging to religious
institutions to be forcibly appropriated and sold. Tikhon opposed
the sale of items used within the
Eucharist and many clergy resisted
the appropriations, resulting in violence.
In 1920 and 1921, local opposition to requisitioning resulted in
anti-Bolshevik peasant uprisings breaking out across Russia, which
were suppressed. Among the most significant was the Tambov
Rebellion, which was put down by the Red Army. In February 1921,
workers went on strike in Petrograd, resulting in the government
proclaiming martial law in the city and sending in the
Red Army to
quell demonstrations. In March, the
Kronstadt rebellion began
when sailors in
Kronstadt revolted against the Bolshevik government,
demanding that all socialists be allowed to publish freely, that
independent trade unions be given freedom of assembly and that
peasants be allowed free markets and not be subject to requisitioning.
Lenin declared that the mutineers had been misled by the Socialist
Revolutionaries and foreign imperialists, calling for violent
reprisals. Under Trotsky's leadership, the
Red Army put down the
rebellion on 17 March, resulting in thousands of deaths and the
internment of survivors in labour camps.
[Y]ou must attempt first to build small bridges which shall lead to a
land of small peasant holdings through State
Capitalism to Socialism.
Otherwise you will never lead tens of millions of people to Communism.
This is what the objective forces of the development of the Revolution
Lenin on the NEP, 1921
In February 1921,
Lenin introduced a
New Economic Policy
New Economic Policy (NEP) to the
Politburo; he convinced most senior
Bolsheviks of its necessity and it
passed into law in April.
Lenin explained the policy in a
booklet, On the Food Tax, in which he stated that the NEP represented
a return to the original Bolshevik economic plans; he claimed that
these had been derailed by the civil war, in which
Sovnarkom had been
forced to resort to the economic policies of "war communism". The
NEP allowed some private enterprise within Russia, permitting the
reintroduction of the wage system and allowing peasants to sell
produce on the open market while being taxed on their earnings.
The policy also allowed for a return to privately owned small
industry; basic industry, transport and foreign trade remained under
Lenin termed this "state capitalism", and
Bolsheviks thought it to be a betrayal of socialist
Lenin biographers have often characterised the
introduction of the NEP as one of his most significant achievements
and some believe that had it not been implemented then
have been quickly overthrown by popular uprisings.
In January 1920, the government brought in universal labour
conscription, ensuring that all citizens aged between 16 and 50 had to
Lenin also called for a mass electrification project, the
GOELRO plan, which began in February 1920; Lenin's declaration that
"communism is Soviet power plus the electrification of the whole
country" was widely cited in later years. Seeking to advance the
Russian economy through foreign trade,
Sovnarkom sent delegates to the
Lenin had hoped to attend but was prevented by ill
health. The conference resulted in a Russian agreement with
Germany, which followed on from an earlier trade agreement with the
Lenin hoped that by allowing foreign corporations
to invest in Russia,
Sovnarkom would exacerbate rivalries between the
capitalist nations and hasten their downfall; he tried to rent the oil
Kamchatka to an American corporation to heighten tensions
between the US and Japan, who desired
Kamchatka for their empire.
Declining health and arguments with Stalin: 1920–1923
Lenin in 1923, reflecting his increasingly frail physical state
To Lenin's embarrassment and horror, in April 1920 the
a party to celebrate his fiftieth birthday, which was also marked by
widespread celebrations across
Russia and the publication of poems and
biographies dedicated to him. Between 1920 and 1926, twenty
volumes of Lenin's Collected Works were published; some material was
omitted. During 1920, several prominent Western figures visited
Lenin in Russia; these included the author
H. G. Wells
H. G. Wells and the
philosopher Bertrand Russell, as well as the anarchists Emma
Goldman and Alexander Berkman.
Lenin was also visited at the
Kremlin by Armand, who was in increasingly poor health. He sent
her to a sanatorium in
Kislovodsk in the Northern
Caucasus to recover,
but she died there in September 1920 during a cholera epidemic.
Her body was transported to Moscow, where a visibly grief-stricken
Lenin oversaw her burial beneath the
Lenin was seriously ill by the latter half of 1921, suffering
from hyperacusis, insomnia, and regular headaches. At the
Politburo's insistence, in July he left Moscow for a month's leave at
his Gorki mansion, where he was cared for by his wife and sister.
Lenin began to contemplate the possibility of suicide, asking both
Krupskaya and Stalin to acquire potassium cyanide for him.
Twenty-six physicians were hired to help
Lenin during his final years;
many of them were foreign and had been hired at great expense.
Some suggested that his sickness could have been caused by metal
oxidation from the bullets that were lodged in his body from the 1918
assassination attempt; in April 1922 he underwent a surgical operation
to remove them. The symptoms continued after this, with Lenin's
doctors unsure of the cause; some suggested that he was suffering from
neurasthenia or cerebral arteriosclerosis; others believed that he had
syphilis, an idea endorsed in a 2004 report by a team of
neuroscientists, who suggested that this was later deliberately
concealed by the government. In May 1922, he suffered his first
stroke, temporarily losing his ability to speak and being paralysed on
his right side. He convalesced at Gorki, and had largely
recovered by July. In October he returned to Moscow; in December
he suffered a second stroke and returned to Gorki.
Lenin spent his final years largely at his Gorki mansion.
Despite his illness,
Lenin remained keenly interested in political
developments. When the Socialist Revolutionary Party's leadership was
found guilty of conspiring against the government in a trial held
between June and August 1922,
Lenin called for their execution; they
were instead imprisoned indefinitely, only being executed during the
Great Purges of Stalin's leadership. With Lenin's support, the
government also succeeded in virtually eradicating Menshevism in
Russia by expelling all
Mensheviks from state institutions and
enterprises in March 1923 and then imprisoning the party's membership
in concentration camps.
Lenin was concerned by the survival of
the Tsarist bureaucratic system in Soviet Russia, and became
increasingly worried by this in his final years. Condemning
bureaucratic attitudes, he suggested a total overhaul to deal with
such problems, in one letter complaining that "we are being
sucked into a foul bureaucratic swamp".
During December 1922 and January 1923
Lenin dictated "Lenin's
Testament", in which he discussed the personal qualities of his
comrades, particularly Trotsky and Stalin. He recommended that
Stalin be removed from the position of General Secretary of the
Communist Party, deeming him ill-suited for the position. Instead
he recommended Trotsky for the job, describing him as "the most
capable man in the present Central Committee"; he highlighted
Trotsky's superior intellect but at the same time criticised his
self-assurance and inclination toward excess administration.
During this period he dictated a criticism of the bureaucratic nature
of the Workers' and Peasants' Inspectorate, calling for the
recruitment of new, working-class staff as an antidote to this
problem, while in another article he called for the state to
combat illiteracy, promote punctuality and conscientiousness within
the populace, and encourage peasants to join co‑operatives.
Stalin is too crude, and this defect which is entirely acceptable in
our milieu and in relationships among us as communists, becomes
unacceptable in the position of General Secretary. I therefore propose
to comrades that they should devise a means of removing him from this
job and should appoint to this job someone else who is distinguished
from comrade Stalin in all other respects only by the single superior
aspect that he should be more tolerant, more polite and more attentive
towards comrades, less capricious, etc.
—Lenin, 4 January 1923
In Lenin's absence, Stalin had begun consolidating his power both by
appointing his supporters to prominent positions, and by
cultivating an image of himself as Lenin's closest intimate and
deserving successor. In December 1922, Stalin took responsibility
for Lenin's regimen, being tasked by the Politburo with controlling
who had access to him.
Lenin was increasingly critical of Stalin;
Lenin was insisting that the state should retain its monopoly on
international trade during mid-1922, Stalin was leading other
Bolsheviks in unsuccessfully opposing this. There were personal
arguments between the two as well; Stalin had upset Krupskaya by
shouting at her during a phone conversation, which in turn greatly
angered Lenin, who sent Stalin a letter expressing his annoyance.
The most significant political division between the two emerged during
the Georgian Affair. Stalin had suggested that both Georgia and
neighbouring countries like Azerbaijan and Armenia should be merged
into the Russian state, despite the protestations of their national
Lenin saw this as an expression of Great Russian
ethnic chauvinism by Stalin and his supporters, instead calling for
these nation-states to join
Russia as semi-independent parts of a
greater union, which he suggested be called the Union of Soviet
Republics of Europe and Asia. After some resistance to the
proposal, Stalin eventually accepted it, but – with Lenin's
agreement – he changed the name of the newly proposed state to the
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).
Lenin sent Trotsky to
speak on his behalf at a Central Committee plenum in December, where
the plans for the USSR were sanctioned; these plans were then ratified
on 30 December by the Congress of Soviets, resulting in the formation
of the Soviet Union. Despite his poor health,
Lenin was elected
chairman of the new government of the Soviet Union.
Death and funeral: 1923–1924
In March 1923,
Lenin suffered a third stroke and lost his ability to
speak; that month, he experienced partial paralysis on his right
side and began exhibiting sensory aphasia. By May, he appeared to
be making a slow recovery, regaining some of his mobility, speech, and
writing skills. In October, he made a final visit to the Moscow
Kremlin. In his final weeks,
Lenin was visited by Zinoviev,
Kamenev, and Bukharin, with the latter visiting him at his Gorki
mansion on the day of his death. On 21 January 1924,
into a coma and died later that day. His official cause of death
was recorded as an incurable disease of the blood vessels.
The government publicly announced Lenin's death the following
day. On 23 January, mourners from the Communist Party, trade
unions, and soviets visited his Gorki home to inspect the body, which
was carried aloft in a red coffin by leading Bolsheviks.
Transported by train to Moscow, the coffin was taken to the House of
Trade Unions, where the body lay in state. Over the next three
days, around a million mourners came to see the body, many queuing for
hours in the freezing conditions. On 26 January, the eleventh
All-Union Congress of Soviets met to pay respects to the deceased
leader, with speeches being made by Kalinin, Zinoviev, and Stalin, but
notably not Trotsky, who had been convalescing in the Caucasus.
Lenin's funeral took place the following day, when his body was
carried to Red Square, accompanied by martial music, where assembled
crowds listened to a series of speeches before the corpse was placed
into the vault of a specially erected mausoleum. Despite the
freezing temperatures, tens of thousands attended.
Against Krupskaya's protestations, Lenin's body was embalmed to
preserve it for long-term public display in the Red Square
mausoleum. During this process, Lenin's brain was removed; in
1925 an institute was established to dissect it, revealing that Lenin
had suffered from severe sclerosis. In July 1929, the Politburo
agreed to replace the temporary mausoleum with a permanent granite
alternative, which was finished in 1933. The sarcophagus in which
Lenin's corpse was contained was replaced in 1940 and again in
1970. From 1941 to 1945 the body was moved from Moscow and stored
Tyumen for safety amid the
Second World War. As of 2017 the
body remains on public display in
Lenin's Mausoleum on Red
Marxism and Leninism
Leninism and Marxism–Leninism
We do not pretend that Marx or Marxists know the road to socialism in
all its concreteness. That is nonsense. We know the direction of the
road, we know what class forces will lead it, but concretely,
practically, this will be shown by the experience of the millions when
they undertake the act.
—Lenin, 11 September 1917
Lenin was a devout Marxist, and believed that his interpretation
Marxism – first termed "Leninism" by Martov in 1904 – was
the sole authentic and orthodox one. According to his Marxist
perspective, humanity would eventually reach pure communism, becoming
a stateless, classless, egalitarian society of workers who were free
from exploitation and alienation, controlled their own destiny, and
abided by the rule "from each according to his ability, to each
according to his needs". According to Volkogonov,
and sincerely" believed that the path he was setting
Russia on would
ultimately lead to the establishment of this communist society.
Lenin's Marxist beliefs led him to the view that society could not
transform directly from its present state to communism, but must first
enter a period of socialism, and so his main concern was how to
Russia into a socialist society. To do so, he believed that a
"dictatorship of the proletariat" was necessary to suppress the
bourgeoisie and develop a socialist economy. He defined socialism
as "an order of civilized co-operators in which the means of
production are socially owned", and believed that this economic
system had to be expanded until it could create a society of
abundance. To achieve this, he saw bringing the Russian economy
under state control to be his central concern, with – in his words
– "all citizens" becoming "hired employees of the state".
Lenin's interpretation of socialism was centralised, planned, and
statist, with both production and distribution strictly
controlled. He believed that all workers throughout the country
would voluntarily join together to enable the state's economic and
political centralisation. In this way, his calls for "workers'
control" of the means of production referred not to the direct control
of enterprises by their workers, but the operation of all enterprises
under the control of a "workers' state". This resulted in what
some perceive as two conflicting themes within Lenin's thought:
popular workers' control, and a centralised, hierarchical, coercive
Lenin speaking in 1919
Before 1914, Lenin's views were largely in accordance with mainstream
European Marxist orthodoxy. Although he derided Marxists who
adopted ideas from contemporary non-Marxist philosophers and
sociologists, his own ideas were influenced not only by Russian
Marxist theory but also by wider ideas from the Russian revolutionary
movement, including those of the Narodnik
agrarian-socialists. He adapted his ideas according to changing
circumstances, including the pragmatic realities of governing
Russia amid war, famine, and economic collapse. Thus, as Leninism
Lenin revised the established Marxist orthodoxy and
introduced innovations in Marxist thought.
In his theoretical writings, particularly Imperialism,
what he regarded as developments in capitalism since Marx's death; in
his view, it had reached a new stage, state monopoly capitalism.
He also believed that although Russia's economy was dominated by the
peasantry, that monopoly capitalism existed in
Russia meant that the
country was sufficiently materially developed to move to
Leninism adopted a more absolutist and doctrinaire
perspective than other variants of Marxism, and distinguished
itself by the emotional intensity of its liberationist vision. It
also stood out by emphasising the role of a vanguard who could lead
the proletariat to revolution, and elevated the role of violence
as a revolutionary instrument.
Democracy and the national question
[Lenin] accepted truth as handed down by Marx and selected data and
arguments to bolster that truth. He did not question old Marxist
scripture, he merely commented, and the comments have become a new
—Biographer Louis Fischer, 1964
Lenin believed that the representative democracy of capitalist
countries gave the illusion of democracy while maintaining the
"dictatorship of the bourgeoisie"; describing the representative
democratic system of the United States, he referred to the
"spectacular and meaningless duels between two bourgeois parties",
both of whom were led by "astute multimillionaires" that exploited the
American proletariat. He opposed liberalism, exhibiting a general
antipathy toward liberty as a value, and believing that
liberalism's freedoms were fraudulent because it did not free
labourers from capitalist exploitation.
He declared that "Soviet government is many millions of times more
democratic than the most democratic-bourgeois republic", the latter of
which was simply "a democracy for the rich". He regarded his
"dictatorship of the proletariat" as democratic because, he claimed,
it involved the election of representatives to the soviets, workers
electing their own officials, and the regular rotation and involvement
of all workers in the administration of the state. Lenin's belief
as to what a proletariat state should look like nevertheless deviated
from that adopted by the Marxist mainstream; European Marxists like
Kautsky envisioned a democratically-elected parliamentary government
in which the proletariat had a majority, whereas
Lenin called for a
strong, centralised state apparatus that excluded any input from the
Lenin was an internationalist and a keen supporter of world
revolution, deeming national borders to be an outdated concept and
nationalism a distraction from class struggle. He believed that
in a socialist society, the world's nations would inevitably merge and
result in a single world government. He believed that this
socialist state would need to be a centralised, unitary one, and
regarded federalism as a bourgeois concept. In his writings,
Lenin espoused anti-imperialist ideas and stated that all nations
deserved "the right of self-determination". He thus supported
wars of national liberation, accepting that such conflicts might be
necessary for a minority group to break away from a socialist state,
because socialist states are not "holy or insured against mistakes or
Prior to taking power in 1917, he was concerned that ethnic and
national minorities would make the Soviet state ungovernable with
their calls for independence; according to the historian Simon Sebag
Lenin thus encouraged Stalin to develop "a theory that
offered the ideal of autonomy and the right of secession without
necessarily having to grant either". On taking power, Lenin
called for the dismantling of the bonds that had forced minority
ethnic groups to remain in the
Russian Empire and espoused their right
to secede; however, he also expected them to reunite immediately in
the spirit of proletariat internationalism. He was willing to use
military force to ensure this unity, resulting in armed incursions
into the independent states that formed in Ukraine, Georgia, Poland,
Finland, and the Baltic states. Only when its conflicts with
Finland, the Baltic states, and Poland proved unsuccessful did Lenin's
government officially recognise their independence.
Personal life and characteristics
Lenin saw himself as a man of destiny, and firmly believed in the
righteousness of his cause and his own ability as a revolutionary
Louis Fischer described him as "a lover of
radical change and maximum upheaval", a man for whom "there was never
a middle-ground. He was an either-or, black-or-red exaggerator".
Highlighting Lenin's "extraordinary capacity for disciplined work" and
"devotion to the revolutionary cause", Pipes noted that he exhibited
much charisma. Similarly, Volkogonov believed that "by the very
force of his personality, [Lenin] had an influence over people".
Conversely, Lenin's friend Gorky commented that in his physical
appearance as a "baldheaded, stocky, sturdy person", the communist
revolutionary was "too ordinary" and did not give "the impression of
being a leader".
[Lenin's collected writings] reveal in detail a man with iron will,
self-enslaving self-discipline, scorn for opponents and obstacles, the
cold determination of a zealot, the drive of a fanatic, and the
ability to convince or browbeat weaker persons by his singleness of
purpose, imposing intensity, impersonal approach, personal sacrifice,
political astuteness, and complete conviction of the possession of the
absolute truth. His life became the history of the Bolshevik movement.
—Biographer Louis Fischer, 1964
Historian and biographer Robert Service asserted that
Lenin had been
an intensely emotional young man, who exhibited strong hatred for
the Tsarist authorities. According to Service,
Lenin developed an
"emotional attachment" to his ideological heroes, such as Marx, Engels
and Chernyshevsky; he owned portraits of them, and privately
described himself as being "in love" with Marx and Engels.
Lenin biographer James D. White,
Lenin treated their
writings as "holy writ", a "religious dogma", which should "not be
questioned but believed in". In Volkogonov's view,
Marxism as "absolute truth", and accordingly acted like "a religious
Bertrand Russell felt that
"unwavering faith – religious faith in the Marxian gospel".
Biographer Christopher Read suggested that
Lenin was "a secular
equivalent of theocratic leaders who derive their legitimacy from the
[perceived] truth of their doctrines, not popular mandates".
Lenin was nevertheless an atheist and a critic of religion, believing
that socialism was inherently atheistic; he thus considered Christian
socialism a contradiction in terms.
Service stated that
Lenin could be "moody and volatile", and
Pipes deemed him to be "a thoroughgoing misanthrope", a view
rejected by Read, who highlighted many instances in which Lenin
displayed kindness, particularly toward children. According to
Lenin was intolerant of opposition and often
dismissed outright opinions that differed from his own. He could
be "venomous in his critique of others", exhibiting a propensity for
mockery, ridicule, and ad hominem attacks on those who disagreed with
him. He ignored facts that did not suit his argument,
abhorred compromise, and very rarely admitted his own
errors. He refused to change his opinions, until he rejected them
completely, after which he would treat the new view as if it was just
Lenin showed no sign of sadism or of personally
desiring to commit violent acts, but he endorsed the violent actions
of others and exhibited no remorse for those killed for the
revolutionary cause. Adopting an amoral stance, in Lenin's view
the end always justified the means; according to Service, Lenin's
"criterion of morality was simple: does a certain action advance or
hinder the cause of the Revolution?"
Lenin who seemed externally so gentle and good-natured, who
enjoyed a laugh, who loved animals and was prone to sentimental
reminiscences, was transformed when class or political questions
arose. He at once became savagely sharp, uncompromising, remorseless
and vengeful. Even in such a state he was capable of black humour.
—Biographer Dmitri Volkogonov, 1994
Aside from Russian,
Lenin spoke and read French, German, and
English. Concerned with physical fitness, he exercised
regularly, enjoyed cycling, swimming, and hunting, and also
developed a passion for mountain walking in the Swiss peaks. He
was also fond of pets, in particular cats. Tending to eschew
luxury, he lived a spartan lifestyle, and Pipes noted that Lenin
was "exceedingly modest in his personal wants", leading "an austere,
almost ascetic, style of life".
Lenin despised untidiness, always
keeping his work desk tidy and his pencils sharpened, and insisted on
total silence while he was working. According to Fischer, Lenin's
"vanity was minimal", and for this reason he disliked the cult of
personality that the Soviet administration began to build around him;
he nevertheless accepted that it might have some benefits in unifying
the communist movement.
Despite his revolutionary politics,
Lenin disliked revolutionary
experimentation in literature and the arts, for instance expressing
his dislike of expressionism, futurism, and cubism, and conversely
favouring realism and Russian classic literature.
Lenin also had
a conservative attitude towards sex and marriage. Throughout his
adult life, he was in a relationship with Krupskaya, a fellow Marxist
whom he married.
Lenin and Krupskaya both regretted that they never
had children, and they enjoyed entertaining their friends'
offspring. Read noted that
Lenin had "very close, warm, lifelong
relationships" with his close family members; he had no lifelong
friends, and Armand has been cited as being his only close, intimate
Lenin identified as Russian. Service described Lenin
as "a bit of a snob in national, social and cultural terms". The
Bolshevik leader believed that other European countries, especially
Germany, were culturally superior to Russia, describing the
latter as "one of the most benighted, medieval and shamefully backward
of Asian countries". He was annoyed at what he perceived as a
lack of conscientiousness and discipline among the Russian people, and
from his youth had wanted
Russia to become more culturally European
See also: List of places named after Vladimir Lenin, List of statues
of Vladimir Lenin, and Leniniana
Volkogonov claimed that "there can scarcely have been another man in
history who managed so profoundly to change so large a society on such
a scale". Lenin's administration laid the framework for the
system of government that ruled
Russia for seven decades and provided
the model for later Communist-led states that came to cover a third of
the inhabited world in the mid-20th century. Thus, Lenin's
influence was global. A controversial figure,
Lenin remains both
reviled and revered, a figure who has been both idolised and
demonised. Even during his lifetime,
Lenin "was loved and hated,
admired and scorned" by the Russian people. This has extended
into academic studies of
Lenin and Leninism, which have often been
polarised along political lines.
Lenin erected by the East German Marxist-Leninist government
at Leninplatz in East Berlin,
East Germany (removed in 1992)
Albert Resis suggested that if the
October Revolution is
considered the most significant event of the 20th century, then Lenin
"must for good or ill be considered the century's most significant
political leader". White described
Lenin as "one of the
undeniably outstanding figures of modern history", while Service
noted that the Russian leader was widely understood to be one of the
20th century's "principal actors". Read considered him "one of
the most widespread, universally recognizable icons of the twentieth
century", while Ryan called him "one of the most significant and
influential figures of modern history". Time magazine named Lenin
one of the 100 most important people of the 20th century, and one
of their top 25 political icons of all time.
In the Western world, biographers began writing about
Lenin soon after
his death; some – like Christopher Hill – were sympathetic to him,
and others – like
Richard Pipes and
Robert Gellately – expressly
hostile. Some later biographers, such as Read and Lars Lih, sought to
avoid making either hostile or positive comments about him, thereby
evading politicised stereotypes. Among sympathisers, he was
portrayed as having made a genuine adjustment of Marxist theory that
enabled it to suit Russia's particular socio-economic conditions.
The Soviet view characterised him as a man who recognised the
historically inevitable and accordingly helped to make the inevitable
happen. Conversely, the majority of Western historians have
perceived him as a person who manipulated events in order to attain
and then retain political power, moreover considering his ideas as
attempts to ideologically justify his pragmatic policies. More
recently, revisionists in both
Russia and the West have highlighted
the impact that pre-existing ideas and popular pressures exerted on
Lenin and his policies.
Various historians and biographers have characterised Lenin's
administration as totalitarian, and as a police state, and
many have described it as a one-party dictatorship. Several such
scholars have described
Lenin as a dictator; Ryan stated that he
was "not a dictator in the sense that all his recommendations were
accepted and implemented", for many of his colleagues disagreed with
him on various issues. Fischer noted that while "
Lenin was a
dictator, [he was] not the kind of dictator Stalin later became",
while Volkogonov believed that whereas
Lenin established a
"dictatorship of the Party", it would only be under Stalin that the
Soviet Union became the "dictatorship of one man".
Conversely, various Marxist observers – including Western historians
Hill and John Rees – argued against the view that Lenin's government
was a dictatorship, viewing it instead as an imperfect way of
preserving elements of democracy without some of the processes found
in liberal democratic states. Ryan contends that the leftist
Paul Le Blanc "makes a quite valid point that the personal
qualities that led
Lenin to brutal policies were not necessarily any
stronger than in some of the major Western leaders of the twentieth
century". Ryan also posits that for Lenin, 'revolutionary'
violence was merely a means to an end: the establishment of a
socialist, ultimately communist world – a world without
J. Arch Getty remarked, "
Lenin deserves a lot
of credit for the notion that the meek can inherit the earth, that
there can be a political movement based on social justice and
equality." Some left-wing intellectuals, among them Slavoj
Žižek, Alain Badiou, Lars T. Lih, and Fredric Jameson, advocate
reviving Lenin's uncompromising revolutionary spirit to address
contemporary global problems.
Within the Soviet Union
Lenin's Mausoleum, in front of the Kremlin, in 2007
In the Soviet Union, a cult of personality devoted to
Lenin began to
develop during his lifetime, but was only fully established after his
death. According to historian Nina Tumarkin, it represented the
world's "most elaborate cult of a revolutionary leader" since that of
George Washington in the United States, and has been repeatedly
described as "quasi-religious" in nature. Busts or statues of
Lenin were erected in almost every village, and his face adorned
postage stamps, crockery, posters, and the front pages of Soviet
Pravda and Isvestia. The places where he had lived or
stayed were converted into museums devoted to him. Libraries,
streets, farms, museums, towns, and whole regions were named after
him, with the city of
Petrograd being renamed "Leningrad" in
1924, and his birthplace of Simbirsk becoming "Ulyanovsk".
Order of Lenin
Order of Lenin was established as one of the country's highest
decorations. All of this was contrary to Lenin's own desires, and
was publicly criticised by his widow.
Various biographers have stated that Lenin's writings were treated in
a manner akin to holy scripture within the Soviet Union, while
Pipes added that "his every opinion was cited to justify one policy or
another and treated as gospel". Stalin codified
a series of lectures at the Sverdlov University, which were then
published as Questions of Leninism. Stalin also had much of the
deceased leader's writings collated and stored in a secret archive in
Lenin Institute. Material, such as Lenin's
collection of books in Kraków, were also collected from abroad for
storage in the Institute, often at great expense. During the
Soviet era, these writings were strictly controlled and very few had
access. All of Lenin's writings that proved useful to Stalin were
published, but the others remained hidden, and knowledge of both
Lenin's non-Russian ancestry and his noble status was suppressed.
In particular, his
Jewish ancestry was suppressed until the
1980s, perhaps out of Soviet anti-Semitism, and so as not to
undermine Stalin's Russification efforts, and perhaps so as not
to provide fuel for anti-Soviet sentiment among international
anti-Semites. After the discovery of Lenin's
this aspect was repeatedly emphasised by the Russian far right, who
claimed that his inherited
Jewish genetics explained his desire to
uproot traditional Russian society. Under Stalin's regime, Lenin
was actively portrayed as a close friend of Stalin's who had supported
Stalin's bid to be the next Soviet leader. During the Soviet era,
five separate editions of Lenin's published works were published in
Russian, the first beginning in 1920 and the last from 1958 to 1965;
the fifth edition was described as "complete", but in reality had much
omitted for political expediency.
Commemorative one rouble coin minted in 1970 in honour of Lenin's
After Stalin's death,
Nikita Khrushchev became leader of the Soviet
Union and began a process of de-Stalinisation, citing Lenin's
writings, including those on Stalin, to legitimise this process.
Mikhail Gorbachev took power in 1985 and introduced the policies
of glastnost and perestroika, he too cited these actions as a return
to Lenin's principles. In late 1991, amid the dissolution of the
Soviet Union, Russian President
Boris Yeltsin ordered the Lenin
archive be removed from Communist Party control and placed under the
control of a state organ, the Russian Centre for the Preservation and
Study of Documents of Recent History, at which it was revealed that
over 6,000 of Lenin's writings had gone unpublished. These were
declassified and made available for scholarly study. Yeltsin did
not dismantle the
Lenin mausoleum, recognising that
Lenin was too
popular and well respected among the Russian populace for this to be
Russia in 2012, a proposal from the Liberal Democratic Party of
Russia, with the support of some members of the governing United
Russia party, proposed the removal of all
Lenin monuments, a proposal
strongly opposed by the Communist Party of the Russian
Federation. In Ukraine, during and after the 2013–14 Euromaidan
protests, thousands of
Lenin statues were damaged or destroyed by
protesters who viewed them as a symbol of Russian
imperialism, and in April 2015 the Ukrainian government
ordered that all others be dismantled to comply with decommunisation
In the international communist movement
Lenin biographer David Shub, writing in 1965, it was
Lenin's ideas and example that "constitutes the basis of the Communist
movement today". Communist regimes professing allegiance to
Lenin's ideas appeared in various parts of the world during the 20th
century. Writing in 1972, the historian
Marcel Liebman stated
that "there is hardly any insurrectionary movement today, from Latin
America to Angola, that does not lay claim to the heritage of
After Lenin's death, Stalin's administration established an ideology
known as Marxism-Leninism, a movement that came to be interpreted
differently by various contending factions in the Communist
movement. After being forced into exile by Stalin's
administration, Trotsky argued that
Stalinism was a debasement of
Leninism, which was dominated by bureaucratism and Stalin's own
personal dictatorship. Marxism-
Leninism was adapted to many of
the 20th century's most prominent revolutionary movements, forming
into variants such as Stalinism, Maoism, Juche,
Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh Thought,
and Castroism. Conversely, many later Western communists such as
Manuel Azcárate and Jean Ellenstein who were involved in the
Eurocommunist movement expressed the view that
Lenin and his ideas
were irrelevant to their own objectives, thereby embracing a Marxist
but not Marxist-Leninist perspective.
Soviet Union portal
National delimitation in the Soviet Union
^ Russian: Владимир Ильич Ульянов,
IPA: [vɫɐˈdʲimʲɪr ɪˈlʲitɕ ʊˈlʲanəf]
^ Russian: Ленин, IPA: [ˈlʲenʲɪn]
^ "Lenin". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. Retrieved 7
^ a b Lenin's birth date: New style (Modern Gregorian): 22 April 1870
= Old style (Old Julian): 10 April 1870, as found in some historical
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 1–2; Rice 1990, pp. 12–13;
Volkogonov 1994, p. 7; Service 2000, pp. 21–23; White
2001, pp. 13–15; Read 2005, p. 6.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 1–2; Rice 1990, pp. 12–13; Service
2000, pp. 21–23; White 2001, pp. 13–15; Read 2005,
^ Fischer 1964, p. 5; Rice 1990, p. 13; Service 2000,
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 2–3; Rice 1990, p. 12; Service 2000,
pp. 16–19, 23; White 2001, pp. 15–18; Read 2005,
p. 5; Lih 2011, p. 20.
^ Petrovsky-Shtern 2010, pp. 66–67.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 6; Rice 1990, pp. 13–14, 18; Service
2000, pp. 25, 27; White 2001, pp. 18–19; Read 2005,
pp. 4, 8; Lih 2011, p. 21.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 6; Rice 1990, p. 12; Service 2000,
^ Fischer 1964, p. 6; Rice 1990, pp. 12, 14; Service 2000,
p. 25; White 2001, pp. 19–20; Read 2005, p. 4; Lih
2011, pp. 21, 22.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 3, 8; Rice 1990, pp. 14–15; Service
2000, p. 29.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 8; Service 2000, p. 27; White 2001,
^ Rice 1990, p. 18; Service 2000, p. 26; White 2001,
p. 20; Read 2005, p. 7; Petrovsky-Shtern 2010, p. 64.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 7; Rice 1990, p. 16; Service 2000,
^ Fischer 1964, p. 7; Rice 1990, p. 17; Service 2000,
pp. 36–46; White 2001, p. 20; Read 2005, p. 9.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 6, 9; Rice 1990, p. 19; Service 2000,
pp. 48–49; Read 2005, p. 10.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 9; Service 2000, pp. 50–51, 64; Read
2005, p. 16; Petrovsky-Shtern 2010, p. 69.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 10–17; Rice 1990, pp. 20, 22–24;
Service 2000, pp. 52–58; White 2001, pp. 21–28; Read
2005, p. 10; Lih 2011, pp. 23–25.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 18; Rice 1990, p. 25; Service 2000,
p. 61; White 2001, p. 29; Read 2005, p. 16.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 18; Rice 1990, p. 26; Service 2000,
^ Rice 1990, pp. 26–27; Service 2000, pp. 64–68, 70;
White 2001, p. 29.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 18; Rice 1990, p. 27; Service 2000,
pp. 68–69; White 2001, p. 29; Read 2005, p. 15; Lih
2011, p. 32.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 18; Rice 1990, p. 28; White 2001,
p. 30; Read 2005, p. 12; Lih 2011, pp. 32–33.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 18; Rice 1990, p. 310; Service 2000,
^ Fischer 1964, p. 19; Rice 1990, pp. 32–33; Service 2000,
p. 72; White 2001, pp. 30–31; Read 2005, p. 18; Lih
2011, p. 33.
^ Rice 1990, p. 33; Service 2000, pp. 74–76; White 2001,
p. 31; Read 2005, p. 17.
^ Rice 1990, p. 34; Service 2000, p. 78; White 2001,
^ Rice 1990, p. 34; Service 2000, p. 77; Read 2005,
^ Rice 1990, pp. 34, 36–37; Service 2000, pp. 55–55, 80,
88–89; White 2001, p. 31; Read 2005, pp. 37–38; Lih
2011, pp. 34–35.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 23–25, 26; Service 2000, p. 55; Read
2005, pp. 11, 24.
^ Service 2000, pp. 79, 98.
^ Rice 1990, pp. 34–36; Service 2000, pp. 82–86; White
2001, p. 31; Read 2005, pp. 18, 19; Lih 2011, p. 40.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 21; Rice 1990, p. 36; Service 2000,
p. 86; White 2001, p. 31; Read 2005, p. 18; Lih 2011,
^ Fischer 1964, p. 21; Rice 1990, pp. 36, 37.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 21; Rice 1990, p. 38; Service 2000,
^ Pipes 1990, p. 354; Rice 1990, pp. 38–39; Service 2000,
pp. 90–92; White 2001, p. 33; Lih 2011, pp. 40, 52.
^ Pipes 1990, p. 354; Rice 1990, pp. 39–40; Lih 2011,
^ Rice 1990, pp. 40, 43; Service 2000, p. 96.
^ Pipes 1990, p. 355; Rice 1990, pp. 41–42; Service 2000,
p. 105; Read 2005, pp. 22–23.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 22; Rice 1990, p. 41; Read 2005,
^ Fischer 1964, p. 27; Rice 1990, pp. 42–43; White 2001,
pp. 34, 36; Read 2005, p. 25; Lih 2011, pp. 45–46.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 30; Pipes 1990, p. 354; Rice 1990,
pp. 44–46; Service 2000, p. 103; White 2001, p. 37;
Read 2005, p. 26; Lih 2011, p. 55.
^ Rice 1990, p. 46; Service 2000, p. 103; White 2001,
p. 37; Read 2005, p. 26.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 30; Rice 1990, p. 46; Service 2000,
p. 103; White 2001, p. 37; Read 2005, p. 26.
^ Rice 1990, pp. 47–48; Read 2005, p. 26.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 31; Pipes 1990, p. 355; Rice 1990,
p. 48; White 2001, p. 38; Read 2005, p. 26.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 31; Rice 1990, pp. 48–51; Service 2000,
pp. 107–108; Read 2005, p. 31; Lih 2011, p. 61.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 31; Rice 1990, pp. 48–51; Service 2000,
^ Fischer 1964, p. 31; Rice 1990, pp. 52–55; Service 2000,
pp. 109–110; White 2001, pp. 38, 45, 47; Read 2005,
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 31–32; Rice 1990, pp. 53, 55–56;
Service 2000, pp. 110–113; White 2001, p. 40; Read 2005,
pp. 30, 31.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 33; Pipes 1990, p. 356; Service 2000,
pp. 114, 140; White 2001, p. 40; Read 2005, p. 30; Lih
2011, p. 63.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 33–34; Rice 1990, pp. 53, 55–56;
Service 2000, p. 117; Read 2005, p. 33.
^ Rice 1990, pp. 61–63; Service 2000, p. 124; Rappaport
2010, p. 31.
^ Rice 1990, pp. 57–58; Service 2000, pp. 121–124, 137;
White 2001, pp. 40–45; Read 2005, pp. 34, 39; Lih 2011,
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 34–35; Rice 1990, p. 64; Service 2000,
pp. 124–125; White 2001, p. 54; Read 2005, p. 43;
Rappaport 2010, pp. 27–28.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 35; Pipes 1990, p. 357; Rice 1990,
pp. 66–65; White 2001, pp. 55–56; Read 2005, p. 43;
Rappaport 2010, p. 28.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 35; Pipes 1990, p. 357; Rice 1990,
pp. 64–69; Service 2000, pp. 130–135; Rappaport 2010,
^ Rice 1990, pp. 69–70; Read 2005, p. 51; Rappaport 2010,
pp. 41–42, 53–55.
^ Rice 1990, pp. 69–70.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 4–5; Service 2000, p. 137; Read 2005,
p. 44; Rappaport 2010, p. 66.
^ Rappaport 2010, p. 66; Lih 2011, pp. 8–9.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 39; Pipes 1990, p. 359; Rice 1990,
pp. 73–75; Service 2000, pp. 137–142; White 2001,
pp. 56–62; Read 2005, pp. 52–54; Rappaport 2010,
p. 62; Lih 2011, pp. 69, 78–80.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 37; Rice 1990, p. 70; Service 2000,
p. 136; Read 2005, p. 44; Rappaport 2010, pp. 36–37.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 37; Rice 1990, pp. 78–79; Service 2000,
pp. 143–144; Rappaport 2010, pp. 81, 84.
^ Read 2005, p. 60.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 38; Lih 2011, p. 80.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 38–39; Rice 1990, pp. 75–76; Service
2000, p. 147; Rappaport 2010, p. 69.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 40, 50–51; Rice 1990, p. 76; Service
2000, pp. 148–150; Read 2005, p. 48; Rappaport 2010,
^ Rice 1990, pp. 77–78; Service 2000, p. 150; Rappaport
2010, pp. 85–87.
^ Pipes 1990, p. 360; Rice 1990, pp. 79–80; Service 2000,
pp. 151–152; White 2001, p. 62; Read 2005, p. 60;
Rappaport 2010, p. 92; Lih 2011, p. 81.
^ Rice 1990, pp. 81–82; Service 2000, pp. 154–155; White
2001, p. 63; Read 2005, pp. 60–61; Rappaport 2010,
^ Fischer 1964, p. 39; Rice 1990, p. 82; Service 2000,
pp. 155–156; Read 2005, p. 61; White 2001, p. 64;
Rappaport 2010, p. 95.
^ Rice 1990, p. 83; Rappaport 2010, p. 107.
^ Rice 1990, pp. 83–84; Service 2000, p. 157; White 2001,
p. 65; Rappaport 2010, pp. 97–98.
^ Service 2000, pp. 158–159, 163–164; Rappaport 2010,
pp. 97, 99, 108–109.
^ Rice 1990, p. 85; Service 2000, p. 163.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 41; Rice 1990, p. 85; Service 2000,
p. 165; White 2001, p. 70; Read 2005, p. 64; Rappaport
2010, p. 114.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 44; Rice 1990, pp. 86–88; Service 2000,
p. 167; Read 2005, p. 75; Rappaport 2010,
pp. 117–120; Lih 2011, p. 87.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 44–45; Pipes 1990, pp. 362–363; Rice
1990, pp. 88–89.
^ Service 2000, pp. 170–171.
^ Pipes 1990, pp. 363–364; Rice 1990, pp. 89–90; Service
2000, pp. 168–170; Read 2005, p. 78; Rappaport 2010,
^ Fischer 1964, p. 60; Pipes 1990, p. 367; Rice 1990,
pp. 90–91; Service 2000, p. 179; Read 2005, p. 79;
Rappaport 2010, p. 131.
^ Rice 1990, pp. 88–89.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 51; Rice 1990, p. 94; Service 2000,
pp. 175–176; Read 2005, p. 81; Read 2005, pp. 77, 81;
Rappaport 2010, pp. 132, 134–135.
^ Rice 1990, pp. 94–95; White 2001, pp. 73–74; Read
2005, pp. 81–82; Rappaport 2010, p. 138.
^ Rice 1990, pp. 96–97; Service 2000, pp. 176–178.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 70–71; Pipes 1990, pp. 369–370; Rice
1990, p. 104.
^ Rice 1990, p. 95; Service 2000, pp. 178–179.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 53; Pipes 1990, p. 364; Rice 1990,
pp. 99–100; Service 2000, pp. 179–180; White 2001,
^ Rice 1990, pp. 103–105; Service 2000, pp. 180–182;
White 2001, pp. 77–79.
^ Rice 1990, pp. 105–106; Service 2000, pp. 184–186;
Rappaport 2010, p. 144.
^ Brackman 2000, pp. 59, 62.
^ Service 2000, pp. 186–187.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 67–68; Rice 1990, p. 111; Service
2000, pp. 188–189.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 64; Rice 1990, p. 109; Service 2000,
pp. 189–190; Read 2005, pp. 89–90.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 63–64; Rice 1990, p. 110; Service
2000, pp. 190–191; White 2001, pp. 83, 84.
^ Rice 1990, pp. 110–111; Service 2000, pp. 191–192;
Read 2005, p. 91.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 64–67; Rice 1990, p. 110; Service
2000, pp. 192–193; White 2001, pp. 84, 87–88; Read 2005,
^ Fischer 1964, p. 69; Rice 1990, p. 111; Service 2000,
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 81–82; Pipes 1990, pp. 372–375; Rice
1990, pp. 120–121; Service 2000, p. 206; White 2001,
p. 102; Read 2005, pp. 96–97.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 70; Rice 1990, pp. 114–116.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 68–69; Rice 1990, p. 112; Service
2000, pp. 195–196.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 75–80; Rice 1990, p. 112; Pipes 1990,
p. 384; Service 2000, pp. 197–199; Read 2005, p. 103.
^ Rice 1990, p. 115; Service 2000, p. 196; White 2001,
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 71–72; Rice 1990, pp. 116–117;
Service 2000, pp. 204–206; White 2001, pp. 96–97; Read
2005, p. 95.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 72; Rice 1990, pp. 118–119; Service
2000, pp. 209–211; White 2001, p. 100; Read 2005,
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 93–94; Pipes 1990, p. 376; Rice 1990,
p. 121; Service 2000, pp. 214–215; White 2001,
^ Rice 1990, p. 122; White 2001, p. 100.
^ Service 2000, p. 216; White 2001, p. 103; Read 2005,
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 73–74; Rice 1990, pp. 122–123;
Service 2000, pp. 217–218; Read 2005, p. 105.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 85.
^ Rice 1990, p. 127; Service 2000, pp. 222–223.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 94; Pipes 1990, pp. 377–378; Rice 1990,
pp. 127–128; Service 2000, pp. 223–225; White 2001,
p. 104; Read 2005, p. 105.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 94; Pipes 1990, p. 378; Rice 1990,
p. 128; Service 2000, p. 225; White 2001, p. 104; Read
2005, p. 127.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 107; Service 2000, p. 236.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 85; Pipes 1990, pp. 378–379; Rice 1990,
p. 127; Service 2000, p. 225; White 2001,
^ Fischer 1964, p. 94; Rice 1990, pp. 130–131; Pipes 1990,
pp. 382–383; Service 2000, p. 245; White 2001,
pp. 113–114, 122–113; Read 2005, pp. 132–134.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 85; Rice 1990, p. 129; Service 2000,
pp. 227–228; Read 2005, p. 111.
^ Pipes 1990, p. 380; Service 2000, pp. 230–231; Read
2005, p. 130.
^ Rice 1990, p. 135; Service 2000, p. 235.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 95–100, 107; Rice 1990, pp. 132–134;
Service 2000, pp. 245–246; White 2001, pp. 118–121; Read
2005, pp. 116–126.
^ Service 2000, pp. 241–242.
^ Service 2000, p. 243.
^ Service 2000, pp. 238–239.
^ Rice 1990, pp. 136–138; Service 2000, p. 253.
^ Service 2000, pp. 254–255.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 109–110; Rice 1990, p. 139; Pipes
1990, pp. 386, 389–391; Service 2000, pp. 255–256; White
2001, pp. 127–128.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 110–113; Rice 1990, pp. 140–144;
Pipes 1990, pp. 391–392; Service 2000, pp. 257–260.
^ Merridale 2017, p. ix.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 113, 124; Rice 1990, p. 144; Pipes 1990,
p. 392; Service 2000, p. 261; White 2001,
^ Pipes 1990, pp. 393–394; Service 2000, p. 266; White
2001, pp. 132–135; Read 2005, pp. 143, 146–147.
^ Service 2000, pp. 266–268, 279; White 2001,
pp. 134–136; Read 2005, pp. 147, 148.
^ Service 2000, pp. 267, 271–272; Read 2005, pp. 152, 154.
^ Service 2000, p. 282; Read 2005, p. 157.
^ Pipes 1990, p. 421; Rice 1990, p. 147; Service 2000,
pp. 276, 283; White 2001, p. 140; Read 2005, p. 157.
^ Pipes 1990, pp. 422–425; Rice 1990, pp. 147–148;
Service 2000, pp. 283–284; Read 2005, pp. 158–61; White
2001, pp. 140–141; Read 2005, pp. 157–159.
^ Pipes 1990, pp. 431–434; Rice 1990, p. 148; Service
2000, pp. 284–285; White 2001, p. 141; Read 2005,
^ Fischer 1964, p. 125; Rice 1990, pp. 148–149; Service
2000, p. 285.
^ Pipes 1990, pp. 436, 467; Service 2000, p. 287; White
2001, p. 141; Read 2005, p. 165.
^ Pipes 1990, pp. 468–469; Rice 1990, p. 149; Service
2000, p. 289; White 2001, pp. 142–143; Read 2005,
^ Service 2000, p. 288.
^ Pipes 1990, p. 468; Rice 1990, p. 150; Service 2000,
pp. 289–292; Read 2005, p. 165.
^ Pipes 1990, pp. 439–465; Rice 1990, pp. 150–151;
Service 2000, p. 299; White 2001, pp. 143–144; Read 2005,
^ Pipes 1990, p. 465.
^ Pipes 1990, pp. 465–467; White 2001, p. 144; Lee 2003,
p. 17; Read 2005, p. 174.
^ Pipes 1990, p. 471; Rice 1990, pp. 151–152; Read 2005,
^ Pipes 1990, pp. 473, 482; Rice 1990, p. 152; Service 2000,
pp. 302–303; Read 2005, p. 179.
^ Pipes 1990, pp. 482–484; Rice 1990, pp. 153–154;
Service 2000, pp. 303–304; White 2001, pp. 146–147.
^ Pipes 1990, pp. 471–472; Service 2000, p. 304; White
2001, p. 147.
^ Service 2000, pp. 306–307.
^ Rigby 1979, pp. 14–15; Leggett 1981, pp. 1–3; Pipes
1990, p. 466; Rice 1990, p. 155.
^ Pipes 1990, pp. 485–486, 491; Rice 1990, pp. 157, 159;
Service 2000, p. 308.
^ Pipes 1990, pp. 492–493, 496; Service 2000, p. 311; Read
2005, p. 182.
^ Pipes 1990, p. 491; Service 2000, p. 309.
^ Pipes 1990, p. 499; Service 2000, pp. 314–315.
^ Pipes 1990, pp. 496–497; Rice 1990, pp. 159–161;
Service 2000, pp. 314–315; Read 2005, p. 183.
^ Pipes 1990, p. 504; Service 2000, p. 315.
^ Service 2000, p. 316.
^ Shub 1966, p. 314; Service 2000, p. 317.
^ Shub 1966, p. 315; Pipes 1990, pp. 540–541; Rice 1990,
p. 164; Volkogonov 1994, p. 173; Service 2000, p. 331;
Read 2005, p. 192.
^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 176; Service 2000, pp. 331–332;
White 2001, p. 156; Read 2005, p. 192.
^ Rice 1990, p. 164.
^ Pipes 1990, pp. 546–547.
^ Pipes 1990, pp. 552–553; Rice 1990, p. 165; Volkogonov
1994, pp. 176–177; Service 2000, pp. 332, 336–337; Read
2005, p. 192.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 158; Shub 1966, pp. 301–302; Rigby
1979, p. 26; Leggett 1981, p. 5; Pipes 1990, pp. 508,
519; Service 2000, pp. 318–319; Read 2005, pp. 189–190.
^ Rigby 1979, pp. 166–167; Leggett 1981, pp. 20–21;
Pipes 1990, pp. 533–534, 537; Volkogonov 1994, p. 171;
Service 2000, pp. 322–323; White 2001, p. 159; Read 2005,
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 219, 256, 379; Shub 1966, p. 374;
Service 2000, p. 355; White 2001, p. 159; Read 2005,
^ Rigby 1979, pp. 160–164; Volkogonov 1994, pp. 374–375;
Service 2000, p. 377.
^ Sandle 1999, p. 74; Rigby 1979, pp. 168–169.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 432.
^ Leggett 1981, p. 316; Lee 2003, pp. 98–99.
^ Rigby 1979, pp. 160–161; Leggett 1981, p. 21; Lee 2003,
^ Service 2000, p. 388; Lee 2003, p. 98.
^ Service 2000, p. 388.
^ Rigby 1979, pp. 168, 170; Service 2000, p. 388.
^ Service 2000, p. 325–326, 333; Read 2005, p. 211–212.
^ Shub 1966, p. 361; Pipes 1990, p. 548; Volkogonov 1994,
p. 229; Service 2000, pp. 335–336; Read 2005, p. 198.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 156; Shub 1966, p. 350; Pipes 1990,
p. 594; Volkogonov 1994, p. 185; Service 2000, p. 344;
Read 2005, p. 212.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 320–321; Shub 1966, p. 377; Pipes
1990, pp. 94–595; Volkogonov 1994, pp. 187–188; Service
2000, pp. 346–347; Read 2005, p. 212.
^ Service 2000, p. 345.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 466; Service 2000, p. 348.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 280; Shub 1966, pp. 361–362; Pipes
1990, pp. 806–807; Volkogonov 1994, pp. 219–221; Service
2000, pp. 367–368; White 2001, p. 155.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 282–283; Shub 1966, pp. 362–363;
Pipes 1990, pp. 807, 809; Volkogonov 1994, pp. 222–228;
White 2001, p. 155.
^ Volkogonov 1994, pp. 222, 231.
^ a b Service 2000, p. 369.
^ Rice 1990, p. 161.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 252–253; Pipes 1990, p. 499;
Volkogonov 1994, p. 341; Service 2000, pp. 316–317; White
2001, p. 149; Read 2005, pp. 194–195.
^ Shub 1966, p. 310; Leggett 1981, pp. 5–6, 8, 306; Pipes
1990, pp. 521–522; Service 2000, pp. 317–318; White
2001, p. 153; Read 2005, pp. 235–236.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 249; Pipes 1990, p. 514; Service 2000,
^ Fischer 1964, p. 249; Pipes 1990, p. 514; Read 2005,
^ White 2001, pp. 159–160.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 249.
^ Sandle 1999, p. 84; Read 2005, p. 211.
^ Leggett 1981, pp. 172–173; Pipes 1990, pp. 796–797;
Read 2005, p. 242.
^ Leggett 1981, p. 172; Pipes 1990, pp. 798–799; Ryan
2012, p. 121.
^ Hazard 1965, p. 270; Leggett 1981, p. 172; Pipes 1990,
^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 170.
^ a b Service 2000, p. 321.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 260–261.
^ Sandle 1999, p. 174.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 554–555; Sandle 1999, p. 83.
^ Sandle 1999, pp. 122–123.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 552; Leggett 1981, p. 308; Sandle 1999,
p. 126; Read 2005, pp. 238–239; Ryan 2012, pp. 176,
^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 373; Leggett 1981, p. 308; Ryan 2012,
^ Pipes 1990, p. 709; Service 2000, p. 321.
^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 171.
^ Rigby 1979, pp. 45–46; Pipes 1990, pp. 682, 683; Service
2000, p. 321; White 2001, p. 153.
^ Rigby 1979, p. 50; Pipes 1990, p. 689; Sandle 1999,
p. 64; Service 2000, p. 321; Read 2005, p. 231.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 437–438; Pipes 1990, p. 709; Sandle
1999, pp. 64, 68.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 263–264; Pipes 1990, p. 672.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 264.
^ Pipes 1990, pp. 681, 692–693; Sandle 1999, pp. 96–97.
^ Pipes 1990, pp. 692–693; Sandle 1999, p. 97.
^ a b Fischer 1964, p. 236; Service 2000, pp. 351–352.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 259, 444–445.
^ Sandle 1999, p. 120.
^ Service 2000, pp. 354–355.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 307–308; Volkogonov 1994,
pp. 178–179; White 2001, p. 156; Read 2005,
pp. 252–253; Ryan 2012, pp. 123–124.
^ Shub 1966, pp. 329–330; Service 2000, p. 385; White
2001, p. 156; Read 2005, pp. 253–254; Ryan 2012,
^ Shub 1966, p. 383.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 193–194.
^ Shub 1966, p. 331; Pipes 1990, p. 567.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 151; Pipes 1990, p. 567; Service 2000,
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 190–191; Shub 1966, p. 337; Pipes
1990, p. 567; Rice 1990, p. 166.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 151–152; Pipes 1990, pp. 571–572.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 154; Pipes 1990, p. 572; Rice 1990,
^ Fischer 1964, p. 161; Shub 1966, p. 331; Pipes 1990,
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 162–163; Pipes 1990, p. 576.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 171–172, 200–202; Pipes 1990,
^ Rice 1990, p. 166; Service 2000, p. 338.
^ Service 2000, p. 338.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 195; Shub 1966, pp. 334, 337; Service
2000, pp. 338–339, 340; Read 2005, p. 199.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 206, 209; Shub 1966, p. 337; Pipes 1990,
pp. 586–587; Service 2000, pp. 340–341.
^ Pipes 1990, p. 587; Rice 1990, pp. 166–167; Service
2000, p. 341; Read 2005, p. 199.
^ Shub 1966, p. 338; Pipes 1990, pp. 592–593; Service
2000, p. 341.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 211–212; Shub 1966, p. 339; Pipes
1990, p. 595; Rice 1990, p. 167; Service 2000, p. 342;
White 2001, pp. 158–159.
^ Pipes 1990, p. 595; Service 2000, p. 342.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 213–214; Pipes 1990, pp. 596–597.
^ Service 2000, p. 344.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 313–314; Shub 1966, pp. 387–388;
Pipes 1990, pp. 667–668; Volkogonov 1994, pp. 193–194;
Service 2000, p. 384.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 303–304; Pipes 1990, p. 668;
Volkogonov 1994, p. 194; Service 2000, p. 384.
^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 182.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 236; Pipes 1990, pp. 558, 723; Rice 1990,
p. 170; Volkogonov 1994, p. 190.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 236–237; Shub 1966, p. 353; Pipes
1990, pp. 560, 722, 732–736; Rice 1990, p. 170; Volkogonov
1994, pp. 181, 342–343; Service 2000, pp. 349, 358–359;
White 2001, p. 164; Read 2005, p. 218.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 254; Pipes 1990, pp. 728, 734–736;
Volkogonov 1994, p. 197; Ryan 2012, p. 105.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 277–278; Pipes 1990, p. 737; Service
2000, p. 365; White 2001, pp. 155–156; Ryan 2012,
^ Fischer 1964, p. 450; Pipes 1990, p. 726.
^ Pipes 1990, pp. 700–702; Lee 2003, p. 100.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 195; Pipes 1990, p. 794; Volkogonov 1994,
p. 181; Read 2005, p. 249.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 237.
^ Service 2000, p. 385; White 2001, p. 164; Read 2005,
^ Shub 1966, p. 344; Pipes 1990, pp. 790–791; Volkogonov
1994, pp. 181, 196; Read 2005, pp. 247–248.
^ Shub 1966, p. 312.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 435–436.
^ Shub 1966, pp. 345–347; Rigby 1979, pp. 20–21; Pipes
1990, p. 800; Volkogonov 1994, p. 233; Service 2000,
pp. 321–322; White 2001, p. 153; Read 2005, pp. 186,
^ Leggett 1981, p. 174; Volkogonov 1994, pp. 233–234;
Sandle 1999, p. 112; Ryan 2012, p. 111.
^ Shub 1966, p. 366; Sandle 1999, p. 112.
^ Ryan 2012, p. 116.
^ Pipes 1990, p. 821; Ryan 2012, pp. 114–115.
^ Shub 1966, p. 366; Sandle 1999, p. 113; Read 2005,
p. 210; Ryan 2012, pp. 114–115.
^ Leggett 1981, pp. 173–174; Pipes 1990, p. 801.
^ Leggett 1981, pp. 199–200; Pipes 1990, pp. 819–820;
Ryan 2012, p. 107.
^ Shub 1966, p. 364; Ryan 2012, p. 114.
^ Pipes 1990, p. 837.
^ Ryan 2012, p. 114.
^ Pipes 1990, p. 834.
^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 202; Read 2005, p. 247.
^ Pipes 1990, p. 796.
^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 202.
^ Pipes 1990, p. 825; Ryan 2012, pp. 117, 120.
^ Leggett 1981, pp. 174–175, 183; Pipes 1990,
pp. 828–829; Ryan 2012, p. 121.
^ Pipes 1990, pp. 829–830, 832.
^ Leggett 1981, pp. 176–177; Pipes 1990, pp. 832, 834.
^ Pipes 1990, p. 835; Volkogonov 1994, p. 235.
^ Leggett 1981, p. 178; Pipes 1990, p. 836.
^ Leggett 1981, p. 176; Pipes 1990, pp. 832–833.
^ Volkogonov 1994, pp. 358–360; Ryan 2012, pp. 172–173,
^ Volkogonov 1994, pp. 376–377; Read 2005, p. 239; Ryan
2012, p. 179.
^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 381.
^ Pipes 1990, p. 610.
^ a b Service 2000, p. 357.
^ Service 2000, pp. 391–392.
^ Lee 2003, pp. 84, 88.
^ Read 2005, p. 205.
^ Shub 1966, p. 355; Leggett 1981, p. 204; Rice 1990,
pp. 173, 175; Volkogonov 1994, p. 198; Service 2000,
pp. 357, 382; Read 2005, p. 187.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 334, 343, 357; Leggett 1981, p. 204;
Service 2000, pp. 382, 392; Read 2005, pp. 205–206.
^ Leggett 1981, p. 204; Read 2005, p. 206.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 288–289; Pipes 1990, pp. 624–630;
Service 2000, p. 360; White 2001, pp. 161–162; Read 2005,
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 262–263.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 291; Shub 1966, p. 354.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 331, 333.
^ Pipes 1990, pp. 610, 612; Volkogonov 1994, p. 198.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 337; Pipes 1990, pp. 609, 612, 629;
Volkogonov 1994, p. 198; Service 2000, p. 383; Read 2005,
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 248, 262.
^ Pipes 1990, p. 651; Volkogonov 1994, p. 200; White 2001,
p. 162; Lee 2003, p. 81.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 251; White 2001, p. 163; Read 2005,
^ Leggett 1981, p. 201; Pipes 1990, p. 792; Volkogonov 1994,
pp. 202–203; Read 2005, p. 250.
^ Leggett 1981, p. 201; Volkogonov 1994, pp. 203–204.
^ Shub 1966, pp. 357–358; Pipes 1990, pp. 781–782;
Volkogonov 1994, pp. 206–207; Service 2000, pp. 364–365.
^ Pipes 1990, pp. 763, 770–771; Volkogonov 1994, p. 211.
^ Ryan 2012, p. 109.
^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 208.
^ Pipes 1990, p. 635.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 244; Shub 1966, p. 355; Pipes 1990,
pp. 636–640; Service 2000, pp. 360–361; White 2001,
p. 159; Read 2005, p. 199.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 242; Pipes 1990, pp. 642–644; Read
2005, p. 250.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 244; Pipes 1990, p. 644; Volkogonov 1994,
^ Leggett 1981, p. 184; Service 2000, p. 402; Read 2005,
^ Hall 2015, p. 83.
^ Goldstein 2013, p. 50.
^ Hall 2015, p. 84.
^ Davies 2003, pp. 26–27.
^ Davies 2003, pp. 27–30.
^ Davies 2003, pp. 22, 27.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 389; Rice 1990, p. 182; Volkogonov 1994,
p. 281; Service 2000, p. 407; White 2001, p. 161;
Davies 2003, pp. 29–30.
^ Davies 2003, p. 22.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 389; Rice 1990, p. 182; Volkogonov 1994,
p. 281; Service 2000, p. 407; White 2001, p. 161.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 391–395; Shub 1966, p. 396; Rice 1990,
pp. 182–183; Service 2000, pp. 408–409, 412; White 2001,
^ Rice 1990, p. 183; Volkogonov 1994, p. 388; Service 2000,
^ Shub 1966, p. 387; Rice 1990, p. 173.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 333; Shub 1966, p. 388; Rice 1990,
p. 173; Volkogonov 1994, p. 395.
^ a b Service 2000, pp. 385–386.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 531, 536.
^ Service 2000, p. 386.
^ Shub 1966, pp. 389–390.
^ a b Shub 1966, p. 390.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 525; Shub 1966, p. 390; Rice 1990,
p. 174; Volkogonov 1994, p. 390; Service 2000, p. 386;
White 2001, p. 160; Read 2005, p. 225.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 525; Shub 1966, pp. 390–391; Rice 1990,
p. 174; Service 2000, p. 386; White 2001, p. 160.
^ Service 2000, p. 387; White 2001, p. 160.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 525; Shub 1966, p. 398; Read 2005,
^ Service 2000, p. 387.
^ Shub 1966, p. 395; Volkogonov 1994, p. 391.
^ Shub 1966, p. 397; Service 2000, p. 409.
^ Service 2000, pp. 409–410.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 415–420; White 2001, pp. 161,
^ Service 2000, p. 410.
^ Shub 1966, p. 397.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 341; Shub 1966, p. 396; Rice 1990,
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 437–438; Shub 1966, p. 406; Rice 1990,
p. 183; Service 2000, p. 419; White 2001,
^ Shub 1966, p. 406; Service 2000, p. 419; White 2001,
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 436, 442; Rice 1990, pp. 183–184;
Sandle 1999, pp. 104–105; Service 2000, pp. 422–423;
White 2001, p. 168; Read 2005, p. 269.
^ White 2001, p. 170.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 507–508; Rice 1990, pp. 185–186.
^ Ryan 2012, p. 164.
^ Volkogonov 1994, pp. 343, 347.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 508; Shub 1966, p. 414; Volkogonov 1994,
p. 345; White 2001, p. 172.
^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 346.
^ Volkogonov 1994, pp. 374–375.
^ Volkogonov 1994, pp. 375–376; Read 2005, p. 251; Ryan
2012, pp. 176, 177.
^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 376; Ryan 2012, p. 178.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 467; Shub 1966, p. 406; Volkogonov 1994,
p. 343; Service 2000, p. 425; White 2001, p. 168; Read
2005, p. 220; Ryan 2012, p. 154.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 459; Leggett 1981, pp. 330–333; Service
2000, pp. 423–424; White 2001, p. 168; Ryan 2012,
^ Shub 1966, pp. 406–407; Leggett 1981, pp. 324–325;
Rice 1990, p. 184; Read 2005, p. 220; Ryan 2012,
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 469–470; Shub 1966, p. 405; Leggett
1981, pp. 325–326; Rice 1990, p. 184; Service 2000,
p. 427; White 2001, p. 169; Ryan 2012, p. 170.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 470–471; Shub 1966, pp. 408–409;
Leggett 1981, pp. 327–328; Rice 1990, pp. 184–185;
Service 2000, pp. 427–428; Ryan 2012, pp. 171–172.
^ Shub 1966, pp. 412–413.
^ Shub 1966, p. 411; Rice 1990, p. 185; Service 2000,
pp. 421, 424–427, 429; Read 2005, p. 264.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 479–480; Sandle 1999, p. 155; Service
2000, p. 430; White 2001, pp. 170, 171.
^ Shub 1966, p. 411; Sandle 1999, pp. 153, 158; Service
2000, p. 430; White 2001, p. 169; Read 2005,
^ Shub 1966, p. 412; Service 2000, p. 430; Read 2005,
p. 266; Ryan 2012, p. 159.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 479; Shub 1966, p. 412; Sandle 1999,
p. 155; Ryan 2012, p. 159.
^ Sandle 1999, p. 151; Service 2000, p. 422; White 2001,
^ Service 2000, pp. 421, 434.
^ Pipes 1990, pp. 703–707; Sandle 1999, p. 103; Ryan 2012,
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 423, 582; Sandle 1999, p. 107; White
2001, p. 165; Read 2005, p. 230.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 567–569.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 574, 576–577; Service 2000, pp. 432,
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 424–427.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 414; Rice 1990, pp. 177–178; Service
2000, p. 405; Read 2005, pp. 260–261.
^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 283.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 404–409; Rice 1990, pp. 178–179;
Service 2000, p. 440.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 409–411.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 433–434; Shub 1966, pp. 380–381;
Rice 1990, p. 181; Service 2000, pp. 414–415; Read 2005,
^ Fischer 1964, p. 434; Shub 1966, pp. 381–382; Rice 1990,
p. 181; Service 2000, p. 415; Read 2005, p. 258.
^ Rice 1990, pp. 181–182; Service 2000, p. 416–417; Read
2005, p. 258.
^ Shub 1966, p. 426; Lewin 1969, p. 33; Rice 1990,
p. 187; Volkogonov 1994, p. 409; Service 2000, p. 435.
^ Shub 1966, p. 426; Rice 1990, p. 187; Service 2000,
^ Service 2000, p. 436; Read 2005, p. 281; Rice 1990,
^ Volkogonov 1994, pp. 420, 425–426; Service 2000, p. 439;
Read 2005, pp. 280, 282.
^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 443; Service 2000, p. 437.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 598–599; Shub 1966, p. 426; Service
2000, p. 443; White 2001, p. 172; Read 2005, p. 258.
^ Service 2000, pp. 444–445.
^ Lerner, Finkelstein & Witztum 2004, p. 372.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 600; Shub 1966, pp. 426–427; Lewin
1969, p. 33; Service 2000, p. 443; White 2001, p. 173;
Read 2005, p. 258.
^ Shub 1966, pp. 427–428; Service 2000, p. 446.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 634; Shub 1966, pp. 431–432; Lewin
1969, pp. 33–34; White 2001, p. 173.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 600–602; Shub 1966, pp. 428–430;
Leggett 1981, p. 318; Sandle 1999, p. 164; Service 2000,
pp. 442–443; Read 2005, p. 269; Ryan 2012,
^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 310; Leggett 1981, pp. 320–322; Aves
1996, pp. 175–178; Sandle 1999, p. 164; Lee 2003,
pp. 103–104; Ryan 2012, p. 172.
^ Lewin 1969, pp. 8–9; White 2001, p. 176; Read 2005,
^ Fischer 1964, p. 578; Rice 1990, p. 189.
^ Rice 1990, pp. 192–193.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 578.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 638–639; Shub 1966, p. 433; Lewin
1969, pp. 73–75; Volkogonov 1994, p. 417; Service 2000,
p. 464; White 2001, pp. 173–174.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 647; Shub 1966, pp. 434–435; Rice 1990,
p. 192; Volkogonov 1994, p. 273; Service 2000, p. 469;
White 2001, pp. 174–175; Read 2005, pp. 278–279.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 640; Shub 1966, pp. 434–435; Volkogonov
1994, pp. 249, 418; Service 2000, p. 465; White 2001,
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 666–667, 669; Lewin 1969,
pp. 120–121; Service 2000, p. 468; Read 2005, p. 273.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 650–654; Service 2000, p. 470.
^ Shub 1966, pp. 426, 434; Lewin 1969, pp. 34–35.
^ Volkogonov 1994, pp. 263–264.
^ Lewin 1969, p. 70; Rice 1990, p. 191; Volkogonov 1994,
pp. 273, 416.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 635; Lewin 1969, pp. 35–40; Service
2000, pp. 451–452; White 2001, p. 173.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 637–638, 669; Shub 1966,
pp. 435–436; Lewin 1969, pp. 71, 85, 101; Volkogonov 1994,
pp. 273–274, 422–423; Service 2000, pp. 463, 472–473;
White 2001, pp. 173, 176; Read 2005, p. 279.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 607–608; Lewin 1969, pp. 43–49; Rice
1990, pp. 190–191; Volkogonov 1994, p. 421; Service 2000,
pp. 452, 453–455; White 2001, pp. 175–176.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 608; Lewin 1969, p. 50; Leggett 1981,
p. 354; Volkogonov 1994, p. 421; Service 2000, p. 455;
White 2001, p. 175.
^ Service 2000, pp. 455, 456.
^ Lewin 1969, pp. 40, 99–100; Volkogonov 1994, p. 421;
Service 2000, pp. 460–461, 468.
^ Rigby 1979, p. 221.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 671; Shub 1966, p. 436; Lewin 1969,
p. 103; Leggett 1981, p. 355; Rice 1990, p. 193; White
2001, p. 176; Read 2005, p. 281.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 671; Shub 1966, p. 436; Volkogonov 1994,
p. 425; Service 2000, p. 474; Lerner, Finkelstein &
Witztum 2004, p. 372.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 672; Rigby 1979, p. 192; Rice 1990,
pp. 193–194; Volkogonov 1994, pp. 429–430.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 672; Shub 1966, p. 437; Volkogonov 1994,
p. 431; Service 2000, p. 476; Read 2005, p. 281.
^ Rice 1990, p. 194; Volkogonov 1994, p. 299; Service 2000,
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 673–674; Shub 1966, p. 438; Rice 1990,
p. 194; Volkogonov 1994, p. 435; Service 2000,
pp. 478–479; White 2001, p. 176; Read 2005, p. 269.
^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 435; Lerner, Finkelstein & Witztum
2004, p. 372.
^ Rice 1990, p. 7.
^ Rice 1990, pp. 7–8.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 674; Shub 1966, p. 439; Rice 1990,
pp. 7–8; Service 2000, p. 479.
^ a b Rice 1990, p. 9.
^ Shub 1966, p. 439; Rice 1990, p. 9; Service 2000,
^ a b Volkogonov 1994, p. 440.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 674; Shub 1966, p. 438; Volkogonov 1994,
pp. 437–438; Service 2000, p. 481.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 625–626; Volkogonov 1994, p. 446.
^ Volkogonov 1994, pp. 444, 445.
^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 445.
^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 444.
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Red Square in Moscow". www.moscow.info.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 150.
^ a b c d Ryan 2012, p. 18.
^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 409.
^ Sandle 1999, p. 35; Service 2000, p. 237.
^ a b c Sandle 1999, p. 41.
^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 206.
^ Sandle 1999, p. 35.
^ Shub 1966, p. 432.
^ Sandle 1999, pp. 42–43.
^ Sandle 1999, p. 38.
^ Sandle 1999, pp. 43–44, 63.
^ Sandle 1999, p. 36.
^ Service 2000, p. 203.
^ Sandle 1999, p. 29; White 2001, p. 1.
^ Service 2000, p. 173.
^ Ryan 2012, p. 13.
^ Sandle 1999, p. 57; White 2001, p. 151.
^ Sandle 1999, p. 34.
^ White 2001, pp. 150–151.
^ a b c Ryan 2012, p. 19.
^ a b Ryan 2012, p. 3.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 213.
^ a b Rice 1990, p. 121.
^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 471.
^ Shub 1966, p. 443.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 310; Shub 1966, p. 442.
^ Sandle 1999, pp. 36–37.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 54; Shub 1966, p. 423; Pipes 1990,
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 88–89.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 87; Montefiore 2007, p. 266.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 87.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 91, 93.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 266.
^ Page 1948, p. 17; Page 1950, p. 354.
^ Page 1950, p. 355.
^ Page 1950, p. 342.
^ Service 2000, pp. 159, 202; Read 2005, p. 207.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 47, 148.
^ Pipes 1990, pp. 348, 351.
^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 246.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 57.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 21–22.
^ Service 2000, p. 73.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 44; Service 2000, p. 81.
^ Service 2000, p. 118.
^ Service 2000, p. 232; Lih 2011, p. 13.
^ White 2001, p. 88.
^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 362.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 409.
^ Read 2005, p. 262.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 40–41; Volkogonov 1994, p. 373;
Service 2000, p. 149.
^ Service 2000, p. 116.
^ Pipes 1996, p. 11; Read 2005, p. 287.
^ Read 2005, p. 259.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 67; Pipes 1990, p. 353; Read 2005,
pp. 207, 212.
^ Petrovsky-Shtern 2010, p. 93.
^ Pipes 1990, p. 353.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 69.
^ Service 2000, p. 244; Read 2005, p. 153.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 59.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 45; Pipes 1990, p. 350; Volkogonov 1994,
p. 182; Service 2000, p. 177; Read 2005, p. 208; Ryan
2012, p. 6.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 415; Shub 1966, p. 422; Read 2005,
^ Service 2000, p. 293.
^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 200.
^ Service 2000, p. 242.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 56; Rice 1990, p. 106; Service 2000,
^ Fischer 1964, p. 56; Service 2000, p. 188.
^ Read 2005, pp. 20, 64, 132–37.
^ Shub 1966, p. 423.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 367.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 368.
^ Pipes 1990, p. 812.
^ Service 2000, pp. 99–100, 160.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 245.
^ Pipes 1990, pp. 349–350; Read 2005, pp. 284, 259–260.
^ Fischer 1964, pp. 489, 491; Shub 1966, pp. 420–421;
Sandle 1999, p. 125; Read 2005, p. 237.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 79; Read 2005, p. 237.
^ Service 2000, p. 199.
^ Shub 1966, p. 424; Service 2000, p. 213; Rappaport 2010,
^ Read 2005, p. 19.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 515; Volkogonov 1994, p. 246.
^ Petrovsky-Shtern 2010, p. 67.
^ Service 2000, p. 453.
^ Service 2000, p. 389.
^ Pipes 1996, p. 11; Service 2000, p. 389–400.
^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 326.
^ Service 2000, p. 391.
^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 259.
^ Read 2005, p. 284.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 414.
^ Liebman 1975, pp. 19–20.
^ Albert Resis. "Vladimir Ilich Lenin". Encyclopædia Britannica.
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^ White 2001, p. iix.
^ Service 2000, p. 488.
^ a b Read 2005, p. 283.
^ a b Ryan 2012, p. 5.
^ David Remnick (13 April 1998). "TIME 100: Vladimir Lenin". Archived
from the original on 25 April 2011.
^ Feifei Sun (4 February 2011). "Top 25 Political Icons: Lenin". Time.
Archived from the original on 14 January 2015. Retrieved 4 February
^ Lee 2003, p. 14; Ryan 2012, p. 3.
^ Lee 2003, p. 14.
^ a b Lee 2003, p. 123.
^ Lee 2003, p. 124.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 516; Shub 1966, p. 415; Leggett 1981,
p. 364; Volkogonov 1994, pp. 307, 312.
^ Leggett 1981, p. 364.
^ Lewin 1969, p. 12; Rigby 1979, pp. x, 161; Sandle 1999,
p. 164; Service 2000, p. 506; Lee 2003, p. 97; Read
2005, p. 190; Ryan 2012, p. 9.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 417; Shub 1966, p. 416; Pipes 1990,
p. 511; Pipes 1996, p. 3; Read 2005, p. 247.
^ Ryan 2012, p. 1.
^ Fischer 1964, p. 524.
^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 313.
^ Lee 2003, p. 120.
^ Ryan 2012, p. 191.
^ Ryan 2012, p. 184.
Lenin Biography". Biography. 42:10 minutes in. A&E
Television Networks. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
^ Ryan 2012, p. 3; Budgen, Kouvelakis & Žižek 2007,
^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 327; Tumarkin 1997, p. 2; White 2001,
p. 185; Read 2005, p. 260.
^ Tumarkin 1997, p. 2.
^ Pipes 1990, p. 814; Service 2000, p. 485; White 2001,
p. 185; Petrovsky-Shtern 2010, p. 114; Read 2005,
^ a b c Volkogonov 1994, p. 328.
^ a b c Service 2000, p. 486.
^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 437; Service 2000, p. 482.
^ Lih 2011, p. 22.
^ Shub 1966, p. 439; Pipes 1996, p. 1; Service 2000,
^ Pipes 1996, p. 1.
^ Service 2000, p. 484; White 2001, p. 185; Read 2005,
pp. 260, 284.
^ Volkogonov 1994, pp. 274–275.
^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 262.
^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 261.
^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 263.
^ Petrovsky-Shtern 2010, p. 99; Lih 2011, p. 20.
^ a b Read 2005, p. 6.
^ Petrovsky-Shtern 2010, p. 108.
^ Petrovsky-Shtern 2010, pp. 134, 159–161.
^ Service 2000, p. 485.
^ Pipes 1996, pp. 1–2; White 2001, p. 183.
^ Volkogonov 1994, pp. 452–453; Service 2000,
pp. 491–492; Lee 2003, p. 131.
^ Service 2000, pp. 491–492.
^ Pipes 1996, pp. 2–3.
^ Service 2000, p. 492.
^ "All monuments of
Lenin to be removed from Russian cities". RT. 20
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Lenin statues toppled in protest". BBC News. 22
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^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 August 2016.
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Bolshevik Dictatorship. London: I.B. Tauris.
Brackman, Roman (2000). The Secret
File of Joseph Stalin: A Hidden
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Budgen, Sebastian; Kouvelakis, Stathis; Žižek, Slavoj (2007). Lenin
Reloaded: Toward a Politics of Truth. Durham, North Carolina: Duke
University Press. ISBN 978-0-8223-3941-0.
Davies, Norman (2003) . White Eagle, Red Star: The Polish-Soviet
War 1919-20 and 'the Miracle on the Vistula'. London: Pimlico.
Fischer, Louis (1964). The Life of Lenin. London: Weidenfeld and
Hazard, John N. (1965). "Unity and Diversity in Socialist Law". Law
and Contemporary Problems. 30 (2): 270–290. doi:10.2307/1190515.
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Lenin and Revolutionary Russia. London:
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Lerner, Vladimir; Finkelstein, Y.; Witztum, E. (2004). "The Enigma of
Lenin's (1870–1924) Malady". European Journal of Neurology. 11 (6):
Goldstein, Erik (2013). The
First World War
First World War
1919-1925. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-31-7883-678.
Hall, Richard C. (2015). Consumed by War: European Conflict in the
20th Century. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.
Liebman, Marcel (1975) .
Leninism Under Lenin. Translated by
Brian Pearce. London: Jonathan Cape. ISBN 0-224-01072-7.
Merridale, Catherine (2017).
Lenin on the Train. London: Penguin
Books. ISBN 978-0-241011-324.
Montefiore, Simon Sebag (2007). Young Stalin. London: Weidenfeld &
Nicolson. ISBN 978-0-297-85068-7.
Lewin, Moshe (1969). Lenin's Last Struggle. Translated by Sheridan
Smith, A. M. London: Faber and Faber.
Lih, Lars T. (2011). Lenin. Critical Lives. London: Reaktion Books.
Page, Stanley W. (1948). "Lenin, the National Question and the Baltic
States, 1917-19". The American Slavic and East European Review. 7 (1):
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Lenin and Self-Determination". The
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Petrovsky-Shtern, Yohanan (2010). Lenin's
Jewish Question. New Haven,
Connecticut: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-15210-4.
Pipes, Richard (1990). The Russian Revolution: 1899–1919. London:
Collins Harvill. ISBN 978-0-679-73660-8.
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Archive. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press.
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Lenin in Exile. New York: Basic
Books. ISBN 978-0-465-01395-1.
Read, Christopher (2005). Lenin: A Revolutionary Life. Routledge
Historical Biographies. London: Routledge.
Rice, Christopher (1990). Lenin: Portrait of a Professional
Revolutionary. London: Cassell. ISBN 978-0-304-31814-8.
Rigby, T. H. (1979). Lenin's Government:
Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Ryan, James (2012). Lenin's Terror: The Ideological Origins of Early
Soviet State Violence. London: Routledge.
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Tumarkin, Nina (1997).
Lenin Lives! The
Lenin Cult in Soviet Russia
(enlarged ed.). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
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Shukman, Harold. London: HarperCollins.
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European History in Perspective. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave.
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Lenin and His Comrades: The
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