VLACHS (English: /ˈvlɑːk/ or /ˈvlæk/ ) is a historical term used for the Eastern Romance-speaking peoples in East-central Europe (including the Balkan peninsula ); it is also an exonym used to refer to several modern peoples from the population in present-day Romania and Moldova, the southern end of the Balkans as well as south and west of the Danube . Vlachs were initially identified and described during the 11th century by George Kedrenos .
According to one origin theory , the Vlachs originated from Dacians . According to some linguists and scholars, the Eastern Romance languages prove the survival of the Thraco-Romans in the lower Danube basin during the Migration Period and western Balkan populations known as "Vlachs" also have had Romanized Illyrian origins.
Nearly all Central and Southeastern European countries have (or had in the passing of time) consistent native Vlach (or Romanian) minorities, as it is currently the case in Hungary , in Ukraine (including the Romanians of Chernivtsi Oblast and the Moldovans in other oblasts ), in Serbia (including Eastern Serbia ), in Croatia (including the Dalmatian Hinterland and Lika region ), or in Bulgaria . In other countries (such as in Bosnia and Herzegovina ), the Vlachs have assimilated in the local Slavic population. The term "Vlach" was also commonly used for shepherds , like in mountains of Herzegovina region of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Nowadays, Eastern Romance-speaking communities are estimated at 26-30 million people worldwide (including the Romanian diaspora and Moldovan diaspora ).
* 1 Etymology * 2 History
* 3 Eastern Romance peoples
* 3.1 Demographics
* 4 Toponymy * 5 Shepherd culture * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links
Further information: Walhaz
The word "Vlach" is of Germanic origin, an early loanword into Proto-Slavic from Germanic _* Walhaz _ ("foreigner" or "stranger") and used by ancient Germanic peoples for their Romance -speaking and (Romanized) Celtic neighbours. _*Walhaz_ was evidently borrowed from the name of a Celtic tribe , known to the Romans as Volcae in the writings of Julius Caesar and to the Greeks as _Ouólkai_ in texts by Strabo and Ptolemy . _Vlach_ is thus of the same origin as European ethnic names including the Welsh and Walloons . Detailed map depicting Varangian trade routes in Europe during the Viking Age . According to several sagas , the Norsemen encountered the Vlachs (called 'Blökumenn' in Old Norse ) at the round of the 11th century, somewhere in the Lower Danube region.
The word passed to the Slavs and from them to other peoples, such as the Hungarians (_oláh_ referring to the Romanians and _olasz_ referring to the Italians) and Byzantines (_Βλάχοι_, _Vláhi_"), and was used for all Latin people from the Balkans . The Polish word for "Italian" (_Włoch_, plural _Włosi_) has the same origin, as does the Slovenian, vaguely-derogatory _lah_.
The Italian-speaking region south of the South Tyrol , now Trentino in Italy, was known as _Welschtirol_ in the Austro-Hungarian Empire . In Western Balkans _Vlah_, and plural _Vlasi_, was used exclusively to population of Orthodox adherence, namely Serbs: in Croatia ("_Vlaj_", plural "_Vlaji_") when referring to inhabitants of Dalmatian Hinterland , and in Bosnia and Herzegovina ("_Vlah_", plural "_Vlasi_") when referring to highlanders and shepherds (often, in earlier times , regardless of religious adherence even) of Dinarides area; later, depending on context, it also became a derogatory term used to label ethnic Serbs.
Nonetheless, some scholars consider that the term "Vlach" appeared for the first time in the Eastern Roman Empire and was subsequently spread to the Germanic- and then Slavic-speaking worlds through the Norsemen (possibly by Varangians ), who were in trade and military contact with Byzantium during the early Middle Ages (see also Blakumen ).
The first record of a medieval Romance language in the Balkans dates to the early Byzantine period, with Procopius (500–554) mentioning forts with names such as _Skeptekasas_ (Seven Houses), _Burgulatu_ (Broad City), _Loupofantana_ (Wolf's Well) and _Gemellomountes_ (Twin Mountains). A 586 Byzantine chronicle of an incursion against the Avars in the eastern Balkans may have one of the earliest references to Vlachs. In the account, when baggage carried by a mule slipped the muleteer shouted: _"Torna, torna, fratre!"_ ("Return, return, brother!"). Byzantine historians used the Germanic _Vlachs_ for Latin speakers, particularly Romanians.
The name "Blökumenn" is mentioned in a Nordic saga with respect to events that took place in either 1018 or 1019 somewhere at the northwestern part of the Black Sea and believed by some to be related to the _Vlachs_. According to 10th century Arab chronicler Mutahhar al-Maqdisi , "They say that in the Turkic neighbourhood there are the Khazars, Russians, Slavs, _Waladj_, Alans, Greeks and many other peoples." Byzantine writer Kekaumenos , author of the _Strategikon _ (1078), described a 1066 Roman (Vlach) revolt in northern Greece. Traveler Benjamin of Tudela (1130–1173) of the Kingdom of Navarre was one of the first writers to use the word _Vlachs_ for a Romance-speaking population.
During the late 9th century the Hungarians invaded the Pannonian basin , where the province of Pannonia was inhabited—according to the _ Gesta Hungarorum _, written around 1200 by the anonymous chancellor of King Bela III of Hungary —by the " Slavs , Bulgarians and Vlachs , and the shepherds of the Romans " (_sclauij, Bulgarij et Blachij, ac pastores romanorum_ in the original). Between the 12th and 14th centuries they were ruled by the Kingdom of Hungary , the Byzantine Empire, and the Golden Horde .
In chapter XIV of the _ Alexiad _, Anna Komnene identifies Vlachs from the Balkans with the Dacians , describing their region around Haemus Mons : "On either side of its slopes dwell many very wealthy tribes, the Dacians and the Thracians on the northern side, and on the southern, more Thracians and the Macedonians". Byzantine historian John Kinnamos described Leon Vatatzes' military expedition along the northern Danube, where Vatatzes mentioned the participation of Vlachs in battles with the Magyars (Hungarians) in 1166. In the 13th century, the Asen royal family (who was of Vlach origin) were the founders and rulers of the Vlach-Bulgarian kingdom. Map of Central/Southern Europe during the Late Middle Ages/Early Modern period by Johannes Honterus
In 1213 an army of Romans (Vlachs), Transylvanian Saxons , and Pechenegs , led by Ioachim of Sibiu , attacked the Bulgars and Cumans from Vidin . After this, all Hungarian battles in the Carpathian region were supported by Romance-speaking soldiers from Transylvania. At the end of the 13th century, during the reign of Ladislaus the Cuman , Simon de Kéza wrote about the _Blacki people _ and placed them in Pannonia with the Huns . Archaeological discoveries indicate that Transylvania was gradually settled by the Magyars, and the last region defended by the Vlachs and Pechenegs (until 1200) was between the Olt River and the Carpathians .
Shortly after the fall of the Olt region, a church was built at the Cârța Monastery and Catholic German-speaking settlers from Rhineland and Mosel Valley (known as Transylvanian Saxons) began to settle in the Orthodox region. In the _ Diploma Andreanum _ issued by King Andrew II of Hungary in 1224, _"silva blacorum et bissenorum"_ was given to the settlers. The Orthodox Vlachs spread further northward along the Carpathians to Poland , Slovakia , and Moravia and were granted autonomy under _Ius Vlachonicum_ (Walachian law).
In 1285 Ladislaus the Cuman fought the Tatars and Cumans, arriving with his troops at the Moldova River . A town, Baia (near the said river), was documented in 1300 as settled by the Transylvanian Saxons (see also Foundation of Moldavia ). In 1290 Ladislaus the Cuman was assassinated; the new Hungarian king allegedly drove voivode Radu Negru and his people across the Carpathians, where they formed Wallachia along with its first capital Câmpulung (see also Foundation of Wallachia ).
EASTERN ROMANCE PEOPLES
Vlach (Romanian) branches and their territories
The EASTERN ROMANCE PEOPLES refers to the Eastern Romance -speaking peoples, primarily the nations of Romanians and Moldovans , who are both Daco-Romanian-speaking (descending from Vulgar Latin , adopted in Dacia by a process of Romanization during early centuries AD ). These two peoples had before Soviet rule been regarded part of one and the same, Romanian people.
During the Migration Period, the etymon "_romanus_" (_romăn_, _rumăn_) crystallized as the Eastern Romance peoples were surrounded by foreign, pagan, peoples, the term having long meant "Christians". Soviet historiography maintains that the Moldovans received an ethnic individuality in the late Middle Ages through contacts with Slavs. Other Eastern Romance-speaking communities, which are not Daco-Romance-speaking, traditionally exist in Greece, Albania and Macedonia (the Aromanians and Megleno- Romanians ), and Croatia (the Istro- Romanians ).
The table below highlights the distribution of Daco- Romanians in countries from Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
COUNTRY POPULATION ORIGIN LANGUAGE YEAR
The table below highlights the distribution of Aromanians in countries from Southeastern Europe.
COUNTRY POPULATION ORIGIN LANGUAGE YEAR
Macedonia 9,695 Aromanians Aromanian-speaking 2002
1 Most notably in Northern Dobruja
The table below highlights the distribution of Megleno- Romanians in countries from Southeastern Europe.
COUNTRY POPULATION ORIGIN LANGUAGE
Macedonia 1,000 Megleno- Romanians Megleno-Romanian-speaking
2 Most notably in Northern Dobruja
The table below showcases the distribution of Istro- Romanians in Croatia.
COUNTRY POPULATION ORIGIN LANGUAGE YEAR
In the table below are represented the total numbers of all Eastern Romance peoples solely in Central, Southeastern, and Eastern Europe (based on the data from the previous tables above and thus excluding their afferent diasporas).
Bolohoveni territory, according to V. A. Boldur
In addition to the ethnic groups of Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians, and Istro- Romanians which emerged during the Migration Period, other Vlachs could be found as far north as Poland, as far west as Moravia and Dalmatia. In search of better pasture, they were called _Vlasi_ or _Valaši_ by the Slavs.
States mentioned in medieval chronicles were:
* _ Wallachia _ – between the Southern Carpathians and the Danube (_Ţara Românească _ in Romanian); Bassarab- Wallachia (Bassarab\'s Wallachia and Ungro- Wallachia or Wallachia Transalpina in administrative sources; Istro-Vlachia (Danubian Wallachia in Byzantine sources), and _Velacia secunda_ on Spanish maps * _ Moldavia _ – between the Carpathians and the Dniester river (_Bogdano-Wallachia_; Bogdan's Wallachia, Moldo- Wallachia or _Maurovlachia_; Black Wallachia, _Moldovlachia_ or _Rousso-Vlachia_ in Byzantine sources); _Bogdan Iflak_ or Wallachia in Polish sources; _L'otra Wallachia_ (the other Wallachia) in Genovese sources and _Velacia tertia_ on Spanish maps * _ Transylvania _ – between the Carpathians and the Hungarian plain ; _ Wallachia interior_ in administrative sources and _Velacia prima_ on Spanish maps * _ Second Bulgarian Empire _, between the Carpathians and the Balkan Mountains – _Regnum Blachorum et Bulgarorum_ in documents by Pope Innocent III * _Terra Prodnicorum_ (or Terra Brodnici ), mentioned by Pope Honorius III in 1222. Vlachs led by Ploskanea supported the Tatars in the 1223 Battle of Kalka. Vlach lands near Galicia in the west, Volhynia in the north, Moldova in the south and the Bolohoveni lands in the east were conquered by Galicia. * _ Bolokhoveni _ was Vlach land between Kiev and the Dniester in Ukraine. Place names were Olohovets, Olshani, Voloschi and Vlodava, mentioned in 11th-to-13th-century Slavonic chronicles. It was conquered by Galicia.
Regions and places are:
* White Wallachia in Moesia * Great Wallachia (_Μεγάλη Βλαχία_; _Megáli vlahía_) in Thessaly * Small Wallachia (_Μικρή Βλαχία_; _Mikrí vlahía_) in Aetolia , Acarnania , Dorida and Locrida * Morlachia , in Lika - Dalmatia * Upper Valachia of Moscopole and Metsovon (_Άνω Βλαχία_; _Áno Vlahía_) in southern Macedonia , Albania and Epirus * _Stari Vlah_ ("the Old Vlach"), a region in southwestern Serbia * Romanija mountain (_ Romanija planina_) in eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina * Vlaşca County , a former county of southern Wallachia (derived from Slavic _Vlaška_) * Greater Wallachia , an older name for the region of Muntenia, southeastern Romania * Lesser Wallachia , an older name for the region of Oltenia, southwestern Romania * An Italian writer called the Banat _Valachia citeriore_ (" Wallachia on this side") in 1550. * _Valahia transalpina_, including Făgăraș and Haţeg * Moravian Wallachia (Czech : _Valašsko_), in the Beskid Mountains of the Czech Republic
During the Middle Ages, many Vlachs were shepherds who drove their flocks through the mountains of Central and Eastern Europe. Vlach shepherds reached as far north as southern Poland ( Podhale ) and the eastern Czech Republic (Moravia) by following the Carpathians, the Dinaric Alps in the west, the Pindus Mountains in the south, and the Caucasus Mountains in the east. Vlachs have been called "the perfect Balkan citizens" because they are "able to preserve their culture without resorting to war or politics, violence or dishonesty."
* Romania in the Early Middle Ages * Oláh * List of Aromanians * List of Romanians * Vlachs in medieval Serbia * Vlach (Ottoman social class) * Vlach law * Statuta Valachorum * Supplex Libellus Valachorum
* ^ "Vlach". * ^ Fine 1991, p. ?: "Traditionally scholars have seen the Dacians as ancestors of the modern Rumanians and Vlachs." * ^ According to Cornelia Bodea, Ştefan Pascu, Liviu Constantinescu: "_România: Atlas Istorico-geografic_", Academia Română 1996, ISBN 973-27-0500-0 , chap. II, "Historical landmarks", p. 50 (English text), the survival of the Thraco-Romans in the Lower Danube basin during the Migration period is an obvious fact: Thraco-Romans haven't vanished in the soil & Vlachs haven't appeared after 1000 years by spontaneous generation. * ^ Badlands-Borderland: A History of Southern Albania/Northern Epirus (Hardcover) by T.J. Winnifruth, ISBN 0-7156-3201-9 , 2003, page 44: "Romanized Illyrians, the ancestors of the modern Vlachs". * ^ "Council of Europe Parliamentary Recommendation 1333 (1997)". Assembly.coe.int. 1997-06-24. Retrieved 2013-02-08. * ^ Ringe, Don. "Inheritance versus lexical borrowing: a case with decisive sound-change evidence." _Language Log,_ January 2009. * ^ "The name 'Vlach' or 'Wallach' applied to them by their neighbours is identical with the English _Wealh_ or _Welsh_ and means "stranger", but the Vlachs call themselves _Aromani_, or "Romans" (H.C. Darby, "The face of Europe on the eve of the great discoveries', in _The New Cambridge Modern History_, vol. 1, 1957:34). * ^ Kelley L. Ross (2003). "Decadence, Rome and Romania, the Emperors Who Weren\'t, and Other Reflections on Roman History". _The Proceedings of the Friesian School_. Retrieved 2008-01-13. Note: The Vlach Connection External link in journal= (help ) * ^ _Entangled Histories of the Balkans: Volume One: National Ideologies and Language Policies_. BRILL. 13 June 2013. pp. 42–. ISBN 978-90-04-25076-5 . * ^ Ilie Gherghel, Câteva considerațiuni la cuprinsul noțiunii cuvântului "Vlach", București: Convorbiri Literare, 1920, p. 4-8. * ^ G. Popa Lisseanu, Continuitatea românilor în Dacia, Editura Vestala, Bucuresti, 2014, p.78 * ^ http://www.fact-index.com/h/hi/history_of_vlachs.html * ^ http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rbph_0035-0818_1924_num_3_1_6272 * ^ M. Manea, A. Pascu, B. Teodorescu, Istoria românilor din cele mai vechi timpuri până la revoluția din 1821, Ed. Didactică și Pedagogică, București, 1997 * ^ Gheorghe I. Brătianu, Marea Neagră de la origini până la cucerirea otomană, ediția a II-a rev., Ed. Polirom, Iași, 1999, p. 182, 193 * ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20081003021421/http://www.ear.ro/3brevist/rv8/art14.pdf * ^ A. ARMBRUSTER, ROMANITATEA ROMÂNILOR ISTORIA UNEI IDEI, Editura Enciclopedica,1993 * ^ http://www.farsarotul.org/nl26_1.htm * ^ http://www.friesian.com/decdenc2.htm * ^ Egils saga einhenda ok Ásmundar berserkjabana, in Drei lygisogur, ed. Å. Lagerholm (Halle/Saale, 1927), p. 29 * ^ V. Spinei, The Romanians and the Turkic Nomads North of the Danube Delta from the Tenth to the Mid-Thirteenth Century, Brill, 2009, p. 106, ISBN 9789047428800 * ^ A. Decei, V. Ciocîltan, “La mention des Roumains (Walah) chez Al-Maqdisi,”in Romano-arabica I, Bucharest, 1974, pp. 49–54 * ^ G. Murnu, Când si unde se ivesc românii întâia dată în istorie, în „Convorbiri Literare”, XXX, pp. 97-112 * ^ http://users.clas.ufl.edu/fcurta/tudela.html * ^ * Gesta Hungarorum (a translation by Martyn Rady) * ^ Mircea Muşat, Ion Ardeleanu-From ancient Dacia to modern Romania, p. 114 * ^ A. Decei, op. cit., p. 25. * ^ V. Spinei, The Romanians and the Turkic Nomads North of the Danube Delta From the Tenth to the Mid-Thirteenth Century, Brill, 2009, p.132, ISBN 9789004175365 * ^ Curta, 2006, p. 385 * ^ Ş. Papacostea, Românii în secolul al XIII-lea între cruciată şi imperiul mongol, Bucureşti, 1993, 36; A. Lukács, Ţara Făgăraşului, 156; T. Sălăgean, Transilvania în a doua jumătate a secolului al XIII-lea. Afirmarea regimului congregaţional, Cluj-Napoca, 2003, 26-27 * ^ Simon de Kéza, Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum, IV, * ^ G. Popa-Lisseanu, Izvoarele istoriei Românilor, IV, Bucuresti, 1935, p. .32 * ^ K. HOREDT, Contribuţii la istoria Transilvaniei în secolele IV-XIII, Bucureşti, 1958, p.109-131. IDEM, Siebenburgen im Fruhmittelalter, Bonn, 1986, p.111 sqq. * ^ I.M.Tiplic, CONSIDERAŢII CU PRIVIRE LA LINIILE ÎNTĂRITE DE TIPUL PRISĂCILOR DIN TRANSILVANIA (sec. IX-XIII)*ACTA TERRAE SEPTEMCASTRENSIS I, pp 147-164 * ^ A. IONIŢĂ, Date noi privind colonizarea germană în Ţara Bârsei şi graniţa de est a regatului maghiar în cea de a doua jumătate a secolului al XII-lea, în RI, 5, 1994, 3-4. * ^ J. DEER, Der Weg zur Goldenen Bulle Andreas II. Von 1222, în Schweizer Beitrage zur Allgemeinen Geschichte, 10, 1952, pp. 104-138 * ^ Stefan Pascu: A History of Transylvania, Wayne State Univ Pr, 1983, p. 57 * ^ Pavel Parasca, Cine a fost "Laslău craiul unguresc" din tradiţia medievală despre întemeierea Ţării Moldovei . In: Revista de istorie şi politică, An IV, Nr. 1.; ULIM;2011 ISSN 1857-4076 * ^ O. Pecican, Dragoș-vodă - originea ciclului legendar despre întemeierea Moldovei. În „Anuarul Institutului de Istorie și Arheologie Cluj”. T. XXXIII. Cluj-Napoca, 1994, pp. 221-232 * ^ D. CĂPRĂROIU, ON THE BEGINNINGS OF THE TOWN OF CÂMPULUNG, ″Historia Urbana″, t. XVI, nr. 1-2/2008, pp. 37-64 * ^ Giurescu, Constantin C. (1972). The Making of the Romanian People and Language. Bucharest: Meridiane Publishing House. pp. 43, 98–101, 141. * ^ Charles King (1 September 2013). _The Moldovans: Romania, Russia, and the Politics of Culture_. Hoover Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-8179-9793-9 . * ^ Ilie Ceaușescu (1989). _Transylvania: an ancient Romanian land_. Military Publishing House. p. 41. ISBN 978-973-32-0046-8 . * ^ _The Current Digest of the Soviet Press_. 34. American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies. 1982. pp. 101–102. * ^ 2011 Romanian census * ^ The first number is a lower estimate, as 1,236,810 people opted out declaring ethnicity at the 2011 Romanian census. * ^ 2014 Moldovan census; Includes additional 177,635 Moldovans in Transnistria; as per the 2004 census in Transnistria * ^ 2001 Ukrainian census * ^ 2011 Serbian census: 29,332 counted as Romanians/35,330 counted as Vlachs * ^ http://media.popis2011.stat.rs/2011/prvi_rezultati.pdf Serbian Preliminary 2011 Census Results * ^ http://www.ksh.hu/nepszamlalas/teruleti_adatok * ^ 3,584 persons were counted as Vlachs (may include Aromanians) and 891 as Romanians in 2011 * ^ WebDesign Ltd. www.webdesign-bg.eu. "2011 Census Results". nsi.bg. Retrieved 2014-09-14. * ^ "Aromânii vor statut minoritar", in _ Cotidianul _, 9 December 2006 * ^ According to INTEREG - quoted by Eurominority: Aromanians in Albania, Albania\'s Aromanians; Reemerging into History * ^ Arno Tanner. The forgotten minorities of Eastern Europe: the history and today of selected ethnic groups in five countries. East-West Books, 2004 ISBN 978-952-91-6808-8 , p. 218: "In Albania, Vlachs are estimated to number as many as 200,000" * ^ "Ethnologue report for language code: rup". Ethnologue.org. Retrieved 2013-02-08. * ^ 2002 Macedonian census * ^ 2011 Croatian census * ^ Hammel, E. A. and Kenneth W. Wachter. "The Slavonian Census of 1698. Part I: Structure and Meaning, European Journal of Population". University of California. * ^ A. Boldur, Istoria Basarabiei, Editura Victor Frunza, Bucuresti 1992, pp 98-106 * ^ A. Boldur, Istoria Basarabiei, Editura Victor Frunza, Bucuresti 1992 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Since Theophanes Confessor and Kedrenos, in : A.D. Xenopol, _Istoria Românilor din Dacia Traiană_, Nicolae Iorga, Teodor Capidan, C. Giurescu : _Istoria Românilor_, Petre Ș. Năsturel _Studii și Materiale de Istorie Medie_, vol. XVI, 1998 * ^ Map of Yugoslavia, file East, sq. B/f, Istituto Geografico de Agostini, Novara, in : _Le Million, encyclopédie de tous les pays du monde_, vol. IV, ed. Kister, Geneve, Switzerland, 1970, pp. 290-291, and many other maps Ion Ardeleanu (1985). _From Ancient Dacia to Modern Romania_. Editura Științifică și Enciclopedică. that in 1550 a foreign writer, the Italian Gromo, called the Banat "Valachia citeriore" (the Wallachia which stands on this side). * ^ Z. Konecny, F. Mainus, Stopami Minulosti: Kapitol z Dejin Moravy a Slezka/Traces of the Past: Chapters from the History of Moravia and Silesia, Brno:Blok,1979 * ^ Silviu Dragomir: "Vlahii din nordul peninsulei Balcanice în evul mediu"; 1959, p. 172; * ^ Winnifrith, Tom. "Vlachs". Retrieved 2014-01-13.
* Theodor Capidan , _Aromânii, dialectul aromân. Studiul lingvistic_ ("Aromanians, Aromanian dialect, Linguistic Study"), Bucharest, 1932 * Victor A. Friedman, "The Vlah Minority in Macedonia: Language, Identity, Dialectology, and Standardization" in _Selected Papers in Slavic, Balkan, and Balkan Studies_, ed. Juhani Nuoluoto, _et al._ _Slavica Helsingiensa_:21, Helsinki: University of Helsinki. 2001. 26-50. full text Though focussed on the Vlachs of Macedonia, has in-depth discussion of many topics, including the origins of the Vlachs, their status as a minority in various countries, their political use in various contexts, and so on. * Asterios I. Koukoudis, _The Vlachs: Metropolis and Diaspora_, 2003, ISBN 960-7760-86-7 * George Murnu , _Istoria românilor din Pind, Vlahia Mare 980–1259_ ("History of the Romanians of the Pindus, Greater Vlachia, 980–1259"), Bucharest, 1913 * Ilie Gherghel, Câteva consideraţiuni la cuprinsul noţiunii cuvântului "Vlach". Bucuresti: Convorbiri Literare,(1920). * Nikola Trifon, Les Aroumains, un peuple qui s\'en va (Paris, 2005) ; Cincari, narod koji nestaje (Beograd, 2010) * Steriu T. Hagigogu, "_Romanus şi valachus sau Ce este romanus, roman, român, aromân, valah şi vlah_", Bucharest, 1939 * G. Weigand, Die Aromunen, Bd.Α΄-B΄, J. A. Barth (A.Meiner), Leipzig 1895–1894. * A. Keramopoulos, Ti einai oi koutsovlachoi , publ 2 University Studio Press, Thessaloniki 2000. * A.Hâciu, Aromânii, Comerţ. Industrie.Arte.Expasiune.Civiliytie, tip. Cartea Putnei, Focşani 1936. * Τ. Winnifrith, Τhe Vlachs.Τhe History of a Balkan People, Duckworth 1987 * A. Koukoudis, Oi mitropoleis kai i diaspora ton Vlachon , publ. University Studio Press, Thessaloniki 1999. * Th Capidan, Aromânii, Dialectul Aromân, ed2 Εditură Fundaţiei Culturale Aromâne, Bucureşti 2005
* Theodor Capidan , _Aromânii, dialectul aromân. Studiul lingvistic_ ("Aromanians, The Aromanian dialect. A Linguistic Study"), Bucharest, 1932 * Victor A. Friedman, "The Vlah Minority in Macedonia: Language, Identity, Dialectology, and Standardization" in _Selected Papers in Slavic, Balkan, and Balkan Studies_, ed. Juhani Nuoluoto, _et al._ _Slavica Helsingiensa_:21, Helsinki: University of Helsinki. 2001. 26-50. full text Though focussed on the Vlachs of Macedonia, has in-depth discussion of many topics, including the origins of the Vlachs, their status as a minority in various countries, their political use in various contexts, and so on. * Asterios I. Koukoudis, _The Vlachs: Metropolis and Diaspora_, 2003, ISBN 960-7760-86-7 * George Murnu , _Istoria românilor din Pind, Vlahia Mare 980–1259_ ("History of the Romanians of the Pindus, Greater Vlachia, 980–1259"), Bucharest, 1913 * Nikola Trifon, Les Aroumains, un peuple qui s\'en va (Paris, 2005) ; Cincari, narod koji nestaje (Beograd, 2010) * Steriu T. Hagigogu, "_Romanus şi valachus sau Ce este romanus, roman, român, aromân, valah şi vlah_", Bucharest, 1939 * Franck Vogel , a photo-essay on the Valchs published by GEO magazine (France), 2010. * John Kennedy Campbell, 'Honour Family and Patronage' A Study of Institutions and Moral Values in a Greek Mountain Community, Oxford University Press, 1974 * _The Watchmen_, a documentary film by Alastair Kenneil and Tod Sedgwick (USA) 1971 describes life in the Vlach village of Samarina in Epiros, Northern Greece
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* The Vlac