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Viticulture
Viticulture
(from the Latin
Latin
word for vine) is the science, production, and study of grapes. It deals with the series of events that occur in the vineyard. It is a branch of the science of horticulture. While the native territory of Vitis
Vitis
vinifera, the common grape vine, ranges from Western Europe
Western Europe
to the Persian shores of the Caspian Sea, the vine has demonstrated high levels of adaptability to new environments. For this reason, viticulture can be found on every continent except Antarctica.[1] Duties of the viticulturist include monitoring and controlling pests and diseases, fertilizing, irrigation, canopy management, monitoring fruit development and characteristics, deciding when to harvest, and vine pruning during the winter months. Viticulturists are often intimately involved with winemakers, because vineyard management and the resulting grape characteristics provide the basis from which winemaking can begin. A great number of varieties are now approved in the European Union
European Union
as true grapes for wine-growing and viticulture. It is used majorly in wine industries for wine production,red wine is made from the pulp of red and black grapes.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Roman 1.2 Medieval

2 In mythology 3 The grape vine 4 The berry

4.1 Growing vines

4.1.1 Climate 4.1.2 Slope 4.1.3 Soil

4.2 Hazards

5 Green harvest 6 Field blend 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

History[edit] The earliest evidence of grape vine cultivation and winemaking dates back 7,000 years.[2] The history of viticulture is closely related to the history of wine, with evidence that humans cultivated wild grapes to make wine as far back as the Neolithic
Neolithic
period. Evidence suggests that some of the earliest domestication of Vitis vinifera
Vitis vinifera
occurred in the area of the modern countries Georgia and Armenia.[3] The oldest-known winery was discovered in the "Areni-1" cave in Vayots Dzor, Armenia. Dated to c. 4100 BC, the site contained a wine press, fermentation vats, jars, and cups.[4][5][6][7] Archaeologists also found V. vinifera seeds and vines. Commenting on the importance of the find, McGovern said, "The fact that winemaking was already so well developed in 4000 BC suggests that the technology probably goes back much earlier."[7][8] There is also evidence of grape domestication in the Near East
Near East
in the early Bronze Age, around 3200 BC. Evidence of ancient viticulture is provided by cuneiform sources (ancient writing on clay tablets), plant remains, historical geography, and archaeological excavations.[9] The remnants of ancient wine jars have been used to determine the culture of wine consumption and cultivated grape species.[10] In addition to winemaking, grapes have been grown for the production of raisins.[11] The earliest act of cultivation appears to have been the favoring of hermaphroditic members of the Vitis vinifera
Vitis vinifera
species over the barren male vines and the female vines, which were dependent on a nearby male for pollination. With the ability to pollinate itself, over time the hermaphroditic vines were able to sire offspring that were consistently hermaphroditic.[12] At the end of the 5th century BC, the Greek historian Thucydides wrote:

“ The people of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
began to emerge from barbarism when they learnt to cultivate the olive and the vine.[13] ”

The period that Thucydides
Thucydides
was most likely referencing was the time between 3000 BC and 2000 BC, when viticulture emerged in force in Asia Minor, Greece, and the Cyclades
Cyclades
Islands of the Aegean Sea. During this period, grape cultivation developed from an aspect of local consumption to an important component of international economies and trade.[14] Roman[edit] From 1200 BC to 900 BC, the Phoenicians developed viticulture practices that were later used in Carthage. Around 500 BC, the Carthaginian writer Mago recorded such practices in a two-volume work that was one of the few artifacts to survive the Roman destruction of Carthage
Carthage
during the Third Punic War. The Roman statesman Cato the Elder was influenced by these texts, and around 160 BC he wrote De Agricultura, which expounded on Roman viticulture and agriculture.[15] Around 65 AD, the Roman writer Columella
Columella
produced the most detailed work on Roman viticulture in his twelve-volume text De Re Rustica. Columella's work is one of the earliest to detail trellis systems for raising vines off the ground. Columella
Columella
advocated the use of stakes versus the previously accepted practice of training vines to grow up along tree trunks. The benefits of using stakes over trees was largely to minimize the dangers associated with climbing trees, which was necessary to prune the dense foliage in order to give the vines sunlight, and later to harvest them.[16] Roman expansion
Roman expansion
across Western Europe
Western Europe
brought Roman viticulture to the areas that would become some of the world's best-known wine-growing regions: the Spanish Rioja, the German Mosel, and the French Bordeaux, Burgundy and Rhône. Roman viticulturists were among the first to identify steep hillsides as one of the better locations to plant vines, because cool air runs downhill and gathers at the bottom of valleys. While some cool air is beneficial, too much can rob the vine of the heat it needs for photosynthesis, and in winter it increases the risk of frost.[17] Medieval[edit] In the Middle Ages, Catholic monks (particularly the Cistercians) were the most prominent viticulturists of the time period. Around this time, an early system of Metayage
Metayage
emerged in France with laborers (Prendeur) working the vineyards under contractual agreements with the landowners (Bailleur). In most cases, the prendeurs were given flexibility in selecting their crop and developing their own vineyard practice.[18] In northern Europe, the weather and climate posed difficulties for grape cultivation, so certain species were selected that better suited the environment. Most vineyards grew white varieties of grape, which are more resistant to the damp and cold climates.[19] A few species of red grape, such as the Pinot Noir, were also introduced.[19]

Les Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry
Les Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry
dates back to 1416 and depicts horticulture and viticulture in France.[19] The images illustrate peasants bending down to prune grapes from vines behind castle walls. Additional illustrations depict grape vines being harvested, with each vine being cut to three spurs around knee height.[20] Many of the viticultural practices developed in this time period would become staples of European viticulture until the 18th century. Varietals were studied more intently to see which vines were the most suitable for a particular area. Around this time, an early concept of terroir emerged as wines from particular places began to develop a reputation for uniqueness. The concept of pruning for quality over quantity emerged, mainly through Cistercian labors, though it would create conflict between the rich landowners who wanted higher quality wines and the peasant laborers whose livelihood depended on the quantity of wine they could sell.[21] The Riesling
Riesling
is the famous example for higher quality of wine. In 1435 Count John IV. of Katzenelnbogen started this successful tradition.[22] In Burgundy, the Cistercian monks developed the concept of cru vineyards as homogeneous pieces of land that consistently produce wines each vintage that are similar. In areas like the Côte-d'Or, the monks divided the land into separate vineyards, many of which are still in existence today- like Montrachet
Montrachet
and La Romanée.[23] In mythology[edit] In Greek mythology, the demigod Dionysus
Dionysus
(Roman name: Bacchus) – son of Zeus – invented the grapevine and the winepress. When his closest satyr friend died trying to bring him the vine that Dionysus
Dionysus
thought was important, Dionysus
Dionysus
forced the vine to bear fruit and he later invented wine. His fame spread and he finally became a God. The grape vine[edit] See also: Climate categorizations in viticulture
Climate categorizations in viticulture
and Propagation of grapevines The vast majority of the world's wine producing regions are found between the temperate latitudes of 30° and 50° in each hemisphere.[24] Within these bands, the annual mean temperatures are between 10 and 20 °C (50 and 68 °F). The presence of large bodies of water and mountain ranges can have positive effects on the climate and vines. Nearby lakes and rivers can serve as protection for drastic temperature drops at night by releasing the heat that the water has stored during the day to warm the vines. The berry[edit] reau-ayon 2000 220">Ribéreau-Gayon, P (2000). Handbook of Enology Vol. 1. Chichester, West Sussex, England: John Wiley. p. 220. </ref> In some grape species, clusters ripen collectively which allow them to be harvested together.[25] For others, grapes may ripen individually within a cluster. Each grape berry contains a pedicel which attaches to the rachis. The main function of the rachis is to allow the grapes receive their water and nutrients.[26] The pollination and fertilization of grapes results in one to four seeds within the berry. When fertilization does not occur, seedless grapes are formed, which are sought after for the production of raisins. Regardless of pollination and fertilization, most plants will produce around 100 to 200 grapes.[27] The skin of the grape accounts for 5 to 20% of the total weight of a grape depending on the variety.[28] When grape skin ripens, it contains the majority of the aromatic substances and tannin.[29] These factors become important in winemaking for methods including color extraction or aroma dissolution.[30] Although the skin contains the majority of the tannin, small percentages can be found throughout the grape and during all of its developmental stages. However, the tannin’s most important role is during the grape's ripening stage as its function is to formulate color and body shape.[29] Growing vines[edit] Although many factors can affect the overall quality of a grape vine, the three most important are climate, slope, and soil,[31] often collectively referred to as the terroir.[32] Climate[edit] Climate
Climate
is the most significant factor in determining a grape’s inherent qualities.[24] Each grape species has a uniquely preferred environment for ideal growing. Because climates vary from country to country, selecting the best strain is an important decision in grape cultivation. In addition, because climatic factors such as temperature and rain can be unpredictable and uncontrollable, each year will produce unique qualities and yields of grapes. Grape
Grape
vines need approximately 1300–1500 hours of sunshine during the growing season and around 690 millimetres (27 in) of rainfall throughout the year in order to produce grapes suitable for winemaking. In ideal circumstances, the vine will receive most of the rainfall during the winter and spring months: rain at harvesttime can create many hazards, such as fungal diseases and berry splitting. The optimum weather during the growing season is a long, warm summer that allows the grapes the opportunity to ripen fully and to develop a balance between the levels of acids and sugars in the grape.[33] Hot and sunny climates have a frost-free growing season of 200 days or more.[34] These climates allow grapes to ripen faster with higher sugar levels and lower acidity. Cooler climates have a frost-free growing season of around 150–160 days. Cooler seasons force the grapes to ripen earlier which produces a fresher and more acidic harvest.[31] In general, the average yearly temperature for most crops should average around 15 °C (59 °F) in order for the highest quality to be achieved in each grape. Summer: Ideal temperatures in summer average around 22 °C (72 °F).[31] Ideal summer temperatures enable fruits to ripen. Temperature and sunshine are the most important factors in ripening. Winter: Ideal temperatures in winter average around 3 °C (37 °F).[31] Ideal winter temperatures are necessary to allow grape vines to enter their resting phase.[31] If temperatures fall too low, the crops can be injured. Spring and Fall: Spring and fall are critical seasons for grape development, because the plants are susceptible to frost damage, which can injure the fruiting buds.[31] Wet weather in spring can increase the odds of mildew formation. To prevent mildew, some farms introduce devices such as heaters or large fans in vineyards. However, such solutions can be costly. Slope[edit] Hillsides and slopes are preferred over flatter terrain: vines growing on a slope can receive a greater intensity of the sun's rays, with sunshine falling on an angle perpendicular to the hillside. In flatter terrain, the intensity of the sunlight is diluted as it spreads out across a wider surface area. Small slopes that are elevated above surrounding ground are the best and safest places for crops, because these small elevations are less prone to frost.[34] Additionally, a slope affords better drainage, obviating the possibility that the vine might sit in overly moist soil. In cooler regions of the northern hemisphere, south-facing slopes receive more hours of sunlight and are preferred; in warmer climes, north-facing slopes are preferred. In the southern hemisphere, these orientations are reversed.[35] Soil[edit] Quality soil is important to allow plants to have better root systems.[36] The growth and health of a vine can be affected if the soil quality is poor. Different grape species prefer various soil conditions, although there are general quality factors.[37] Favorable soil conditions include: aeration, loose texture, good drainage and moderate fertility.[36] Drainage
Drainage
factors are cited as the most important soil characteristic to affect grape vine growth.[37] When root growth is restricted due to bad soil, vine growth and fruit yields lessen and plant survival rates can dip to only a few years.[36] Hazards[edit]

Examples of downy and powdery mildew on a grape leaf.

Manual grape gathering

See also: List of grape diseases There are many hazards that a viticulturist needs to be aware of when growing vines. These hazards can have an adverse effect on the wine produced from the grape or kill the vine itself. When the vine is flowering it is very susceptible to weather hazards such as strong winds and hail. Cold temperatures during this period can also bring the onset of millerandage which produces clusters with no seeds and varying sizes. Too much heat can have the opposite reaction and produce Coulure
Coulure
that causes grape clusters to either drop to the ground or not fully develop.[33] Viticultural hazards include:

Oidium: A powdery mildew which can attack all green parts of the vine. If left untreated, odium can be terminal for the plant. It thrives in cooler temperatures and in the shade.[38] Some North American vine species have evolved to show resistance to the mildew (3:37). Downy mildew: Also known as peronospora, thrives in high temperatures and humidity and produces stains on leaves. Peronospora can be treated by spraying plants with copper sulphate. Most American vines are resistant, excluding Vitis
Vitis
vinifera.[39] Fanleaf: can lead to deformity, yellowing of the leaves, and smaller crop yields.[40] Fanleaf is a virus spread by nematodes which breed in the vine stem. There is no cure for the plant, and the best action to take is to remove the infected plants and allow remaining roots in the soil to rot.[40] Frost Phylloxera Plant
Plant
virus

Green harvest[edit] A green harvest is the removal of immature grape bunches, typically for the purpose of decreasing yield. The removal of the bunches while they are still green induces the vine to put all its energy into developing the remaining grapes. In theory this results in better ripening and the development of more numerous and mature flavour compounds. In the absence of a green harvest, a healthy, vigorous vine can produce dilute, unripe grapes. In Europe, many appellations restrict the yield permitted from a given area, so there is even more incentive to perform green harvesting when presented with excess crop. Often, the excess must be sold for a pittance and used for industrial alcohol production rather than wine. While the concept of thinning or sacrificing part of the grape crop, i.e. green harvesting, with the aim of improving the quality of the remaining grapes, predates modern critics, the practice has increased in recent times in vineyards found in California and areas where the grapes grow easily. (McCoy) Field blend[edit]

Mechanical harvesting of Sauvignon blanc
Sauvignon blanc
grapes in Côtes de Duras France

A field blend is a wine that is produced from two or more different grape varieties interplanted in the same vineyard. In the days before precise varietal identification, let alone rigorous clonal selection, a vineyard might be planted by taking cuttings from another vineyard and therefore approximately copying its genetic makeup. This meant that one vine could be Zinfandel
Zinfandel
and the next Carignan. When making wine with little equipment to spare for separate vinification of different varieties, field blends allowed effortless, though inflexible, blending. Fermentation tanks are now cheap enough that the field blend is an anachronism, and almost all wines are assembled by blending from smaller, individual lots. However, in California some of the oldest (and lowest-yielding) Zinfandel
Zinfandel
comes from vineyards that are field-blended. Ridge Vineyards
Ridge Vineyards
owns the Lytton Springs vineyards in Sonoma County, which were planted from 1900 to 1905 in what Ridge calls "a traditional field blend of about seventy percent Zinfandel, twenty percent Petite Sirah, and ten percent Grenache
Grenache
and Carignan." Gemischter Satz (Mixed set) is a wine term in German equivalent to a field blend, which means that grapes of different varieties are planted, harvested and vinified together. In older times, this was common, but the practice has almost stopped. It is, however, a specialty of Vienna. See also[edit]

Wine
Wine
portal

Ampelography Annual growth cycle of grapevines Diurnal temperature variation Global warming and wine List of vineyard soil types Oenology Precision viticulture Vine
Vine
training systems Winemaking

References[edit]

^ Johnson, H. (1989). Vintage: The Story of Wine. Simon & Schuster. pp. 17–19. ISBN 0-671-68702-6.  ^ Philips, Roderick (2000). A Short History of Wine. New York: Ecco.  ^ "Books: Roots of the Vine". Archaeology.org. Retrieved 2012-02-12.  ^ [1]. ^ David Keys (28 December 2003). "Now that's what you call a real vintage: professor unearths 8,000-year-old wine". The Independent. independent.co.uk. Retrieved 13 January 2011.  ^ Mark Berkowitz (September–October 1996). "World's Earliest Wine". Archaeology. Archaeological Institute of America. 49 (5). Retrieved 13 January 2011.  ^ a b "'Oldest known wine-making facility' found in Armenia". BBC News. BBC. 11 January 2011. Retrieved 13 January 2011.  ^ Thomas H. Maugh II (11 January 2011). "Ancient winery found in Armenia". Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles Times Media Group. Retrieved 13 January 2011.  ^ McGovern, Patrick (1996). The Origins and Ancient History of Wine. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Gordon and Breach. p. 99.  ^ McGovern, Patrick (1996). The Origins and Ancient History of Wine. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Gordon and Breach. p. 198.  ^ McGovern, Patrick (1996). The Origins and Ancient History of Wine. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Gordon and Breach. p. 104.  ^ Johnson, H. (1989). Vintage: The Story of Wine. Simon & Schuster. p. 18. ISBN 0-671-68702-6.  ^ Johnson, H. (1989). Vintage: The Story of Wine. Simon & Schuster. p. 35. ISBN 0-671-68702-6.  ^ Johnson, H. (1989). Vintage: The Story of Wine. Simon & Schuster. pp. 35–39. ISBN 0-671-68702-6.  ^ Johnson, H. (1989). Vintage: The Story of Wine. Simon & Schuster. p. 61. ISBN 0-671-68702-6.  ^ Johnson, H. (1989). Vintage: The Story of Wine. Simon & Schuster. p. 68. ISBN 0-671-68702-6.  ^ Johnson, H. (1989). Vintage: The Story of Wine. Simon & Schuster. pp. 82–92. ISBN 0-671-68702-6.  ^ Johnson, H. (1989). Vintage: The Story of Wine. Simon & Schuster. p. 116. ISBN 0-671-68702-6.  ^ a b c Unwin, Tim (1991). Wine
Wine
and the Vine: An Historical Geography of Viticulture
Viticulture
and the Wine
Wine
Trade. London: Routledge. p. 169.  ^ Unwin, Tim (1991). Wine
Wine
and the Vine: An Historical Geography of Viticulture
Viticulture
and the Wine
Wine
Trade. London: Routledge. p. 171.  ^ Johnson, H. (1989). Vintage: The Story of Wine. Simon & Schuster. pp. 121–122. ISBN 0-671-68702-6.  ^ "Katzenelnbogener Weltrekorde: Erster RIESLING und erste BRATWURST!". Graf-von-katzenelnbogen.de. Retrieved 2012-02-12.  ^ Johnson, H. (1989). Vintage: The Story of Wine. Simon & Schuster. pp. 131–132. ISBN 0-671-68702-6.  ^ a b Fraga, H., Garcia de C. A. I., Malheiro, A.C., Santos, J.A., 2016. Modelling climate change impacts on viticultural yield, phenology and stress conditions in Europe. Global Change Biology: doi:10.1111/gcb.13382. ^ Vine, Richard (1997). Winemaking: From Grape
Grape
Growing to Marketplace. New York: Chapman & Hall. p. 24. ISBN 9780412122217.  ^ Ribéreau-Gayon, P (2000). Handbook of Enology Vol. 1. Chichester, West Sussex, England: John Wiley. p. 220.  ^ Ribéreau-Gayon, P (2000). Handbook of Enology Vol. 1. Chichester, West Sussex, England: John Wiley. p. 221.  ^ Vine, Richard (1997). Winemaking: From Grape
Grape
Growing to Marketplace. New York: Chapman & Hall. p. 223. ISBN 9780412122217.  ^ a b Unwin, Tim (1991). Wine
Wine
and the Vine: An Historical Geography of Viticulture
Viticulture
and the Wine
Wine
Trade. London: Routledge. p. 36.  ^ Vine, Richard (1997). Winemaking: From Grape
Grape
Growing to Marketplace. New York: Chapman & Hall. p. 224. ISBN 9780412122217.  ^ a b c d e f Unwin, Tim (1991). Wine
Wine
and the Vine: An Historical Geography of Viticulture
Viticulture
and the Wine
Wine
Trade. London: Routledge. p. 42.  ^ J. Robinson (ed) "The Oxford Companion to Wine" Third Edition pg 693-695 Oxford University Press 2006 ISBN 0-19-860990-6 ^ a b Stevenson, T. (2005). The Sotheby's Wine
Wine
Encyclopedia. pp. 14–15. ISBN 0-7566-1324-8.  ^ a b Vine, Richard (1997). Winemaking: From Grape
Grape
Growing to Marketplace. New York: Chapman & Hall. p. 26. ISBN 9780412122217.  ^ Stevenson, T. (2005). The Sotheby's Wine
Wine
Encyclopedia. p. 16. ISBN 0-7566-1324-8.  ^ a b c Vine, Richard (1997). Winemaking: From Grape
Grape
Growing to Marketplace. New York: Chapman & Hall. p. 27. ISBN 9780412122217.  ^ a b Unwin, Tim (1991). Wine
Wine
and the Vine: An Historical Geography of Viticulture
Viticulture
and the Wine
Wine
Trade. London: Routledge. p. 44.  ^ Unwin, Tim (1991). Wine
Wine
and the Vine: An Historical Geography of Viticulture
Viticulture
and the Wine
Wine
Trade. London: Routledge. p. 37.  ^ Unwin, Tim (1991). Wine
Wine
and the Vine: An Historical Geography of Viticulture
Viticulture
and the Wine
Wine
Trade. London: Routledge. p. 38.  ^ a b Unwin, Tim (1991). Wine
Wine
and the Vine: An Historical Geography of Viticulture
Viticulture
and the Wine
Wine
Trade. London: Routledge. p. 39. 

39. Goldammer, T. (2015). Grape
Grape
Growers Handbook: A Guide To Viticulture
Viticulture
for Wine
Wine
Production. ISBN 978-0-9675212-7-5 Further reading[edit]

Francesco Emanuelli; Silvia Lorenzi; Lukasz Grzeskowiak; Valentina Catalano; Marco Stefanini; Michela Troggio; Sean Myles; José M. Martinez-Zapater; Eva Zyprian; Flavia M. Moreira & M. Stella Grando (2013). "Genetic diversity and population structure assessed by SSR and SNP markers in a large germplasm collection of grape". BMC Plant
Plant
Biology. BioMed Central Ltd. 13: 39. doi:10.1186/1471-2229-13-39. PMC 3610244 . PMID 23497049.  Echikson, Tom. Noble Rot. NY: Norton, 2004. McCoy, Elin. The Emperor of Wine. NY: HarperCollins, 2005. Abu-Hamdeh, N.H. 2003. Compaction and subsoiling effects on corn growth and soil bulk density. Soil
Soil
Society of America Journal. 67:1213-1219. Conradie, W.J., J.L.Van Zyl, P.A. Myburgh. 1996. Effect of soil preparation depth on nutrient leaching and nutrient uptake by young Vitis vinifera
Vitis vinifera
L.cv Pinot noir. South African Journal of Enol. Vitic. 17:43-52. Dami, I.E., B. Bordelon, D.C. Ferree, M. Brown, M.A. Ellis, R.N. William, and D. Doohan. 2005. Midwest Grape
Grape
Production Guide. The Ohio State Univ. Coop. Extension. Service. Bulletin. 919-5. Kurtural, S.K. 2007. Desired Soil
Soil
Properties for Vineyard
Vineyard
Site Selection. University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service. HortFact – 31- 01. Kurtural, S.K. 2007. Vineyard
Vineyard
Design. University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service. HortFact – 3103. Kurtural, S.K. 2007. Vineyard
Vineyard
Site Selection. University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service. HortFact – 31-02. Phin, John. 1862 (still in print). Open Air Grape
Grape
Culture : A Practical Treatise On the Garden
Garden
and Vineyard
Vineyard
Culture of the Vine, and the Manufacture of Domestic Wine
Wine
Designed For the Use of Amateurs and Others. Schonbeck, M.W. 1998. Cover Cropping and Green Manuring on Small Farms in New England and New York. Research Report #10, New Alchemy Institute, 237 Hatchville Rd. Falmouth, MA 02536. Tesic, Dejan, M. Keller, R.J. Hutton. 2007. Influence of Vineyard Floor Management Practices on Grapevine Vegetative Growth, Yield, and Fruit
Fruit
Composition. American Journal of Enol. Vitic. 58:1:1-11. Zabadal, J.T. Anderson, J.A. Vineyard
Vineyard
Establishment I – Preplant Decisions. MSU Extension Fruit
Fruit
Bulletins – 26449701. 1999. Tesic, Dejan, M. Keller, R.J. Hutton. Influence of Vineyard
Vineyard
Floor Management Practices on Grapevine Vegetative Growth, Yield, and Fruit Composition. American Journal of Enol. Vitic. 58:1:1-11. 2007.

External links[edit]

Wikiversity has learning resources about Viticulture

LIVE – Low Input Viticulture
Viticulture
and Enology, Sustainable Viticulture Certification AJEV – American Journal of Enology and Viticulture Grape
Grape
Pest Management Guidelines (IPM) UC IPM Online Pest SAFECROP – Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Grapevine Downy and Powdery Mildew Viticulture
Viticulture
and Enology at Washington State University Guide to Grape
Grape
Vines Viticulture
Viticulture
on www.extension.org GrapeLook: remote sensing for viticulture

v t e

Viticulture

Biology and horticulture

Ampelography Annual growth cycle of grapevines Grape
Grape
varieties Grapes Hybrid grape International Grape
Grape
Genome Program Ripening (Veraison) Rootstock Vineyard Vitis Vitis
Vitis
vinifera

Environmental variation

Climate
Climate
categories Diurnal temperature variation Drainage Microclimate Regional climate levels Soil
Soil
types Terroir Topography

aspect elevation slope

Vineyard planting

Grapevine planting Propagation Row orientation Trellis design Vine
Vine
training Yield

Vineyard management

Canopy Clos Coulure Erosion control Fertilizer Frost
Frost
damage prevention Green harvest (Vendange verte) Integrated pest management Irrigation Klopotec Millerandage Pruning Weed control

Harvest

Brix Festivals Noble rot Ripeness Vintage Weather

Pests and diseases

Birds Black rot Botrytis bunch rot Bot canker Dead arm Downy mildew Grapevine yellows Great French Wine
Wine
Blight Lepidoptera Nematodes Phylloxera Pierce's disease Powdery mildew

Uncinula necator

Red spider mite Vine
Vine
moth

Approaches and issues

Adaptive management Biodynamic wine Climate
Climate
change Effects of climate change on wine production Environmental stewardship Organic farming Sustainable agriculture

See also

Glossary of viticulture terms Glossary of wine terms Glossary of winemaking terms Oenology Wine Winemaking

v t e

Wines and winemaking

General

Acids in wine Aging of wine Annual growth cycle of grapevines Aroma of wine Alternative wine closure Cork History Oak Oenology Screw cap Sommelier Terroir Vineyard Viticulture Wine
Wine
and food matching Wine
Wine
fault Wine
Wine
personalities Wine
Wine
tasting Wine
Wine
tasting descriptors

Styles and methods of production

Aromatized Biodynamic Dessert Fortified Ice Kosher Noble rot Orange Organic Red Rosé Sparkling Straw Table White

Grape
Grape
varieties

International

White

Chardonnay Chenin blanc Gewürztraminer Muscat Riesling Sauvignon blanc Sémillon

Red

Cabernet Sauvignon Merlot Pinot noir Syrah / Shiraz

Regional

White

Agh Shani Albariño Aligoté Arneis Assyrtiko Chinuri Furmint Garganega Glera Grüner Veltliner Kerner Khikhvi Krakhuna Krstač Malvasia Manata Marsanne Mtsvani Müller-Thurgau Pinot blanc Pinot gris / Pinot grigio Ribolla Gialla Rkatsiteli Roussanne Shesh i Bardhë Silvaner Smederevka Tamjanika Tetra Torrontés Ugni blanc / Trebbiano Tsitska Tsolikouri Verdejo Verdicchio Viognier

Red

Abbuoto Agiorgitiko Aglianico Aladasturi Aleksandrouli Alicante Bouschet Asuretuli Băbească neagră Barbera Blaufränkisch Bobal Cabernet Franc Caiño tinto Caladoc Calitor Çalkarası Camaraou Canaiolo Carignan Carménère Castelão Catanese Cesanese César Chatus Cienna Ciliegiolo Cinsaut Cornalin d'Aoste Corvina Dolcetto Dzvelshava Enfariné noir Espadeiro Étraire Fer Fetească neagră Forcallat tinta Fortana Frappato Freisa Frühroter Veltliner Fuella Gaglioppo Gamaret Gamay Garanoir Garró Gibrita Girò Gouget noir Graciano Grand Noir de la Calmette Grenache / Garnacha Grignolino Grisa nera Grolleau Groppello Gros Verdot Gueuche noir Helfensteiner Heroldrebe Hondarribi Beltza Hron Izabella Jaén tinto Joubertin Juan García Kadarka Kalecik Karası Kotsifali Krasnostop Kratosija Lacrima Lagrein Lambrusco Liatiko Limnio Listán negro Madrasa Magarach Ruby Magliocco Canino Magliocco Dolce Mammolo Mandilaria Manseng Manto negro Malbec Maratheftiko Marselan Marzemino Mauzac noir Mavro Mavrodafni Mavrud Mencía / Jaen Mission Montepulciano Mujuretuli Mourvèdre / Monastrell / Mataro Nebbiolo Negroamaro Nero d'Avola Ojaleshi Petit Verdot Petite sirah / Durif Piedirosso Pinot Meunier Pinotage Plavac Mali Poulsard Prokupac Sagrantino Sangiovese Saperavi Shesh i Zi Tannat Tavkveri Tempranillo Touriga Nacional Trollinger Usakhelauri Vermentino Vranac Xinomavro Žametovka Zinfandel / Primitivo Zweigelt

Glossary Outline

v t e

Winemaking

Harvest

Late harvest wine Noble rot Vintage

Pressing

Deacidification Destemming Chaptalization Pigeage Wine
Wine
press

Fermentation

Carbonic maceration Maceration Malolactic fermentation Sparkling wine
Sparkling wine
production Sugars in wine Süssreserve Traditional method Yeast assimilable nitrogen Yeast in winemaking

Aging

Oak Solera Storage of wine

Bottling

Alternative wine closure Bung Clarification and stabilization of wine Cork Muselet Screw cap Ullage Wine
Wine
bottle

History

Ancient Greece Ancient Rome Bordeaux Champagne Chianti French Middle East Oldest prehistoric winery Phoenicians Portuguese Rioja Sherry South African Wine
Wine
press

See also

Glossary of viticulture terms Glossary of wine terms Glossary of winemaking terms Oenology Viticulture Wine Wine
Wine
chemistry Wine
Wine
glass

v t e

Horticulture
Horticulture
and gardening

Gardening

History Design

computer-aided

Garden
Garden
tool Green wall Arboretum Allotment Butterfly Community Forest French intensive Guerrilla Garden Historic conservation Landscape Native Parterre Raised bed Square foot Sustainable Xeriscaping

Types of gardens

Back Biblical Botanical Butterfly Byzantine Cactus Cantonese Chinese Color Container Cottage Dutch English Fernery Floating Flower French

formal landscape Renaissance

Front Greek Greenhouse Hanging Hügelkultur Islamic Italian Japanese Kitchen Knot Korean Market Mary Monastic Mughal Orangery Orchard Persian

Bagh Charbagh Paradise

Philosophical Pleasure Roman Spanish Rain Rose Roof Sacred Scottish Sculpture Sensory Shade Therapeutic Trial Tropical Victory Vineyard Walled Water Wildlife Winter Zen Zoological

Horticulture

Agriculture

stock-free sustainable urban

Arboriculture Botany Companion planting Crop

most valuable

Flora Floriculture Fruticulture Genetically modified tree Hydroculture Indigenous Intercropping Landscape architecture Oenology Olericulture Plant

breeding propagation drought tolerance hardiness

Pomology Postharvest physiology Tropical Urban

agriculture horticulture forestry reforestation

Viticulture

Organic

Biodynamic agriculture List of organic gardening and farming topics Vegan organic gardening

Plant
Plant
protection

Fungicide Herbicide Index of pesticide articles List of fungicides Pesticide Plant
Plant
disease forecasting Pruning Weed control

Agriculture
Agriculture
and agronomy portal Gardening
Gardening
portal Commons

Authority control

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