HOME
The Info List - Vishishtadvaita


--- Advertisement ---



Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
( IAST
IAST
Viśiṣṭādvaita; Sanskrit: विशिष्टाद्वैत) is one of the most popular schools of the Vedanta
Vedanta
school of Hindu philosophy. Vedanta
Vedanta
literally means the end of the Vedas. VishishtAdvaita (literally "Advaita with uniqueness; qualifications") is a non-dualistic school of Vedanta philosophy. It is non-dualism of the qualified whole, in which Brahman alone exists, but is characterized by multiplicity. It can be described as qualified monism or qualified non-dualism or attributive monism. It is a school of Vedanta
Vedanta
philosophy which believes in all diversity subsuming to an underlying unity. Ramanuja, the main proponent of Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
philosophy contends that the Prasthanatrayi
Prasthanatrayi
("The three courses"), namely the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, and the Brahma Sutras
Brahma Sutras
are to be interpreted in a way that shows this unity in diversity, for any other way would violate their consistency. Vedanta Desika
Vedanta Desika
defines Vishishtadvaita using the statement, Asesha Chit-Achit Prakaaram Brahmaikameva Tatvam : Brahman, as qualified by the sentient and insentient modes (or attributes), is the only reality.

Part of a series on

Hindu philosophy

Orthodox

Samkhya Yoga Nyaya Vaisheshika Mimamsa

Vedanta

Advaita Vishishtadvaita Dvaita
Dvaita
Vedanta Bhedabheda Dvaitadvaita Achintya Bheda Abheda Shuddhadvaita

Heterodox

Charvaka Ājīvika Buddhism Jainism

Other schools

Vaishnava Smarta Shakta Īśvara

Shaiva: Pratyabhijña Pashupata Siddhanta

Tantra

Teachers (Acharyas)

Nyaya

Akṣapāda Gotama Jayanta Bhatta Raghunatha Siromani

Mīmāṃsā

Jaimini Kumārila Bhaṭṭa Prabhākara

Advaita Vedanta

Gaudapada Adi Shankara Vācaspati Miśra Vidyaranya Sadananda Madhusūdana Sarasvatī Vijnanabhiksu Ramakrishna Vivekananda Ramana Maharshi Siddharudha Chinmayananda Nisargadatta

Vishishtadvaita

Nammalvar Alvars Yamunacharya Ramanuja Vedanta
Vedanta
Desika Pillai Lokacharya Manavala Mamunigal

Dvaita

Madhvacharya Jayatirtha Vyasatirtha Sripadaraja Vadirajatirtha Vijayendra Tirtha Raghavendra Swami Padmanabha Tirtha Naraharitirtha

Achintya Bheda Abheda

Chaitanya Mahaprabhu Jiva
Jiva
Goswami Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Prabhupada

Tantra Shakta

Abhinavagupta Nigamananda Paramahansa Ramprasad Sen Bamakhepa Kamalakanta Bhattacharya Anandamayi Ma

Others

Samkhya

Kapila

Yoga

Patanjali

Vaisheshika

Kanada, Prashastapada

Dvaitadvaita

Nimbarka

Shuddhadvaita

Vallabha
Vallabha
Acharya

Major texts

Sruti Smriti

Vedas

Rigveda Yajurveda Samaveda Atharvaveda

Upanishads

Principal Upanishads Minor Upanishads

Other scriptures

Bhagavat Gita Agama (Hinduism)

Shastras and Sutras

Brahma Sutras Samkhya
Samkhya
Sutras Mimamsa Sutras Nyāya Sūtras Vaiśeṣika Sūtra Yoga
Yoga
Sutras

Pramana
Pramana
Sutras

Puranas Dharma
Dharma
Shastra Artha
Artha
Śastra Kamasutra Tirumurai Shiva Samhita

Hinduism Other Indian philosophies

v t e

Contents

1 Philosophers 2 Key principles 3 Epistemology

3.1 Pramanas

3.1.1 Rules of epistemology

4 Metaphysics

4.1 Ontology

4.1.1 Ishvara

4.1.1.1 Antarvyapi 4.1.1.2 Bahuvyapi

4.1.2 Chit 4.1.3 Achit 4.1.4 Brahman

4.2 Theory of Existence

4.2.1 Kārya and kārana

5 Ethics 6 Interpretation of Mahāvākyas

6.1 Understanding Neti-Neti

7 Purpose of human existence

7.1 Moksha 7.2 Bhakti
Bhakti
as the means of attaining moksha

8 Thenkalai
Thenkalai
and Vadakalai
Vadakalai
schools of thought 9 Traditions following Vishishtadvaita

9.1 Visishtadvaita and Sri Vaishnavism

10 Conclusion 11 See also 12 References 13 External links

Philosophers[edit] The Vishishtadvaitic thought is considered to have existed for a long time, and it is surmised that the earliest works are no longer available.[1] The names of the earliest of these philosophers is only known through Ramanuja's Vedartha Sangraham. Bodhayana, Dramida, Tanka, Guhadeva, Kapardi and Bharuci the prominent ones in the line of the philosophers considered to have expounded the VisishtAdvaitic system. Bodhayana
Bodhayana
is considered to have written an extensive vritti (commentary) on the Purva and Uttara Mimamsas. Tanka is attributed with having written commentaries on Chandogya Upanishad
Upanishad
and Brahma Sutras. Nathamuni of the ninth century AD, the foremost Acharya
Acharya
of the Vaishnavas, collected the Tamil prabandhas, classified them, made the redaction, set the hymns to music and spread them everywhere. He is said to have received the divine hymns straight from Nammalvar, the foremost of the twelve Alvars, by yogic insight in the temple at Alwar Thirunagari, which is located near Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
in South India. Yamunacharya
Yamunacharya
renounced kingship and spent his last days in the service of the Lord at Srirangam
Srirangam
and in laying the fundamentals of the Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
philosophy by writing four basic works on the subject. Ramanuja
Ramanuja
is the main proponent of Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
philosophy. The philosophy itself is considered to have existed long before Ramanuja's time.[2] Ramanuja
Ramanuja
continues along the line of thought of his predecessors while expounding the knowledge expressed in the Upanishads, Brahma Sutras
Brahma Sutras
and Bhagavad Gita. Vedanta Desika
Vedanta Desika
and Pillai Lokacharya, disciples in the tradition of Ramanuja, had minor disagreements not on the philosophy, but on some aspects of the theology, giving rise to the Vadakalai
Vadakalai
and Thenkalai
Thenkalai
schools of thought, as explained below. Swaminarayan, the founder of Swaminarayan
Swaminarayan
Hinduism, also propagated this philosophy and based the Swaminarayan
Swaminarayan
Sampraday (original name is Uddhava Sampraday) on these ideals.[3] Key principles[edit] There are three key principles of Vishishtadvaita:[citation needed]

Tattva: The knowledge of the 3 real entities namely, jiva (living souls; the sentient); ajiva (the nonsentient) and Ishvara (Vishnu-Narayana or Parahbrahman, creator and controller of the world). Hita: The means of realization, as through bhakti (devotion) and prapatti (self-surrender). Purushartha: The goal to be attained, as moksha or liberation from bondage.

Epistemology[edit] Pramanas[edit] Pramana
Pramana
refers to the correct knowledge, arrived at by thorough reasoning, of any object. Pramana
Pramana
("sources of knowledge", Sanskrit) forms one part of a triputi (trio).

Pramatir, the subject; the knower of the knowledge Pramana, the cause or the means of the knowledge Prameya, the object of knowledge

In Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
Vedanta, only the following three pramanas are accepted as valid means of knowledge:

Pratyaksa — the knowledge gained by means of perception. Perception refers to knowledge obtained by cognition of external objects based on sensory perception. In modern-day usage this will also include knowledge obtained by means of observation through scientific instruments since they are an extension of perception. Anumana — the knowledge gained by means of inference. Inference refers to knowledge obtained by deductive reasoning and analysis. Shabda — the knowledge gained by means of shruti. Shruti
Shruti
refers to knowledge gained from scriptures - primarily the Upanishads, the Brahma Sutras
Brahma Sutras
and the Bhagavad Gita.

Rules of epistemology[edit] There are three rules of hierarchy when there is apparent conflict between the three modes of acquiring knowledge:

Shabda or Shruti, Pramana
Pramana
occupies the highest position in matters which cannot be settled or resolved by pratyaksa (perception) or by anumana (inference). Anumana occupies the next position. When an issue cannot be settled through sensory perception alone, it is settled based on inference, that is, whichever is the more logical argument. When pratyaksa yields a definitive position on a particular issue, such a perception cannot be ignored by interpreting Shabda in a way which violates that perception.

Metaphysics[edit] Ontology[edit] The ontology in Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
consists of explaining the relationship between Ishvara
Ishvara
(Parabrahman), the sentient beings (chit-brahman) and the insentient Universe (achit-brahman). In the broadest sense, Ishvara
Ishvara
is the Universal Soul of the pan-organistic body consisting of the Universe and sentient beings. The three ontological entities are described below: Ishvara[edit] Ishvara
Ishvara
(denoted by Vishnu-Narayana) is the Supreme Cosmic Spirit who maintains complete control over the Universe and all the sentient beings, which together also form the pan-organistic body of Ishvara. The triad of Ishvara
Ishvara
along with the universe and the sentient beings is Brahman, which signifies the completeness of existence. Ishvara
Ishvara
is Parabrahman endowed with innumerable auspicious qualities (Kalyana Gunas). Ishvara
Ishvara
is perfect, omniscient, omnipresent, incorporeal, independent, the creator of the universe, its active ruler and also its eventual destroyer.[4] He is causeless, eternal and unchangeable — and is yet the material and the efficient cause of the universe and sentient beings. He is both immanent (like whiteness in milk) and transcendent (like a watch-maker independent of a watch). He is the subject of worship. He is the basis of morality and giver of the fruits of one's Karma. He rules the world with His Maya — His divine power. Ishvara
Ishvara
is considered to have a 2-fold characteristic: he is the indweller of all beings and all beings dwell in Ishvara.[citation needed] Antarvyapi[edit] When Ishvara
Ishvara
is thought of as the indweller of all beings, he is referred to as the Paramatman, or the innermost self of all beings. He who inhabits water, yet is within water, whom water does not know, whose body water is and who controls water from within — He is your Self, the Inner Controller, the Immortal. He who inhabits the sun, yet is within the sun, whom the sun does not know, whose body the sun is and who controls the sun from within — He is your Self, the Inner Controller, the Immortal - Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
Upanishad
3.7.4-14 Bahuvyapi[edit] When Ishvara
Ishvara
is thought of as the all encomposing and the residence of all beings that is, all beings reside in Ishvara, he is referred to as the paramapurusha. The sentient beings and the insentient universe which form part of the pan-organistic body of Ishvara
Ishvara
are encapsulated by Ishvara.[original research?] Sarvam khalvidam Brahma Chandogya Upanishad Isavasyam idam sarvam Isha Upanishad Chit[edit] Chit is the world of sentient beings, or of entities possessing consciousness. It is similar to the Purusha of Samkhya
Samkhya
system. The sentient beings are called Jīvās and they are possessors of individual consciousness as denoted by "I". The scope of Chit refers to all beings with an "I" consciousness, or more specifically self-awareness. Therefore, all entities which are aware of their own individual existence are denoted as chit. This is called Dharmi-jnana or substantive consciousness. The sentient beings also possess varying levels of Dharma-bhuta-jnana or attributive consciousness The jivas possess three different types of existence:

Nityas, or the eternally free Jivas who were never in Samsara Muktas, or the Jivas that were once in Samsara
Samsara
but are free Baddhas, or the Jivas which are still in Samsara

Achit[edit] Achit is the world of insentient entities as denoted by matter or more specifically the non-conscious Universe. It is similar to the Prakriti of Samkhya
Samkhya
system. Brahman[edit] There is a subtle difference between Ishvara
Ishvara
and Brahman. Ishvara
Ishvara
is the substantive part of Brahman, while jivas and jagat are its modes (also secondary attributes), and kalyanagunas (auspicious attributes) are the primary attributes. The secondary attributes become manifested in the effect state when the world is differentiated by name and form. The kalyanagunas are eternally manifest. Brahman
Brahman
is the description of Ishvara
Ishvara
when comprehended in fullness– i.e., a simultaneous vision of Ishvara
Ishvara
with all his modes and attributes. The relationship between Brahman
Brahman
and Jivas, Jagat is expressed by Rāmānujā in numerous ways. He calls this relationship as one of:

sharIra/sharIrI (शरीर/ शरीरी) (body/indweller); prakAra/prakArI (attribute or mode/substance); ‌shesha/sheshi (Owned/owner); amsha/amshI (part/whole); AdhAradeya/sambandha (supporter/supported); niyamya/niyanta (controlled/controller); rashksya/rakshaka (redeemed/redeemer);

These relationships can be experienced holding Brahman
Brahman
as the father, son, mother, sister, wife, husband, friend, lover and lord. Hence, Brahman
Brahman
is a personal being.

What does Nirguna Brahman
Brahman
mean?

Ramanuja
Ramanuja
argues vehemently against understanding Brahman
Brahman
as one without attributes. Brahman
Brahman
is Nirguna in the sense that impure qualities do not touch it. He provides three valid reasons for staking such a claim: Shruti/ Shabda Pramana: All shrutis and shabdas denoting Brahman always list either attributes inherent to Brahman
Brahman
or not inherent to Brahman. The shrutis only seek to deny Brahman
Brahman
from possessing impure and defective qualities which affect the world of beings. There is evidence in the shrutis to this regard. The shrutis proclaim Brahman to be beyond the tri-gunas which are observed. However, Brahman possesses an infinite number of transcendental attributes, the evidence of which is given in vakhyas like "satyam jnanam anantam Brahma" (Taittiriya Upanishad). Pratyaksha Pramana: Ramanuja
Ramanuja
states that "a contentless cognition is impossible". And all cognition must necessarily involve knowing Brahman
Brahman
through the attributes of Brahman. Anumana Pramana: Ramanuja
Ramanuja
states that "Nirgunatva" itself becomes an attribute of Brahman
Brahman
on account of the uniqueness of no other entity being Nirguna. Ramanuja
Ramanuja
had simplified relationship between bramha and soul.According to him though soul is integral part of bramha it has independent existence.[5] Theory of Existence[edit] The three ontological entities i.e. Ishvara, Chit and Achit are fundamentally real. It upholds the doctrine of Satkaryavada
Satkaryavada
as against Asatkaryavada. Briefly,

Satkaryavada
Satkaryavada
is pre-existence of the effect in the cause. It maintains that karya (effect) is sat or real. It is present in the karana (cause) in a potential form, even before its manifestation. Asatkaryavada is non-existence of the effect in the cause. It maintains that karya (effect) is asat or unreal until it comes into being. Every effect, then, is a new beginning and is not born out of cause.

More specifically, the effect is a modification of what exists in the cause and does not involve new entities coming into existence. This is called as parinamavada or evolution of effect from the cause. This doctrine is common to the Samkhya
Samkhya
system and Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
system. The Samkhya
Samkhya
system adheres to Prakriti-Parinama vada whereas Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
is a modified form of Brahma-Parinama vada. Kārya and kārana[edit] The kārana (cause) and kārya (effect) in Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
is different from other systems of Indian Philosophy. Brahman
Brahman
is both the kārana (cause) and the kārya (effect). Brahman
Brahman
as the cause does not become the Universe as the effect. Brahman
Brahman
is assigned two kāranatvas (ways of being the cause):

Nimitta kāranatva — Being the Efficient/ Instrumental cause. For example, a goldsmith is assigned Nimitta kāranatva as he acts as the maker of jewellery and thus becomes the jewellery's Instrumental cause. Upādāna kāranatva — Being the material cause. For example, the gold is assigned Upādāna kāranatva as it acts as the material of the jewellery and thus becomes the jewellery's material cause.

According to Vishishtadvaita, the Universe and Sentients always exist. However, they begin from a subtle state and undergo transformation. The subtle state is called a causal state, while the transformed state is called the effect state. The causal state is when Brahman
Brahman
is internally not distinguishable by name and form. It can be said that Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
follows Brahma-Prakara-Parinama Vada. That is to say, it is the modes (Jivas and Jagath) of Brahman which is under evolution. The cause and effect only refer to the pan-organistic body transformation. Brahman
Brahman
as the Universal Self is unchanging and eternal. Brahman
Brahman
having the subtle (sūkshma) chit and achit entities as his Saareeram/Prakaaram(body/mode) before manifestation is the same Brahman
Brahman
having the expanded (stūla) chit and achit entities as Saareeram/Prakaaram(body/mode) after manifestation. The essential feature is that the underlying entity is the same, the changes are in the description of that entity. For e.g. Jack was a baby. Jack was a small kid. Jack was a middle-aged person. Jack was an old man. Jack is dead The body of a single personality named Jack is described as continuously changing. Jack does not become "James" because of the change. Ethics[edit] Souls and Matter are only the body of God. Creation is a real act of God. It is the expansion of intelligence. Matter is fundamentally real and undergoes real revelation. The Soul is a higher mode than Matter, because it is conscious. It is also eternally real and eternally distinct. Final release, that comes, by the Lord's Grace, after the death of the body is a Communion with God. This philosophy believes in liberation through one's Karmas (actions) in accordance with the Vedas, the Varna (caste or class) system and the four Ashramas (stages of life), along with intense devotion to Vishnu. Individual Souls retain their separate identities even after moksha. They live in Fellowship with God either serving Him or meditating on Him. The philosophy of this school is SriVaishnavism, a branch of Vaishnavism. Interpretation of Mahāvākyas[edit] 1. sarvam khalv idam brahma from Chandogya Upanishad
Upanishad
3.14.1 Translated literally, this means All this is Brahman. The ontology of Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
system consists of: a. Ishvara
Ishvara
is Para-brahman with infinite superlative qualities, whose substantive nature imparts the existence to the modes b. Jivas are chit-brahman or sentient beings (which possess consciousness). They are the modes of Brahman
Brahman
which show consciousness. c. Jagat is achit-brahman or matter/Universe (which are non-conscious). They are the mode of Brahman
Brahman
which are not conscious. Brahman
Brahman
is the composite whole of the triad consisting of Ishvara along with his modes i.e. Jivas and Jagat. 2. ayam ātmā brahma from Mandukya Upanishad
Upanishad
1.2 Translated literally, this means the Self is Brahman. From the earlier statement, it follows that on account of everything being Brahman, the self is not different from Brahman. 3. Tat tvam asi from Chandogya Upanishad
Upanishad
6.8.7 Translated literally, it means Thou art that that here refers to Brahman
Brahman
and thou refers to jiva Rāmānujā chooses to take the position of universal identity. He interprets this passage to mean the subsistence of all attributes in a common underlying substratum. This is referred to as samānādhikaranya. Thus Rāmānujā says the purport of the passage is to show the unity of all beings in a common base. Ishvara (Parabrahman) who is the Cosmic Spirit for the pan-organistic body consisting of the Universe and sentient beings, is also simultaneously the innermost self (Atmān) for each individual sentient being (Jīvā). All the bodies, the Cosmic and the individual, are held in an adjectival relationship (aprthak-siddhi) in the one Isvara. Tat Tvam Asi declares that oneness of Isvara. When multiple entities point to a single object, the relationship is established as one of substance and its attributes. For e.g. in a statement: Jack is a tall and intelligent boy The descriptors tall-ness,intelligence and boy-ness all refer to a common underlying Jack Similarly, when the upanishads declare Brahman
Brahman
is the Universe, Purusha, Self, Prana, Vayu, and so on, the entities are attributes or modes of Brahman. If the statement tat tvam asi is taken to mean as only the self is brahman, then sarvam khalv idam brahma will not make sense. Understanding Neti-Neti[edit]

This article possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (April 2008) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

This is an upanishadic concept which is employed while attempting to know Brahman. The purport of this exercise is understood in many different ways and also influences the understanding of Brahman. In the overall sense, this phrase is accepted to refer to the indescribable nature of Brahman
Brahman
who is beyond all rationalisations. Taittiriya Upanishad
Upanishad
2-9-1 passage "yato vacho nivartanthe.." (words recoil, mind can not grasp...) etc., state the same concept regarding Brahman
Brahman
. The visishtadvaita interpretation is that these passages do not indicate a black hole, but the incompleteness of any statement or thought or concept concerning Brahman. Brahman
Brahman
is these and more. This interpretation is consistent with "sarvam kalvidam brahma". Antaryami Brahmanam of Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
Upanishad
passage "yasya prithvi sariram yasya atma sariram" is also interpreted to show that Brahman
Brahman
is not a zero point - "nirvisesha chinmatra" (an entity which has nothing except existence) The typical interpretation of Neti-Neti is not this, not this or neither this, nor that. It is a phrase meant to convey the inexpressibility of Brahman
Brahman
in words and the futility of trying to approximate Brahman
Brahman
with conceptual models.In VisishtAdvaita, the phrase is taken in the sense of not just this, not just this or not just this, not just that. This means that Brahman
Brahman
cannot be restricted to one specific or a few specific descriptions. Consequently, Brahman is understood to possess infinite qualities and each of these qualities are infinite in extent. Purpose of human existence[edit] The purpose or goal of human existence is called purushartha. According to the Vedas, there are four goals namely artha (wealth), kama (pleasure), dharma (righteousness) and moksha (permanent freedom from worldly bondage). According to this philosophy, the first three goals are not an end by themselves but need to be pursued with the ideal of attaining moksha. Moksha[edit] Moksha
Moksha
means liberation or release from samsara, the cycle of rebirth. Bhakti
Bhakti
as the means of attaining moksha[edit] Bhakti
Bhakti
Yoga
Yoga
is the sole means of liberation in Vishishtadvaita. Through Bhakti
Bhakti
(devotion), a Jiva
Jiva
ascends to the realm of the Lord, where it continues to delight in His service. Karma
Karma
Yoga
Yoga
and Jnana Yoga
Yoga
are natural outcomes of Bhakti, total surrender, as the devotee acquires the knowledge that the Lord is the inner self. A devotee realizes his own state as dependent on, and supported by, and being led by the Lord, who is the Master. One is to lead a life as an instrument of the Lord, offering all his thought, word, and deed to the feet of the Lord. One is to see the Lord in everything and everything in Him. This is the unity in diversity achieved through devotion.[6] However Sri Ramanuja
Ramanuja
and the Vishishtadvata tradition accept Saranagati, total surrender at the Lord's lotus feet alone as the sole means to moksha, liberation from samsara and going to Vaikuntha. This is a distinguishing feature of this school of philosophy, as both Adi shankara's advaita and ananda tirtha's dvaita accept bhakthi for moksha. Swami Ramanuja
Ramanuja
has supported this opinion with various citations directly from the vedas, and various incidents highlighting sharangathi as means to moksha, over bhakthi. Observing total surrender at the lord's feet guarantees moksha at the end of this birth, and in the time between sharanagathi and death, the surrendered soul may spend his time piously by involving in devotion. So bhakthi is not a moksha sadhana, but just for anubhava in the Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
Sampradaya Thenkalai
Thenkalai
and Vadakalai
Vadakalai
schools of thought[edit] [ one of the foremost learned scholars and philosophers of medieval India, wrote more than a hundred works in Sanskrit and Tamil. All are characterised by their versatility, deep spiritual insight, ethical fervour and excellent expressions of devotional emotion in delightful style. His Paduka-sahasram is a classic example. He was a great teacher, expositor, debater, poet, philosopher, thinker and defender of the faith of Vaishnavism. The Vadakalai
Vadakalai
sect of Sri Vaishnavism associate themselves with Vedanta
Vedanta
Desikan and Ramanujacharya. Pillai Lokacharya
Pillai Lokacharya
literally meaning "Teacher for the whole world" is one of the leading lights on the Sri Vaishnava
Vaishnava
Vedanta
Vedanta
philosophy. His work Sri Vachana Bhusanam is a classic and provides the essence of Upanishads. The Tenkalai
Tenkalai
sect of Sri Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
looks up to him apart from Swami Ramanuja
Ramanuja
and Swami Manavala Mamuni. He was a senior contemporary of Vedanta
Vedanta
Desika. He is said to have been born as an amsa ("essence") of Kanchi Devaraja (Varadaraja) Perumal to document and immortalize Ramanuja's message in the month of Aippaci under the star Thiruvonam (Sravana), in the year 1205 CE.[7] He is said to have lived for 106 years, during which time, he also helped to safeguard the idol of Ranganatha at Srirangam
Srirangam
from Muslim
Muslim
invaders.[7] Pillai Lokacharya confirmed the basics of the Sri Vaishnava
Vaishnava
system in his 18 monumental works popularly known as Ashtadasa Rahasyangal ("the eighteen secrets") also called the Rahasya granthas ("doctrines that explain the inner meanings") out of which Sri Vachana Bhushanam and Mumukshuppadi are the most famous. Manavala Mamuni
Manavala Mamuni
expanded on and popularized Lokacharya's teachings arguments in Tamil. Traditions following Vishishtadvaita[edit]

Sri Sampradaya
Sri Sampradaya
of south India. Sri Ramanandi
Ramanandi
Sect of Northern India, it has the largest monastic order in whole India. Sri Swaminarayan
Swaminarayan
Sampraday of Gujarat. Dāmodariya Vaiśņava sampraday of Assam.

Visishtadvaita and Sri Vaishnavism[edit] The Absolute Supreme Reality referred to as Brahman, is a Transcendent Personality. He is Narayana, also known as Lord Vishnu. A man who has discrimination for his charioteer and holds the reins of the mind firmly, reaches the end of the road; and that is the supreme position of Vishnu. - 1.3.9 Katha Upanishad Beyond the senses are the objects; beyond the objects is the mind; beyond the mind, the intellect; beyond the intellect, the Great Atman; beyond the Great Atman, the Unmanifest; beyond the Unmanifest, the Purusha. Beyond the Purusha there is nothing: this is the end, the Supreme Goal.- 1.3.10,11 Katha Upanishad In terms of theology, Ramanujacharya puts forth the view that both the Supreme Goddess Lakshmi
Lakshmi
and Supreme God Narayana together constitute Brahman
Brahman
- the Absolute. Sri Lakshmi
Lakshmi
is the female personification of Brahman
Brahman
and Narayana is the male personification of Brahman, but they are both inseparable, co-eternal, co-absolute and are always substantially one. Thus, in reference to these dual aspects of Brahman, the Supreme is referred to in the Sri Vaishnava
Vaishnava
Sampradaya
Sampradaya
as Sriman Narayana. Conclusion[edit] Narayana is the Absolute God. The Soul and the Universe are only parts of this Absolute and hence, Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
is the solution to panentheistic and pantheistic ideologies. The relationship of God to the Soul and the Universe is like the relationship of the Soul of Man to the body of Man. Individual souls are only parts of Brahman. God, Soul and Universe together form an inseparable unity which is one and has no second. This is the non-duality part. Matter and Souls inhere in that Ultimate Reality as attributes to a substance [needs to improvisation]. This is the qualification part of the non-duality. See also[edit]

Turiya

References[edit]

^ Chandrankunnel, Matthew (2008). Philosophy
Philosophy
of Quantum Mechanics. New Delhi: Global Vision Publishing House. p. 945.  ^ Jones, Constance (2007). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. New York: Infobase Publishing. p. 490. ISBN 0816073368.  ^ Williams, Raymond (2001). Introduction to Swaminarayan
Swaminarayan
Hinduism. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press. p. 35. ISBN 0 521 65279 0.  ^ White Yajurveda
Yajurveda
32.3 ^ J.L.Mehta VOl3 ^ http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-9014610686337442954 ^ a b Chandrankunnel, Matthew (2008). Philosophy
Philosophy
of Quantum Mechanics. New Delhi: Global Vision Publishing House. p. 946. 

External links[edit]

Viśiṣṭādvaita doctrine of Soul according to Rāmānuja and Veṅkaṭanātha, Surendranath Dasgupta, 1940 Biographies of Ramanuja
Ramanuja
and Vedanta
Vedanta
Desika Ramanuja
Ramanuja
and VisishtAdvaita more information Advaita and VisishtAdvaita more information http://www.vaishnava.com/shrivaishnavaintro.htm http://www.hinduweb.org/home/dharma_and_philosophy/vvh/vvh.htm http://www.hinduweb.org/home/dharma_and_philosophy/vvh/raghavan.html

v t e

Indian philosophy

Topics

Atheism Atomism Idealism Logic Monotheism Vedic philosophy

Āstika

Hindu: Samkhya Nyaya Vaisheshika Yoga Mīmāṃsā Vedanta

Acintya bheda abheda Advaita Bhedabheda Dvaita Dvaitadvaita Shuddhadvaita Vishishtadvaita

Shaiva

Pratyabhijña Pashupata Shaivism Shaiva
Shaiva
Siddhanta

Nāstika

Ājīvika Ajñana Cārvāka Jain

Anekantavada Syādvāda

Buddhist philosophy
Buddhist philosophy
and Early Buddhist schools

Śūnyatā Madhyamaka Yogacara Sautrāntika Svatantrika

Texts

Abhinavabharati Arthashastra Bhagavad Gita Bhagavata Purana Brahma Sutra Buddhist texts Dharmashastra Hindu texts Jain Agamas Kamasutra Mimamsa Sutras

All 108 texts Principal

Nyāya Sūtras Nyayakusumanjali Panchadasi Samkhyapravachana Sutra Shiva Sutras Tarka-Sangraha Tattvacintāmaṇi Upanishads

Minor

Vaiśeṣika Sūtra Vedangas Vedas Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali Yoga
Yoga
Vasistha More...

Philosophers

Avatsara Uddalaka Aruni Gautam Buddha Yajnavalkya Gargi Vachaknavi Buddhaghosa Patanjali Kanada Kapila Brihadratha Ikshvaku Jaimini Vyasa Chanakya Dharmakirti Akshapada Gotama Nagarjuna Padmasambhava Vasubandhu Gaudapada Adi Shankara Vivekananda Dayananda Saraswati Ramanuja Vedanta
Vedanta
Desika Raikva Sadananda Sakayanya Satyakama Jabala Madhvacharya Mahavira Guru Nanak Vidyaranya More...

Concepts

Abhava Abhasavada Abheda Adarsana Adrishta Advaita Aham Aishvarya Akrodha Aksara Anatta Ananta Anavastha Anupalabdhi Apauruṣheyā Artha Asiddhatva Asatkalpa Ātman Avyakta Brahman Brahmi sthiti Bhuman Bhumika Chaitanya Chidabhasa Cittabhumi Dāna Devatas Dharma Dhi Dravya Dhrti Ekagrata Guṇa Hitā Idam Ikshana Ishvaratva Jivatva Kama Karma Kasaya Kshetrajna Lakshana Mithyatva Mokṣa Nididhyasana Nirvāṇa Niyama Padārtha Paramatman Paramananda Parameshashakti Parinama-vada Pradhana Prajna Prakṛti Pratibimbavada Pratītyasamutpāda Puruṣa Rājamaṇḍala Ṛta Sakshi Samadhi Saṃsāra Sankalpa Satya Satkaryavada Shabda Brahman Sphoṭa Sthiti Śūnyatā Sutram Svātantrya Iccha-mrityu Syādvāda Taijasa Tajjalan Tanmatra Tyāga Uparati Upekkhā Utsaha Vivartavada Viraj Yamas Yoga More...

v t e

Sampradayas of Vaishnavism

Traditions

Kumara-sampradaya of Nimbarka Brahma Sampradaya of Madhvacharya Sri Sampradaya
Sri Sampradaya
of Ramanuja Rudra sampradaya of Vishnuswami

Vedanta
Vedanta
Philosophies

Dvaitadvaita Dvaita Vishishtadvaita Shuddhadvaita Ach

.