Vlachs (English: /ˈvlɑːk/ or /ˈvlæk/, or rarely /ˈvlɑːx/) is a historical term and exonym used for the Eastern Romance-speaking peoples especially in the Balkans. The term also became a synonym in the Balkans for the social category of shepherds, and was also used for non-Romance-speaking peoples, in recent times in the western Balkans derogatively. Apart from the Romanians and Moldovans, there are indigenous Romance-speaking groups in Greece, Albania and Macedonia, such as the Aromanians and Megleno-Romanians.

"Vlachs" were initially identified and described during the 11th century by George Kedrenos. According to one origin theory, modern Romanians and Aromanians originated from Dacians.[1] According to some linguists and scholars, the Eastern Romance languages prove the survival of the Thraco-Romans in the lower Danube basin during the Migration Period[2] and western Balkan populations known as "Vlachs" also have had Romanized Illyrian origins.[3]

Nowadays, Eastern Romance-speaking communities are estimated at 26–30 million people worldwide (including the Romanian diaspora and Moldovan diaspora).[4] All Balkan countries have indigenous Romance-speaking minorities.


The word "Vlach" is etymologically derived from the ethnonym of a Celtic tribe,[5] adopted into Proto-Germanic *Walhaz which meant "stranger", from *Wolkā-[6] (Caesar's Latin: Volcae, Strabo and Ptolemy's Greek: Ouolkai). [7] Via Latin, in Gothic, as *walhs, the ethnonym took on the meaning "foreigner" or "Romance-speaker",[7] and was adopted into Greek Vláhi (Βλάχοι), Slavic Vlah, Hungarian oláh and olasz, etc.[8][9] The root word was notably adopted in Germanic for Wales and Walloon (German: Welsch),[5] and in Poland Włochy became an exonym for Italians.[7] Via both Germanic and Latin, the term started to signify "stranger, foreigner" also in the Balkans, where it in its early form was used for Romance-speakers, but the term eventually took on the meaning of "shepherd, nomad".[5] The Romance-speaking communities themselves however used the endonym (they called themselves) "Romans".[10] During the early history of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans, there was a social class of Vlachs in Serbia and Macedonia, made up of Christians who served as auxiliary forces and had the same rights as Muslims.[11] In Croatia, the term became derogatory, and Vlasi was used for the ethnic Serb community.[5]

Romanian scholars have suggested that the term Vlach appeared for the first time in the Eastern Roman Empire and was subsequently spread to the Germanic- and then Slavic-speaking worlds through the Norsemen (possibly by Varangians), who were in trade and military contact with Byzantium during the early Middle Ages (see also Blakumen).[12][13]

The term "Vlach" is used in scholarship for the Romance-speaking communities in the Balkans, especially those in Greece, Albania and Macedonia.[14][15]

Medieval usage

Map of southeastern Europe, delineating Roman and Greek influence
The Jireček Line between Latin- and Greek-language Roman inscriptions

The first Romance languages are attested during Migration Period: French in 842 (Les serments de Strasbourg) and Italian in 960 (Carta capuana)[16] Apparition of the vulgar Latin of Vlachs is supposed to be related to the apparition of multiple documents about Vlachs (Ibn al-Nadīm, Al-Muqaddasi, Primary Chronicle, Gesta Hungarorum) in the 10th century.

6th century

The first record of a medieval Romance toponymy in the Balkans dates to the early Byzantine period, with Procopius (500–554) mentioning forts with names such as Skeptekasas (Seven Houses), Burgulatu (Broad City), Loupofantana (Wolf's Well) and Gemellomountes (Twin Mountains).[17][18] A 586 Byzantine chronicle of an incursion against the Avars in the eastern Balkans may have one of the earliest references to Vlachs. In the account, when baggage carried by a mule slipped the muleteer shouted: "Torna, torna, fratre!" ("Return, return, brother!").[19][20][21] Byzantine historians used the term Vlachs for Latin speakers.[22][23][24] Theophylact Simocatta wrote about “Blachernae” in connection with some historical data of the VI-th century, during Mauricius[25]

8th century

First precise data about Vlachs are in connection with the Vlachs of the Rynchos river; the original document with these data is from Kastamonitou monastiry.[26]

10th century

Mutahhar al-Maqdisi, "They say that in the Turkic neighbourhood there are the Khazars, Russians, Slavs, Waladj, Alans, Greeks and many other peoples."[27] Byzantine writer Kekaumenos, author of the Strategikon (1078), described a 1066 Roman (Vlach) revolt in northern Greece.[28]

Traveler Benjamin of Tudela (1130–1173) of the Kingdom of Navarre was one of the first writers to use the word Vlachs for a Romance-speaking population.[29]

Ibn al-Nadīm published in 938 the work “Kitāb al-Fihrist” mentioning “Turks, Bulgars and Vlahs” (using Blagha for Vlachs)[30][31]

During the late 9th century the Hungarians invaded the Carpathian Basin, where the province of Pannonia was inhabited by the "Slavs [Sclavi], Bulgarians [Bulgarii] and Vlachs [Blachii], and the shepherds of the Romans [pastores Romanorum]" (sclauij, Bulgarij et Blachij, ac pastores romanorum —according to the Gesta Hungarorum, written around 1200 by the anonymous chancellor of King Béla III of Hungary.[32]

The Russian Primary Chronicle, written in ca. 1113, wrote that the nomad Hungarians drove away the Vlachs and took their lands.[33][34]

11th century

The names Blakumen or Blökumenn is mentioned in Nordic sagas dating between the 11th–13th centuries, with respect to events that took place in either 1018 or 1019 somewhere at the northwestern part of the Black Sea and believed by some to be related to the Vlachs.[35][36]

In chapter XIV of the Alexiad, Anna Komnene identifies Vlachs from the Balkans with the Dacians, describing their region around Haemus Mons: "On either side of its slopes dwell many very wealthy tribes, the Dacians and the Thracians on the northern side, and on the southern, more Thracians and the Macedonians".[citation needed]

12th century

Byzantine historian John Kinnamos described Leon Vatatzes' military expedition along the northern Danube, where Vatatzes mentioned the participation of Vlachs in battles with the Magyars (Hungarians) in 1166.[37][38]

Byzantine writer Kekaumenos, author of the Strategikon (1078), described a 1066 revolt against the emperor in Northern Greece led by Nicolitzas Delphinas and other Vlachs.[39]

Map of Central/Southern Europe during the Late Middle Ages/Early Modern period by Johannes Honterus

The uprising of brothers Asen and Peter was a revolt of Bulgarians and Vlachs living in the theme of Paristrion of the Byzantine Empire, caused by a tax increase. It began on 26 October 1185, the feast day of St. Demetrius of Thessaloniki, and ended with the creation of the Second Bulgarian Empire, also known in its early history as the Empire of Bulgarians and Vlachs.

13th century

In 1213 an army of Romans (Vlachs), Transylvanian Saxons, and Pechenegs, led by Ioachim of Sibiu, attacked the Bulgars and Cumans from Vidin.[40] After this, all Hungarian battles in the Carpathian region were supported by Romance-speaking soldiers from Transylvania.[41]

At the end of the 13th century, during the reign of Ladislaus the Cuman, Simon de Kéza wrote about the Blacki people and placed them in Pannonia with the Huns.[42][43] Archaeological discoveries indicate that Transylvania was gradually settled by the Magyars, and the last region defended by the Vlachs and Pechenegs (until 1200) was between the Olt River and the Carpathians.[44][45]

Shortly after the fall of the Olt region, a church was built at the Cârța Monastery and Catholic German-speaking settlers from Rhineland and Mosel Valley (known as Transylvanian Saxons) began to settle in the Orthodox region.[46] In the Diploma Andreanum issued by King Andrew II of Hungary in 1224, "silva blacorum et bissenorum" was given to the settlers.[47] The Orthodox Vlachs spread further northward along the Carpathians to Poland, Slovakia, and Moravia and were granted autonomy under Ius Vlachonicum (Walachian law).[48]

In 1285 Ladislaus the Cuman fought the Tatars and Cumans, arriving with his troops at the Moldova River. A town, Baia (near the said river), was documented in 1300 as settled by the Transylvanian Saxons (see also Foundation of Moldavia).[49][50] In 1290 Ladislaus the Cuman was assassinated; the new Hungarian king allegedly drove voivode Radu Negru and his people across the Carpathians, where they formed Wallachia along with its first capital Câmpulung (see also Foundation of Wallachia).[51]

Eastern Romance peoples

Map of southeastern Europe, with coloured arrows indicating the Vlach dispersion
Vlach (Romanian) branches and their territories

The Eastern Romance peoples refers to the Eastern Romance-speaking peoples, primarily the nations of Romanians and Moldovans, who are both Daco-Romanian-speaking (descending from Vulgar Latin, adopted in Dacia by a process of Romanization during early centuries AD[52]). These two peoples had before Soviet rule been regarded part of one and the same, Romanian people.[53]

During the Migration Period, the etymon "romanus" (romăn, rumăn) crystallized as the Eastern Romance peoples were surrounded by foreign, pagan, peoples, the term having long meant "Christians".[54] Soviet historiography maintains that the Moldovans received an ethnic individuality in the late Middle Ages through contacts with Slavs.[55] Other Eastern Romance-speaking communities, which are not Daco-Romance-speaking, traditionally exist in Greece, Albania and Macedonia (the Aromanians and Megleno-Romanians), and Croatia (the Istro-Romanians).


The table below highlights the distribution of Daco-Romanians in countries from Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.

Country Population Origin Language Year
 Romania 16,869,816-18,029,678[56][57] Romanians Romanian-speaking 2011
 Moldova 2,423,328[58] Moldovans Romanian-speaking 2014
 Ukraine 409,600[59] Romanians/Moldovans Romanian-speaking 2001
 Serbia 64,662[60][61] Romanians/Vlachs Romanian-speaking/Vlach-speaking 2011
 Hungary 35,641[62] Romanians Romanian-speaking 2011
 Bulgaria 4,475[63][64] Vlachs/Romanians Romanian-speaking 2011
Total 20,967,384

The table below highlights the distribution of Aromanians in countries from Southeastern Europe.

Country Population Origin Language Year
 Romania1 260,500[65] Aromanians Aromanian-speaking 2006
 Albania 100,000-200,000[66][67] Aromanians Aromanian-speaking 2004
 Greece 50,000[68] Aromanians Aromanian-speaking 2013
 Macedonia 9,695[69] Aromanians Aromanian-speaking 2002
Total 520,195

1 Most notably in Northern Dobruja

The table below highlights the distribution of Megleno-Romanians in countries from Southeastern Europe.

Country Population Origin Language
 Greece 4,000 Megleno-Romanians Megleno-Romanian-speaking
 Romania2 1,200 Megleno-Romanians Megleno-Romanian-speaking
 Macedonia 1,000 Megleno-Romanians Megleno-Romanian-speaking
Total 6,200

2 Most notably in Northern Dobruja

The table below showcases the distribution of Istro-Romanians in Croatia.

Country Population Origin Language Year
 Croatia 423[70] Istro-Romanians Istro-Romanian language 2011

In the table below are represented the total numbers of all Eastern Romance peoples solely in Central, Southeastern, and Eastern Europe (based on the data from the previous tables above and thus excluding their afferent diasporas).

Origin Population
Daco-Romanians 20,967,384
Aromanians 520,195
Megleno-Romanians 6,200
Istro-Romanians 423
Total 21,494,202


The territories of the Bolohoveni
Bolohoveni territory, according to V. A. Boldur

In addition to the ethnic groups of Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians, and Istro-Romanians which emerged during the Migration Period, other Vlachs could be found as far north as Poland, as far west as Moravia and Dalmatia.[71] In search of better pasture, they were called Vlasi or Valaši by the Slavs.

States mentioned in medieval chronicles were:

  • Wallachia – between the Southern Carpathians and the Danube (Ţara Românească in Romanian); Bassarab-Wallachia (Bassarab's Wallachia and Ungro-Wallachia or Wallachia Transalpina in administrative sources; Istro-Vlachia (Danubian Wallachia in Byzantine sources), and Velacia secunda on Spanish maps
  • Moldavia – between the Carpathians and the Dniester river (Bogdano-Wallachia; Bogdan's Wallachia, Moldo-Wallachia or Maurovlachia; Black Wallachia, Moldovlachia or Rousso-Vlachia in Byzantine sources); Bogdan Iflak or Wallachia in Polish sources; L'otra Wallachia (the other Wallachia) in Genovese sources and Velacia tertia on Spanish maps
  • Transylvania – between the Carpathians and the Hungarian plain; Wallachia interior in administrative sources and Velacia prima on Spanish maps
  • Second Bulgarian Empire, between the Carpathians and the Balkan MountainsRegnum Bulgarorum et Blachorum in documents by Pope Innocent III
  • Terra Prodnicorum (or Terra Brodnici), mentioned by Pope Honorius III in 1222. Vlachs led by Ploskanea supported the Tatars in the 1223 Battle of Kalka. Vlach lands near Galicia in the west, Volhynia in the north, Moldova in the south and the Bolohoveni lands in the east were conquered by Galicia.[72]
  • Bolokhoveni was Vlach land between Kiev and the Dniester in Ukraine. Place names were Olohovets, Olshani, Voloschi and Vlodava, mentioned in 11th-to-13th-century Slavonic chronicles. It was conquered by Galicia.[73]

Regions and places are:

Shepherd culture

Vlach transhumance in Western Balkans[78] Some examples of Vlach necropolises

As national states appeared in the area of the former Ottoman Empire, new state borders were developed that divided the summer and winter habitats of many of the pastoral groups. During the Middle Ages, many Vlachs were shepherds who drove their flocks through the mountains of Central and Eastern Europe. Vlach shepherds may be found as far north as southern Poland (Podhale) and the eastern Czech Republic (Moravia) by following the Carpathians, the Dinaric Alps in the west, the Pindus Mountains in the south, and the Caucasus Mountains in the east.[79]; Tom J. Winnifrith called Vlachs "the perfect Balkan citizens" because they are "able to preserve their culture without resorting to war or politics, violence or dishonesty."[80]

Conjectured Vlach funerary monuments from Herzegovina[81]

The autochthonous Vlachian theory of the funerary monuments from Herzegovina and surrounding countries was proposed by Bogumil Hrabak (1956) and Marian Wenzel (1962),[82] and more recently was supported by the archeological and anthropological researches of skeleton remains from the graves under stećci[83]

See also


  1. ^ Fine 1991, p. ?: "Traditionally scholars have seen the Dacians as ancestors of the modern Rumanians and Vlachs."
  2. ^ According to Cornelia Bodea, Ştefan Pascu, Liviu Constantinescu: "România: Atlas Istorico-geografic", Academia Română 1996, ISBN 973-27-0500-0, chap. II, "Historical landmarks", p. 50 (English text), the survival of the Thraco-Romans in the Lower Danube basin during the Migration period is an obvious fact: Thraco-Romans haven't vanished in the soil & Vlachs haven't appeared after 1000 years by spontaneous generation.
  3. ^ Badlands-Borderland: A History of Southern Albania/Northern Epirus [ILLUSTRATED] (Hardcover) by T.J. Winnifruth, ISBN 0-7156-3201-9, 2003, page 44: "Romanized Illyrians, the ancestors of the modern Vlachs".
  4. ^ "Council of Europe Parliamentary Recommendation 1333 (1997)". Assembly.coe.int. 1997-06-24. Retrieved 2013-02-08. 
  5. ^ a b c d Tanner 2004, p. 203.
  6. ^ Ringe, Don. "Inheritance versus lexical borrowing: a case with decisive sound-change evidence." Language Log, January 2009.
  7. ^ a b c Juhani Nuorluoto; Martti Leiwo; Jussi Halla-aho (2001). Papers in Slavic, Baltic, and Balkan studies. Dept. of Slavonic and Baltic Languages and Literatures, University of Helsinki. ISBN 978-952-10-0246-5. 
  8. ^ Kelley L. Ross (2003). "Decadence, Rome and Romania, the Emperors Who Weren't, and Other Reflections on Roman History". The Proceedings of the Friesian School. Retrieved 2008-01-13. Note: The Vlach Connection  External link in journal= (help)
  9. ^ Entangled Histories of the Balkans: Volume One: National Ideologies and Language Policies. BRILL. 13 June 2013. pp. 42–. ISBN 978-90-04-25076-5. 
  10. ^ H. C. Darby (1957). "The face of Europe on the eve of the great discoveries". The New Cambridge Modern History. 1. p. 34. 
  11. ^ Peter F. Sugar (1 July 2012). Southeastern Europe under Ottoman Rule, 1354-1804. University of Washington Press. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-295-80363-0. 
  12. ^ Ilie Gherghel, Câteva considerațiuni la cuprinsul noțiunii cuvântului "Vlach", București: Convorbiri Literare, 1920, p. 4-8.
  13. ^ G. Popa Lisseanu, Continuitatea românilor în Dacia, Editura Vestala, Bucuresti, 2014, p.78
  14. ^ Demirtaş-Coşkun 2001.
  15. ^ Tanner 2004.
  16. ^ Ecaterina Goga - Introducere în filologia romanică (Introduction in the Romance phylology) - Studiu socio-linvistic. Editura Didactica si Pedagogica.(1980) p.223-232
  17. ^ http://www.fact-index.com/h/hi/history_of_vlachs.html
  18. ^ http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rbph_0035-0818_1924_num_3_1_6272
  19. ^ M. Manea, A. Pascu, B. Teodorescu, Istoria românilor din cele mai vechi timpuri până la revoluția din 1821, Ed. Didactică și Pedagogică, București, 1997
  20. ^ Gheorghe I. Brătianu, Marea Neagră de la origini până la cucerirea otomană, ediția a II-a rev., Ed. Polirom, Iași, 1999, p. 182, 193
  21. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20081003021421/http://www.ear.ro/3brevist/rv8/art14.pdf
  23. ^ http://www.farsarotul.org/nl26_1.htm
  24. ^ http://www.friesian.com/decdenc2.htm
  25. ^ Theophylact Simocatta, 8.4.11-8.5.4 (Publisher. C. de Boer, 1972)
  26. ^ Stelian Brezeanu, O istorie a Bizanțului, Editura Meronia, București, 2005, p.126
  27. ^ A. Decei, V. Ciocîltan, “La mention des Roumains (Walah) chez Al-Maqdisi,”in Romano-arabica I, Bucharest, 1974, pp. 49–54
  28. ^ G. Murnu, Când si unde se ivesc românii întâia dată în istorie, în „Convorbiri Literare”, XXX, pp. 97-112
  29. ^ http://users.clas.ufl.edu/fcurta/tudela.html.  Missing or empty title= (help)
  30. ^ Ibn al Nadim, al-Fihrist. English translation: The Fihrist of al-Nadim. Editor și traducător: B. Dodge, New York, Columbia University Press, 1970, p. 37 with n.82
  31. ^ Spinei, Victor, The Romanians and the Turkic Nomads North of the Danube Delta from the Tenth to the Mid-Thirteenth Century. Brill. 2009, p.83
  32. ^ *Gesta Hungarorum (a translation by Martyn Rady)
  33. ^ Samuel Hazzard Cross et Olgerd P. Sherbowitz-Wetzor (English), The Russian Primary Chronicle. Laurentian Text, The Medieval Academy of America, CambridgeMassachusetts, 2012, p.62
  34. ^ C. A. Macartney, The Habsburg Empire: 1790-1918, Faber & Faber, 4 sept. 2014, paragraf.185
  35. ^ Egils saga einhenda ok Ásmundar berserkjabana, in Drei lygisogur, ed. Å. Lagerholm (Halle/Saale, 1927), p. 29
  36. ^ V. Spinei, The Romanians and the Turkic Nomads North of the Danube Delta from the Tenth to the Mid-Thirteenth Century, Brill, 2009, p. 106, ISBN 9789047428800
  37. ^ A. Decei, op. cit., p. 25.
  38. ^ V. Spinei, The Romanians and the Turkic Nomads North of the Danube Delta From the Tenth to the Mid-Thirteenth Century, Brill, 2009, p.132, ISBN 9789004175365
  39. ^ G. Murnu, Când si unde se ivesc românii întâia dată în istorie, în „Convorbiri Literare”, XXX, pp. 97-112
  40. ^ Curta, 2006, p. 385
  41. ^ Ş. Papacostea, Românii în secolul al XIII-lea între cruciată şi imperiul mongol, Bucureşti, 1993, 36; A. Lukács, Ţara Făgăraşului, 156; T. Sălăgean, Transilvania în a doua jumătate a secolului al XIII-lea. Afirmarea regimului congregaţional, Cluj-Napoca, 2003, 26-27
  42. ^ Simon de Kéza, Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum, IV,
  43. ^ G. Popa-Lisseanu, Izvoarele istoriei Românilor, IV, Bucuresti, 1935, p. .32
  44. ^ K. HOREDT, Contribuţii la istoria Transilvaniei în secolele IV-XIII, Bucureşti, 1958, p.109-131. IDEM, Siebenburgen im Fruhmittelalter, Bonn, 1986, p.111 sqq.
  46. ^ A. IONIŢĂ, Date noi privind colonizarea germană în Ţara Bârsei şi graniţa de est a regatului maghiar în cea de a doua jumătate a secolului al XII-lea, în RI, 5, 1994, 3-4.
  47. ^ J. DEER, Der Weg zur Goldenen Bulle Andreas II. Von 1222, în Schweizer Beitrage zur Allgemeinen Geschichte, 10, 1952, pp. 104-138
  48. ^ Stefan Pascu: A History of Transylvania, Wayne State Univ Pr, 1983, p. 57
  49. ^ Pavel Parasca, Cine a fost "Laslău craiul unguresc" din tradiţia medievală despre întemeierea Ţării Moldovei [=Who was "Laslău, Hungarian king" of the medieval tradition on the foundation of Moldavia]. In: Revista de istorie şi politică, An IV, Nr. 1.; ULIM;2011 ISSN 1857-4076
  50. ^ O. Pecican, Dragoș-vodă - originea ciclului legendar despre întemeierea Moldovei. În „Anuarul Institutului de Istorie și Arheologie Cluj”. T. XXXIII. Cluj-Napoca, 1994, pp. 221-232
  51. ^ D. CĂPRĂROIU, ON THE BEGINNINGS OF THE TOWN OF CÂMPULUNG, ″Historia Urbana″, t. XVI, nr. 1-2/2008, pp. 37-64
  52. ^ Giurescu, Constantin C. (1972). The Making of the Romanian People and Language. Bucharest: Meridiane Publishing House. pp. 43, 98–101, 141.
  53. ^ Charles King (1 September 2013). The Moldovans: Romania, Russia, and the Politics of Culture. Hoover Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-8179-9793-9. 
  54. ^ Ilie Ceaușescu (1989). Transylvania: an ancient Romanian land. Military Publishing House. p. 41. ISBN 978-973-32-0046-8. 
  55. ^ The Current Digest of the Soviet Press. 34. American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies. 1982. pp. 101–102. 
  56. ^ 2011 Romanian census
  57. ^ The first number is a lower estimate, as 1,236,810 people opted out declaring ethnicity at the 2011 Romanian census.
  58. ^ 2014 Moldovan census; Includes additional 177,635 Moldovans in Transnistria; as per the 2004 census in Transnistria
  59. ^ 2001 Ukrainian census
  60. ^ 2011 Serbian census: 29,332 counted as Romanians/35,330 counted as Vlachs
  61. ^ http://media.popis2011.stat.rs/2011/prvi_rezultati.pdf Serbian Preliminary 2011 Census Results
  62. ^ http://www.ksh.hu/nepszamlalas/teruleti_adatok
  63. ^ 3,584 persons were counted as Vlachs (may include Aromanians) and 891 as Romanians in 2011
  64. ^ WebDesign Ltd. www.webdesign-bg.eu. "2011 Census Results". nsi.bg. Retrieved 2014-09-14. 
  65. ^ "Aromânii vor statut minoritar", in Cotidianul, 9 December 2006
  66. ^ According to INTEREG - quoted by Eurominority: Aromanians in Albania, Albania's Aromanians; Reemerging into History
  67. ^ Arno Tanner. The forgotten minorities of Eastern Europe: the history and today of selected ethnic groups in five countries. East-West Books, 2004 ISBN 978-952-91-6808-8, p. 218: "In Albania, Vlachs are estimated to number as many as 200,000"
  68. ^ "Ethnologue report for language code: rup". Ethnologue.org. Retrieved 2013-02-08. 
  69. ^ 2002 Macedonian census
  70. ^ 2011 Croatian census
  71. ^ Hammel, E. A. and Kenneth W. Wachter. "The Slavonian Census of 1698. Part I: Structure and Meaning, European Journal of Population". University of California. 
  72. ^ A. Boldur, Istoria Basarabiei, Editura Victor Frunza, Bucuresti 1992, pp 98-106
  73. ^ A. Boldur, Istoria Basarabiei, Editura Victor Frunza, Bucuresti 1992
  74. ^ a b c Since Theophanes Confessor and Kedrenos, in : A.D. Xenopol, Istoria Românilor din Dacia Traiană, Nicolae Iorga, Teodor Capidan, C. Giurescu : Istoria Românilor, Petre Ș. Năsturel Studii și Materiale de Istorie Medie, vol. XVI, 1998
  75. ^ Map of Yugoslavia, file East, sq. B/f, Istituto Geografico de Agostini, Novara, in : Le Million, encyclopédie de tous les pays du monde, vol. IV, ed. Kister, Geneve, Switzerland, 1970, pp. 290-291, and many other maps & old atlases - these names disappear after 1980.
  76. ^ Mircea Mușat; Ion Ardeleanu (1985). From Ancient Dacia to Modern Romania. Editura Științifică și Enciclopedică. that in 1550 a foreign writer, the Italian Gromo, called the Banat "Valachia citeriore" (the Wallachia which stands on this side). 
  77. ^ Z. Konecny, F. Mainus, Stopami Minulosti: Kapitol z Dejin Moravy a Slezka/Traces of the Past: Chapters from the History of Moravia and Silesia, Brno:Blok,1979
  78. ^ Anca & N.S. Tanașoca, Unitate romanică și diversitate balcanică, Editura Fundației Pro, 2004
  79. ^ Silviu Dragomir: "Vlahii din nordul peninsulei Balcanice în evul mediu"; 1959, p. 172
  80. ^ Winnifrith, Tom. "Vlachs". Retrieved 2014-01-13. 
  81. ^ Marian Wenzel, “Bosnian and Herzegovinian Tombstobes-Who Made Them and Why?” Sudost-Forschungen 21 (1962): 102-143
  82. ^ Marian Wenzel, “Bosnian and Herzegovinian Tombstobes-Who Made Them and Why?” Sudost-Forschungen 21 (1962): 102-143
  83. ^ Mužić, Ivan (2009). "Vlasi i starobalkanska pretkršćanska simbolika jelena na stećcima". Starohrvatska prosvjeta (in Croatian). Split: Museum of Croatian Archaeological Monuments. III (36): 315–349.


  • Birgül Demirtaş-Coşkun; Ankara University. Center for Eurasian Strategic Studies (2001). The Vlachs: a forgotten minority in the Balkans. Frank Cass. 
  • Arno Tanner (2004). The Forgotten Minorities of Eastern Europe: The History and Today of Selected Ethnic Groups in Five Countries. East-West Books. pp. 203–. ISBN 978-952-91-6808-8. 
  • Theodor Capidan, Aromânii, dialectul aromân. Studiul lingvistic ("Aromanians, Aromanian dialect, Linguistic Study"), Bucharest, 1932
  • Victor A. Friedman, "The Vlah Minority in Macedonia: Language, Identity, Dialectology, and Standardization" in Selected Papers in Slavic, Balkan, and Balkan Studies, ed. Juhani Nuoluoto, et al. Slavica Helsingiensa:21, Helsinki: University of Helsinki. 2001. 26-50. full text Though focussed on the Vlachs of Macedonia, has in-depth discussion of many topics, including the origins of the Vlachs, their status as a minority in various countries, their political use in various contexts, and so on.
  • Asterios I. Koukoudis, The Vlachs: Metropolis and Diaspora, 2003, ISBN 960-7760-86-7
  • George Murnu, Istoria românilor din Pind, Vlahia Mare 980–1259 ("History of the Romanians of the Pindus, Greater Vlachia, 980–1259"), Bucharest, 1913
  • Ilie Gherghel, Câteva consideraţiuni la cuprinsul noţiunii cuvântului "Vlach". Bucuresti: Convorbiri Literare,(1920).
  • Nikola Trifon, Les Aroumains, un peuple qui s'en va (Paris, 2005) ; Cincari, narod koji nestaje (Beograd, 2010)
  • Steriu T. Hagigogu, "Romanus şi valachus sau Ce este romanus, roman, român, aromân, valah şi vlah", Bucharest, 1939
  • G. Weigand, Die Aromunen, Bd.Α΄-B΄, J. A. Barth (A.Meiner), Leipzig 1895–1894.
  • A. Keramopoulos, Ti einai oi koutsovlachoi [What are the Koutsovlachs?], publ 2 University Studio Press, Thessaloniki 2000.
  • A.Hâciu, Aromânii, Comerţ. Industrie.Arte.Expasiune.Civiliytie, tip. Cartea Putnei, Focşani 1936.
  • Τ. Winnifrith, Τhe Vlachs.Τhe History of a Balkan People, Duckworth 1987
  • A. Koukoudis, Oi mitropoleis kai i diaspora ton Vlachon [Major Cities and Diaspora of the Vlachs], publ. University Studio Press, Thessaloniki 1999.
  • Th Capidan, Aromânii, Dialectul Aromân, ed2 Εditură Fundaţiei Culturale Aromâne, Bucureşti 2005

Further reading

  • Theodor Capidan, Aromânii, dialectul aromân. Studiul lingvistic ("Aromanians, The Aromanian dialect. A Linguistic Study"), Bucharest, 1932
  • Adina Berciu-Drăghicescu, Aromâni, meglenoromâni, istroromâni : aspecte identitare şi culturale, Editura Universităţii din Bucureşti, 2012, ISBN 978-606-16-0148-6
  • Victor A. Friedman, "The Vlah Minority in Macedonia: Language, Identity, Dialectology, and Standardization" in Selected Papers in Slavic, Balkan, and Balkan Studies, ed. Juhani Nuoluoto, et al. Slavica Helsingiensa:21, Helsinki: University of Helsinki. 2001. 26-50. full text Though focussed on the Vlachs of Macedonia, has in-depth discussion of many topics, including the origins of the Vlachs, their status as a minority in various countries, their political use in various contexts, and so on.
  • Asterios I. Koukoudis, The Vlachs: Metropolis and Diaspora, 2003, ISBN 960-7760-86-7
  • George Murnu, Istoria românilor din Pind, Vlahia Mare 980–1259 ("History of the Romanians of the Pindus, Greater Vlachia, 980–1259"), Bucharest, 1913
  • Nikola Trifon, Les Aroumains, un peuple qui s'en va (Paris, 2005) ; Cincari, narod koji nestaje (Beograd, 2010)
  • Steriu T. Hagigogu, "Romanus şi valachus sau Ce este romanus, roman, român, aromân, valah şi vlah", Bucharest, 1939
  • Franck Vogel, a photo-essay on the Valchs published by GEO magazine (France), 2010.
  • John Kennedy Campbell, 'Honour Family and Patronage' A Study of Institutions and Moral Values in a Greek Mountain Community, Oxford University Press, 1974
  • The Watchmen, a documentary film by Alastair Kenneil and Tod Sedgwick (USA) 1971 describes life in the Vlach village of Samarina in Epiros, Northern Greece

External links