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The Vistula
Vistula
(/ˈvɪstjʊlə/; Polish: Wisła
Wisła
[ˈvʲiswa], German: Weichsel [ˈvaɪksl̩], Low German: Wießel, Yiddish: ווייסל‎ Yiddish pronunciation: [vajsl̩]) is the longest and largest river in Poland, at 1,047 kilometres (651 miles) in length. The drainage basin area of the Vistula
Vistula
is 194,424 km2 (75,068 sq mi), of which 168,699 km2 (65,135 sq mi) lies within Poland
Poland
(splitting the country in half). The remainder is in Belarus, Ukraine
Ukraine
and Slovakia. The Vistula
Vistula
rises at Barania Góra
Barania Góra
in the south of Poland, 1,220 meters (4,000 ft) above sea level in the Silesian Beskids (western part of Carpathian Mountains), where it begins with the White Little Vistula
Vistula
(Biała Wisełka) and the Black Little Vistula
Vistula
(Czarna Wisełka).[1] It then continues to flow over the vast Polish plains, passing several large Polish cities along its way, including Kraków, Sandomierz, Warsaw, Płock, Włocławek, Toruń, Bydgoszcz, Świecie, Grudziądz, Tczew
Tczew
and Gdańsk. It empties into the Vistula
Vistula
Lagoon (Zalew Wiślany) or directly into the Gdańsk
Gdańsk
Bay of the Baltic Sea with a delta and several branches (Leniwka, Przekop, Śmiała Wisła, Martwa Wisła, Nogat
Nogat
and Szkarpawa).

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Sources 3 Geography 4 Major cities and towns along Vistula
Vistula
tributaries 5 Delta of the Vistula
Vistula
River

5.1 Tributaries 5.2 Climate change and the flooding of the Vistula
Vistula
delta

6 Geological history 7 Navigation 8 Historical relevance

8.1 Main trading artery 8.2 World War II

9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Etymology[edit] The name was first recorded by Pomponius Mela
Pomponius Mela
in AD 40 and by Pliny in AD 77 in his Natural History. Mela names the river Vistula
Vistula
(3.33), Pliny uses Vistla (4.81, 4.97, 4.100). The root of the name Vistula
Vistula
is Indo-European *u̯eis- 'to ooze, flow slowly' (cf. Sanskrit
Sanskrit
अवेषन् / aveṣan 'they flowed', Old Norse
Old Norse
veisa 'slime') and is found in many European rivernames (e.g. Weser, Viesinta).[2] The diminutive endings -ila, -ula, were used in many Indo-European languages, including Latin (see Ursula). In writing about the Vistula
Vistula
River and its peoples, Ptolemy
Ptolemy
uses the Greek spelling Ouistoula. Other ancient sources spell it Istula. Ammianus Marcellinus refers to the Bisula (Book 22); note the absence of the -t-. Jordanes (Getica 5 & 17) uses Viscla, while the Anglo-Saxon poem Widsith refers to it as the Wistla.[3] 12th-century Polish chronicler Wincenty Kadłubek
Wincenty Kadłubek
Latinised the rivername as Vandalus, a form presumably influenced by Lithuanian vanduõ 'water', while Jan Długosz
Jan Długosz
in his Annales seu cronicae incliti regni Poloniae called the Vistula
Vistula
'white waters' (Alba aqua), perhaps referring to the White Little Vistula
Vistula
(Biała Wisełka): "a nationibus orientalibus Polonis vicinis, ob aquae candorem Alba aqua ... nominatur." Sources[edit] The Vistula
Vistula
river is formed in the southern Silesian Voivodeship
Silesian Voivodeship
of Poland
Poland
from two sources, the Czarna ("Black") Wisełka at an altitude of 1,107 m (3,632 ft) and the Biała ("White") Wisełka at an altitude of 1,080 m (3,540 ft)[4] on the western slope of Barania Góra
Barania Góra
in the Silesian Beskids.[5] Geography[edit] The reaches of the Vistula
Vistula
are composed of three stretches: upper, from its sources to the city of Sandomierz; centre, from Sandomierz
Sandomierz
to the mouth of Narew
Narew
and Bug; and bottom, from mouth of Narew
Narew
till Vistula's own delta at the Baltic. The Vistula
Vistula
river basin covers 194,424 square kilometres (75,068 square miles) (in Poland
Poland
168,700 square kilometres (65,135 square miles)); its average altitude rising to 270 metres (886 feet) above sea level. In addition, the majority of its river basin (55%) is located at heights of 100 to 200 m above sea level; over ​3⁄4 of the river basin ranges from 100 to 300 metres (328 to 984 feet) in altitude. The highest point of the river basin lies at 2,655 metres (8,711 feet) (Gerlach Peak in the Tatra mountains). One of the features of the river basin of the Vistula
Vistula
is its asymmetry—in great measure resulting from the tilting direction of the Central-European Lowland toward the north-west, the direction of the flow of glacial waters, as well as considerable predisposition of its older base. The asymmetry of the river basin (right-hand to left-hand side) is 73–27%. The most recent glaciation of the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
epoch, which ended around 10,000 BC, is called the Vistulian glaciation or Weichselian glaciation in regard to north-central Europe.[6] Major cities and towns along Vistula
Vistula
tributaries[edit]

Vistula
Vistula
River

Vistula
Vistula
River in the vicinity of Płock, Poland

Vistula
Vistula
River flowing through Kraków, Poland

Medieval Wawel Castle
Wawel Castle
in Kraków
Kraków
seen from the Vistula
Vistula
river

Royal Castle in Sandomierz
Sandomierz
seen from the Vistula
Vistula
river

Renaissance town of Kazimierz Dolny
Kazimierz Dolny
overlooking serene Vistula

Granaries in Grudziądz
Grudziądz
seen from the left riverside of the Vistula river, 13th–17th century

Agglomeration Tributary

Wisła
Wisła
(Silesian Voivodeship) river source: Biała Wisełka and Czarna Wisełka

Ustroń

Skoczów Brennica

Strumień Knajka

Goczałkowice-Zdrój

Czechowice-Dziedzice Biała

Brzeszcze Vistula, Soła

Oświęcim Soła

Zator Skawa

Skawina Skawinka

Kraków
Kraków
(Cracow) Sanka, Rudawa, Prądnik, Dłubnia, Wilga (most are canalized streams)

Niepołomice

Nowe
Nowe
Brzesko

Nowy Korczyn Nida

Opatowiec Dunajec

Szczucin

Połaniec Czarna

Baranów Sandomierski Babolówka

Tarnobrzeg

Sandomierz Koprzywianka, Trześniówka,

Zawichost

Annopol Sanna

Józefów
Józefów
nad Wisłą

Solec nad Wisłą

Kazimierz Dolny Bystra

Puławy Kurówka

Dęblin Wieprz

Magnuszew

Wilga Wilga

Góra Kalwaria Czarna

Karczew

Otwock, Józefów Świder

Konstancin-Jeziorna Jeziorka

Warsaw Żerań canal (incl. several smaller streams)

Łomianki

Legionowo

Modlin Narew

Zakroczym

Czerwińsk nad Wisłą

Wyszogród Bzura

Płock Słupianka, Rosica, Brzeźnica, Skrwa Lewa, Skrwa Prawa

Dobrzyń nad Wisłą

Włocławek Zgłowiączka

Nieszawa Mień

Ciechocinek

Toruń Drwęca, Bacha

Solec Kujawski

Bydgoszcz Brda (canalized)

Chełmno

Świecie Wda

Grudziądz

Nowe

Gniew Wierzyca

Delta of the Vistula
Vistula
River[edit] The river forms a wide delta called the Żuławy Wiślane
Żuławy Wiślane
around the town of Biała Góra near Sztum, about 50 km (31 mi) from the mouth, splitting into two branches: the Leniwka
Leniwka
(left) and the Nogat
Nogat
(right). In the city of Gdańsk
Gdańsk
the Head of the Leniwka
Leniwka
branch separates again into the Szkarpawa branch, for the purpose of flood control closed to the east with a lock. The so-called Dead Wisła divides again into the Przegalinie branch flowing into Gdańsk
Gdańsk
Bay. Until the 14th century the Vistula
Vistula
was divided into a main eastern branch, the Elbląg
Elbląg
Vistula, and the smaller western branch, the Gdańsk
Gdańsk
Vistula. Since 1371 the Vistula
Vistula
of Gdańsk
Gdańsk
is the river's main artery. After the flood in 1840 an additional branch formed called the Śmiała Wisła ("Bold Vistula"). In 1890 through 1895, additional waterworks were carried out up the Świbna. The Nogat
Nogat
formed part of the border between East Prussia and interwar Poland. Near Kwidzyn
Kwidzyn
the Vistula
Vistula
divides into two separate branches that constitute the river delta:

Nogat Leniwka

Town Tributaries Remarks Town Tributaries Remarks

Sztum

Tczew

Malbork

Gdańsk Motława, Radunia, Potok Oliwski in the city the river divides into several separate branches that reach the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
at different points, the main branch reaches the sea at Westerplatte

Elbląg Elbląg shortly before reaching Vistula
Vistula
Bay

Tributaries[edit] List of right and left tributaries with a nearby city, from source to mouth:

Right tributaries

Brennica—Skoczów Iłownica Biała—Czechowice-Dziedzice Soła Skawa—Zator Skawinka—Skawina Wilga—Kraków Drwinka Raba Gróbka Uszwica Kisielina Dunajec Breń Brnik Wisłoka Babulówka—Baranów Sandomierski Trześniówka—Sandomierz Łęg—Sandomierz San Sanna—Annopol Wyżnica—Józefów Chodelka Bystra—Bochotnica Kurówka—Puławy Wieprz—Dęblin Okrzejka Promnik Wilga—Wilga Świder—Otwock, Józefów Kanał Żerański—Warsaw Narew—Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki Mołtawa Słupianka—Płock Rosica—Płock Brzeźnica—Płock Skrwa Prawa—Płock Mień—Nieszawa Drwęca—Toruń Bacha—Toruń Struga Osa—Grudziądz Liwa

       Left tributaries

Krajka—Strumień Pszczynka Gostynia Przemsza—Chełmek Chech Rudno Sanka—Kraków Rudawa—Kraków Prądnik—Kraków Dłubnia—Kraków Roporek— Nowe
Nowe
Brzesko Szreniawa Nidzica Nida—Nowy Korczyn Strumień Czarna—Połaniec Koprzywianka—Sandomierz Opatówka Kamienna Krępianka—Solec nad Wisłą Iłżanka Zwoleńka Plewka—Janowiec Zagożdzonka—Kozienice Radomka Pilica—Warka Czarna—Góra Kalwaria Jeziorka—Konstancin-Jeziorna Bzura—Wyszogród Skrwa Lewa—Płock Zgłowiączka—Włocławek Tążyna Zielona Brda—Bydgoszcz Wda—Świecie Wierzyca—Gniew Motława—Gdańsk Radunia—Gdańsk

Climate change and the flooding of the Vistula
Vistula
delta[edit]

Widespread flooding along the Vistula
Vistula
River in south-eastern Poland

According to flood studies carried out by Professor Zbigniew Pruszak, who is the co-author of the scientific paper Implications of SLR[7] and further studies carried out by scientists attending Poland's Final International ASTRA Conference,[8] and predictions stated by climate scientists at the climate change pre-summit in Copenhagen,[9] it is highly likely most of the Vistula
Vistula
Delta region (which is below sea level[10]) will be flooded due to the sea level rise caused by climate change by 2100. Geological history[edit] The history of the River Vistula
Vistula
and her valley spans over 2 million years. The river is connected to the geological period called the Quaternary, in which distinct cooling of the climate took place. In the last million years, an ice sheet entered the area of Poland
Poland
eight times, bringing along with it changes of reaches of the river. In warmer periods, when the ice sheet retreated, the Vistula
Vistula
deepened and widened its valley. The river took its present shape within the last 14,000 years, after complete recession of the Scandinavian ice sheet from the area. At present, along the Vistula
Vistula
valley, erosion of the banks and collecting of new deposits are still occurring.[11] As the principal river of Poland, the Vistula
Vistula
is also located in the centre of Europe. Three principal geographical and geological land masses of the continent meet in her river basin: the lowland Eastern European shield, the area of uplands and low mountains of Western Europe, and the Alpine zone of high mountains to which both the Alps and the Carpathians
Carpathians
belong. The Vistula
Vistula
begins in the Carpathian mountains. The run and character of the river was shaped by ice sheets flowing down from the Scandinavian Peninsula. The last ice sheet entered the area of Poland
Poland
about 20,000 years ago. During periods of warmer weather, the ancient Vistula, "Pra-Wisła", searched for the shortest way to the sea—thousands of years ago it flowed into the North Sea
North Sea
somewhere at the latitude of contemporary Scotland. The climate of the Vistula
Vistula
valley, its plants, animals and its very character changed considerably during the process of glacial retreat.[12]

Biała Wisełka

Lake Morskie Oko, White Dunajec
Dunajec
Springs

Vistula
Vistula
flooding south of Warsaw, 2004

Vistula
Vistula
in Płock

Navigation[edit] The Vistula
Vistula
is navigable from the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
to Bydgoszcz
Bydgoszcz
(where the Bydgoszcz
Bydgoszcz
Canal joins the river). The Vistula
Vistula
can accommodate modest river vessels of CEMT class II. Farther upstream the river depth lessens. Although a project was undertaken to increase the traffic-carrying capacity of the river upstream of Warsaw
Warsaw
by building a number of locks in and around Kraków, this project was not extended further, so that navigability of the Vistula
Vistula
remains limited. The potential of the river would increase considerably if a restoration of the East-West connection via the Narew–Bug–Mukhovets–Pripyat–Dnieper waterways were considered. The shifting economic importance of parts of Europe may make this option more likely. Historical relevance[edit]

Vistula
Vistula
valley east (upstream) of Toruń

Large parts of the Vistula
Vistula
Basin were occupied by the Iron Age Lusatian and Przeworsk cultures in the first millennium BC. Genetic analysis indicates that there has been an unbroken genetic continuity[clarification needed] of the inhabitants over the last 3,500 years.[13] The Vistula
Vistula
Basin along with the lands of the Rhine, Danube, Elbe, and Oder
Oder
came to be called Magna Germania
Magna Germania
by Roman authors of the 1st century AD.[13] This doesn't imply that the inhabitants were "Germanic" in the modern sense of the term; Tacitus, when describing the Venethi, Peucini
Peucini
and Fenni, wrote that he was not sure if he should call them Germans, since they had settlements and they fought on foot, or rather Sarmatians
Sarmatians
since they have some similar customs to them.[14] Ptolemy, in the 2nd century AD, would describe the Vistula
Vistula
as the border between Germania
Germania
and Sarmatia.

Death of Princess Wanda, by Maksymilian Piotrowski, 1859

The Vistula
Vistula
river used to be connected to the Dnieper River, and thence to the Black Sea
Black Sea
via the Augustów Canal, a technological marvel with numerous sluices contributing to its aesthetic appeal. It was the first waterway in Central Europe
Central Europe
to provide a direct link between the two major rivers, the Vistula
Vistula
and the Neman. It provided a link with the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the south through the Oginski Canal, Dnieper River, Berezina Canal, and Dvina River. The Baltic Sea–Vistula–Dnieper– Black Sea
Black Sea
route with its rivers was one of the most ancient trade routes, the Amber Road, on which amber and other items were traded from Northern Europe
Northern Europe
to Greece, Asia, Egypt, and elsewhere.[15][16]

A Vistulan stronghold in Wiślica
Wiślica
once stood here.

The Vistula
Vistula
estuary was settled by Slavs in the 7th and 8th century.[17] Based on archeological and linguistic findings, it has been postulated that these settlers moved northward along the Vistula river.[17] This however contradicts another hypothesis supported by some researchers saying the Veleti
Veleti
moved westward from the Vistula delta.[17] A number of West Slavic Polish tribes
Polish tribes
formed small dominions beginning in the 8th century, some of which coalesced later into larger ones. Among the tribes listed in the Bavarian Geographer's 9th century document were the Vistulans
Vistulans
(Wiślanie) in southern Poland. Kraków and Wiślica
Wiślica
were their main centres. Many Polish legends are connected with the Vistula
Vistula
and the beginnings of Polish statehood. One of the most enduring is that about princess Wanda co nie chciała Niemca (who rejected the German).[18] According to the most popular variant, popularized by the 15th-century historian Jan Długosz,[19] Wanda, daughter of King Krak, became queen of the Poles upon her father's death.[18] She refused to marry a German prince Rytigier (Rüdiger), who took offence and invaded Poland, but was repelled.[20] Wanda however committed suicide, drowning in the Vistula
Vistula
river, to ensure he would not invade her country again.[20] Main trading artery[edit]

The 11th century Benedictine Abbey in Tyniec
Tyniec
overlooks the Vistula.

For hundreds of years the river was one of the main trading arteries of Poland, and the castles that line its banks were highly prized possessions. Salt, timber, grain, and building stone were among goods shipped via that route between the 10th and 13th centuries.[21]

Vistula
Vistula
river near the Duke of Masovia
Duke of Masovia
Castle in Czersk

In the 14th century the lower Vistula
Vistula
was controlled by the Teutonic Knights Order, invited in 1226 by Konrad I of Masovia
Konrad I of Masovia
to help him fight the pagan Prussians on the border of his lands. In 1308 the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
captured the Gdańsk
Gdańsk
castle and murdered the population.[22] Since then the event is known as the Gdańsk slaughter. The Order had inherited Gniew
Gniew
from Sambor II, thus gaining a foothold on the left bank of the Vistula.[23] Many granaries and storehouses, built in the 14th century, line the banks of the Vistula.[24] In the 15th century the city of Gdańsk
Gdańsk
gained great importance in the Baltic area as a centre of merchants and trade and as a port city. While at this time the surrounding lands were inhabited by Pomeranians, Gdańsk
Gdańsk
soon became a starting point for German settlement of the largely fallow Vistulan country.[25] Before its peak in 1618, trade increased by a factor of 20 from 1491. This factor is evident when looking at the tonnage of grain traded on the river in the key years of: 1491: 14,000; 1537: 23,000; 1563: 150,000; 1618: 310,000.[26]

Vistula
Vistula
river in Warsaw
Warsaw
near the end of the 16th century. The right side shows the Sigismund Augustus bridge built 1568–1573 by Erazm Cziotko (c. 500 m (1,600 ft) long).[27]

In the 16th century most of the grain exported was leaving Poland through Gdańsk, which because of its location at the terminal point of the Vistula
Vistula
and its tributaries waterway and of its Baltic seaport trade role became the wealthiest, most highly developed (by far the largest center of crafts and manufacturing) and most autonomous of the Polish cities.[28] Other towns were negatively affected by Gdańsk's near-monopoly in foreign trade. During the reign of Stephen Báthory Poland
Poland
ruled two main Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
ports: Gdańsk[29] controlling the Vistula
Vistula
river trade and Riga
Riga
controlling the Western Dvina trade. Both cities were among the largest in the country. Around 70% the exports from Gdańsk
Gdańsk
were of grain.[26] Grain
Grain
was also the largest export commodity of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The volume of traded grain can be considered a good and well-measured proxy for the economic growth of the Commonwealth.

Vistula
Vistula
river (Vistvla fluvivs) in Toruń
Toruń
in 1641

The owner of a folwark usually signed a contract with the merchants of Gdańsk, who controlled 80% of this inland trade, to ship the grain north to that seaport on the Baltic Sea. Many rivers in the Commonwealth were used for shipping purposes, including the Vistula. The river had a relatively well-developed infrastructure, with river ports and granaries. Most river shipping travelled north, with southward transport being less profitable, and barges and rafts often being sold off in Gdańsk
Gdańsk
for lumber. In order to arrest recurrent flooding on the lower Vistula, the Prussian government in 1889–95 constructed an artificial channel about 12 kilometres (7 miles) east of Gdańsk
Gdańsk
(German name: Danzig)—known as the Vistula
Vistula
Cut (German: Weichseldurchstich; Polish: Przekop
Przekop
Wisły)—that acted as a huge sluice, diverting much of the Vistula
Vistula
flow directly into the Baltic. As a result, the historic Vistula
Vistula
channel through Gdańsk
Gdańsk
lost much of its flow, and was known thereafter as the Dead Vistula
Vistula
(German: Tote Weichsel; Polish: Martwa Wisła). German states got complete control of the region in 1795–1812 (see: Partitions of Poland), as well as during the World Wars, in 1914–1918 and 1939–1945.

Jewish Feast of trumpets (Polish: Święto trąbek) at the banks of the Vistula, Aleksander Gierymski, 1884

From 1867 to 1917, the Russian tsarist administration called the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
the Vistula Land
Vistula Land
after the collapse of the January Uprising (1863–1865).[30] Almost 75% of the territory of interbellum Poland
Poland
was drained northward into the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
by the Vistula
Vistula
(total area of drainage basin of the Vistula
Vistula
within boundaries of the Second Polish Republic was 180,300 km²), the Niemen
Niemen
(51,600 km²), the Odra (46,700 km²) and the Daugava (10,400 km²).

Kierbedzia Bridge
Kierbedzia Bridge
over the Vistula
Vistula
in Warsaw
Warsaw
(c. 1900). This framework bridge was constructed by Stanisław Kierbedź
Stanisław Kierbedź
in 1850–1864. It was destroyed by the Germans in 1944.[31]

In 1920 the decisive battle of the Polish–Soviet War
Polish–Soviet War
Battle
Battle
of Warsaw
Warsaw
(sometimes referred to as the Miracle at the Vistula), was fought as Red Army
Red Army
forces commanded by Mikhail Tukhachevsky
Mikhail Tukhachevsky
approached the Polish capital of Warsaw
Warsaw
and nearby Modlin Fortress
Modlin Fortress
situated on the mouth of the Vistula.[32] World War II[edit] The Polish September campaign
Polish September campaign
included battles over control of the mouth of the Vistula, and of the city of Gdańsk, so close to the river delta. During the Invasion of Poland
Poland
(1939), after the initial battles in Pomerelia, the remains of the Polish Army of Pomerania withdrew to the southern bank of the Vistula.[33] After defending Toruń
Toruń
for several days, the army withdrew further south under pressure of the overall strained strategic situation, and took part in the main battle of Bzura.[33] The Auschwitz
Auschwitz
complex of concentration camps was located on the Vistula, at the confluence of the Vistula
Vistula
and the Soła
Soła
rivers.[34] Ashes of murdered Auschwitz
Auschwitz
victims were dumped into the river.[35] During World War II
World War II
prisoners of war from the Nazi Stalag XX-B camp were assigned to cut ice blocks from the River Vistula. The ice would then be transported by truck to the local beer houses. The 1944 Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising was planned with the expectation that the Soviet forces, who had arrived in the course of their offensive and were waiting on the other side of the Vistula
Vistula
River in full force, would help in the battle for Warsaw.[36] However the Soviets let down the Poles, stopping their advance at the Vistula
Vistula
and branding the insurgents as criminals in radio broadcasts.[36][37][38] In early 1945 the Red Army
Red Army
crossed the Vistula
Vistula
and drove the German Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
back past the Oder
Oder
river in Germany in the Vistula–Oder Offensive. See also[edit]

Rivers of Poland Geography of Poland Vistula
Vistula
Lagoon Vistula
Vistula
Spit

References[edit]

^ Barania Góra
Barania Góra
- Tam, gdzie biją źródła Wisły at PolskaNiezwykla.pl ^ D.Q. Adams, Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture (London: Fitzroy–Dearborn, 1997), 207. ^ William Napier (20 November 2005). "Building a Library: The Fall of Rome". findarticles.com. Independent Newspapers UK Limited. Retrieved 1 April 2009. [dead link] ^ Żaneta Kosińska: Rzeka Wisła. ^ Nazewnictwo geograficzne Polski. T.1: Hydronimy. 2cz. w 2 vol. ISBN 83-239-9607-5.  ^ Wysota, W.; Molewski, P.; Sokołowski, R.J., Robert J. (2009). "Record of the Vistula
Vistula
ice lobe advances in the Late Weichselian glacial sequence in north-central Poland". Quaternary
Quaternary
International. 207: 26. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2008.12.015.  ^ Zbigniew Pruszaka; Elżbieta Zawadzka. "Potential Implications of Sea-Level Rise for Poland". www.bioone.org. Retrieved 23 October 2009.  ^ "Final International ASTRA conference in Espoo, Finland, 10–11 December 2007". www.astra-project.org. Retrieved 23 October 2009.  ^ Matt McGrath (12 March 2009). "Climate scenarios 'being realised'". BBC News. Retrieved 23 October 2009.  ^ "Hydrology and morphology of two river mouth regions (temperate Vistula
Vistula
Delta and subtropical Red River Delta)" (PDF). www.iopan.gda.pl. Retrieved 23 October 2009.  ^ Państwowy Instytut Geologiczny (State Geological Institute), Warsaw, "Geologiczna historia Wisły" ^ R. Mierzejewski, Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Filmowa, Telewizyjna i Teatralna im. Leona Schillera w Łodzi, Narodziny rzeki ^ a b Jędrzej Giertych. "Tysiąc lat historii narodu polskiego" (in Polish). www.chipublib.org. Retrieved 3 April 2009.  ^ De Origine et Situ Germanorum by Cornelius Tacitus ^ Augustów Canal
Augustów Canal
on UNESCO Tentative List of Cultural Properties ^ The Augustów Canal
Augustów Canal
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(in German). Routledge. ISBN 0-7100-8647-4.  p.35 ^ a b Krzysztof Olszewski (2007). The Rise and Decline of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth due to Grain
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External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vistula.

Geographic data related to Vistula
Vistula
at OpenStreetMap Vistula
Vistula
at GEOnet Names Server

v t e

Tributaries of the Vistula
Vistula
River

Forming rivers

Biała Wisełka Czarna Wisełka

Main tributaries of the left bank

Krajka Pszczynka Gostynia Przemsza Chech Rudno Sanka Rudawa Prądnik Dłubnia Roporek Szreniawa Nidzica Nida Strumień Czarna Koprzywianka Opatówka Kamienna Krępianka Iłżanka Zwoleńka Plewka Zagożdżonka Radomka Pilica Czarna Jeziorka Bzura Skrwa Lewa Zgłowiączka Tążyna Zielona Brda Wda Wierzyca

Main tributaries of the right bank

Brennica Iłownica Biała Soła Skawa Skawinka Wilga (Krakow) Drwinka Raba Gróbka Uszwica Kisielina Dunajec Breń Brnik Wisłoka Babulówka Trześniówka Łęg San Sanna Wyżnica Chodelka Bystra Kurówka Wieprz Okrzejka Promnik Wilga (Garwolin) Świder Kanał Żerański Narew Mołtawa Słupianka Rosica Brzeźnica Skrwa Prawa Mień Drwęca Bacha Struga Osa Liwa

Distributary

Nogat Leniwka Szkarpawa Vistula
Vistula
Lagoon Śmiała Wisła Martwa Wisła Przekop
Przekop
Canal

v t e

Rivers of Poland
Poland
by watershed

Vistula

Narew

Bug Wkra Biebrza

San

Wisłok

Dunajec

Poprad

Pilica Wieprz Brda Drwęca Wda Bzura Wisłoka Nida

Odra

Warta

Prosna Noteć Drawa

Nysa Łużycka Nysa Kłodzka Bóbr Obra

Vistula
Vistula
Lagoon

Pregolya

Łyna Angrapa

Pasłęka

Baltic Sea

Rega Parsęta Wieprza Słupia Łeba Reda

Authority control

.