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The Visayas
Visayas
/vɪˈsaɪəz/ və-SY-əz or the Visayan Islands[2] (Visayan: Kabisay-an, local pronunciation: [kabiˈsajʔan]; Tagalog: Kabisayaan, [kabiˈsɐjaʔan]), is one of the three principal geographical divisions of the Philippines, along with Luzon
Luzon
and Mindanao. It consists of several islands, primarily surrounding the Visayan Sea, although the Visayas
Visayas
are considered the northeast extremity of the entire Sulu
Sulu
Sea.[3] Its inhabitants are predominantly the Visayan people. The major islands of the Visayas
Visayas
are Panay, Negros, Cebu, Bohol, Leyte and Samar.[6] The region may also include the provinces of Masbate, Romblon, and Palawan
Palawan
whose populations identify as Visayan and whose languages are more closely related to other Visayan languages
Visayan languages
than to the major languages of Luzon. There are three administrative regions in the Visayas: Western Visayas (pop. 7.1 million), Central Visayas
Central Visayas
(6.8 million) and Eastern Visayas (4.1 million).[7] The Negros Island Region
Negros Island Region
existed from 2015 to 2017, separating Negros Occidental
Negros Occidental
and its capital Bacolod
Bacolod
from Western Visayas
Visayas
and Negros Oriental
Negros Oriental
from Central Visayas. The region has been dissolved since. Despite being politically included by Manila
Manila
in Luzon, the province of Masbate
Masbate
and the region of Mimaropa, which includes Palawan, Oriental Mindoro, Occidental Mindoro, Romblon, and Marinduque, are geographically part of the Visayas.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Mythical allusions and hypotheses

3 Administrative divisions

3.1 Western Visayas
Western Visayas
(Region VI) 3.2 Central Visayas
Central Visayas
(Region VII) 3.3 Eastern Visayas
Eastern Visayas
(Region VIII)

4 Major cities and municipalities 5 Language 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

Etymology[edit] The term Visayas
Visayas
was derived from the name of the 7th-century thalassocratic empire of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
(Sanskrit: श्रीविजय) in Sumatra.[8] In Sanskrit, sri (श्री) means "fortunate," "prosperous," or "happy" and vijaya (विजय) means "victorious" or "excellent". The archipelagoes of Visayas
Visayas
and Sulu
Sulu
were once Hindu- Buddhist
Buddhist
and were either subject states or tributaries of the empire.[9] History[edit] The early inhabitants of the Visayas
Visayas
were the Austronesian peoples and Ati peoples, who migrated to the archipelago about 6,000 to 30,000 years ago.[10] These early settlers were animist tribes. In the 12th century, settlers from the collapsing Hindu- Buddhist
Buddhist
Srivijaya
Srivijaya
Empire led by Datu
Datu
Putih and his retinue, settled in the island of Panay
Panay
and its surrounding islands.[11] It was also during the 12th century that Visayans
Visayans
are said to have made a series of raids along the southern coasts of China. They were said to have a fearsome reputation, and the mention of their names would cause many to flee in horror and terror.[12] These tribes practiced a mixture of Hinduism, Buddhism, Animist-Polytheist beliefs. Besides the neighbouring Southeast Asians, there is evidence of trade among other Asian peoples. The Visayans were thought to have kept close diplomatic relations with Malaysian and Indonesian kingdoms, since the people of Cebu
Cebu
were able to converse with Enrique of Malacca
Enrique of Malacca
using the Malay language
Malay language
when the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan
Ferdinand Magellan
arrived in 1521. The Visayas
Visayas
is subsequently home to several Precolonial kingdoms, like the Kedatuan of Madja-as (now Western Visayas), the Rajahnate of Cebu
Cebu
and the Kedatuan of Dapitan.[13] Among the archaeological proofs of the existence of this Hiligaynon nation are the artifacts found in pre-European tombs from many parts of the island, which are now in display at Iloilo
Iloilo
Museum. There are also recent discoveries of burial artifacts of eight-foot inhabitants of Isla de Gigantes, including extra-large Lungon (wooden coffins) and pre-Hispanic potteries.[14] After the Magellan expedition, King Philip II of Spain
Philip II of Spain
sent Miguel López de Legazpi in 1543 and 1565 and claimed the islands for Spain. The Visayas
Visayas
region and many kingdoms began converting to Christianity and adopting western culture. By the 18th and 19th centuries, the effects of colonization on various ethnic groups soon turned sour and revolutions such as those of Francisco Dagohoy
Francisco Dagohoy
began to emerge. Various personalities who fought against the Imperial Spanish Colonial Government arose within the archipelago. Among the notable ones are Graciano Lopez Jaena[15] and Martin Delgado
Martin Delgado
from Iloilo, Aniceto Lacson, León Kilat and Diego de la Viña from Negros, Venancio Jakosalem Fernandez from Cebu,[16] and two personalities from Bohol
Bohol
by the name of Tamblot, who led the Tamblot
Tamblot
Uprising in 1621 to 1622 and Francisco Dagohoy, the leader of the Bohol
Bohol
Rebellion that lasted from 1744 to 1829.[17] Negros briefly stood as an independent nation in the Visayas
Visayas
in the form of the Cantonal Republic of Negros, before it was absorbed back to the Philippines
Philippines
because of the American takeover of the archipelago.[18] In May 23 of 2005, Palawan
Palawan
(including its highly-urbanized capital city of Puerto Princesa) were transferred from MIMAROPA
MIMAROPA
(Region IV-B) to Western Visayas
Western Visayas
(Region VI) under Executive Order No. 429, signed by Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, who was the president at that year.[19] However, Palaweños criticized the move, citing a lack of consultation, with most residents in Puerto Princesa
Puerto Princesa
and all Palawan municipalities but one preferring to stay in MIMAROPA
MIMAROPA
(Region IV-B). Consequently, Administrative Order No. 129 was issued on 19 August 2005 that the implementation of E.O. 429 be held in abeyance, pending approval by the president of its Implementation Plan.[20] The Philippine Commission on Elections reported the 2010 Philippine general election results for Palawan
Palawan
as a part of the Region IV-B results.[21] As of 30 June 2011[update], the abeyance was still in effect, with Palawan
Palawan
and its capital city remaining under MIMAROPA
MIMAROPA
(Region IV-B). In May 29 of 2015, the twin provinces of Negros Occidental
Negros Occidental
(including its highly-urbanized capital city of Bacolod) and Negros Oriental
Negros Oriental
were joined together to form the Negros Island Region
Negros Island Region
under Executive Order No. 183, signed by President Benigno Aquino III. It separated both, the former province and its capital city from Western Visayas
Western Visayas
and the latter province from Central Visayas. On August 9 of 2017, President Rodrigo Duterte signed Executive Order No. 38, revoking the Executive Order No. 183 signed by (former) President Benigno Aquino III
Benigno Aquino III
on May 29 of 2015, due to the reason of the lack of funds to fully establish the NIR according to Benjamin Diokno, the Secretary of Budget and Management. Mythical allusions and hypotheses[edit] Historical documents written in 1907 by Visayan historian Pedro Alcántara Monteclaro in his book Maragtas tell the story of the ten leaders (Datus) who escaped from the tyranny of Rajah Makatunaw from Borneo and came to the islands of Panay. The chiefs and followers were said to be the ancestors (from the collapsing empires of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
and Majapahit) of the Visayan people. The documents were accepted by Filipino historians and found their way into the history of the Philippines. As a result, the arrival of Bornean tribal groups in the Visayas
Visayas
is celebrated in the festivals of the Ati-Atihan
Ati-Atihan
in Kalibo, Aklan
Aklan
and Binirayan in San Jose de Buenavista, Antique. Foreign historians such as William Henry Scott maintains that the book contains a Visayan folk tradition.[22] Panay
Panay
boasts of the Hinilawod as its oldest and longest epic. A contemporary theory based on a study of genetic markers in present-day populations is that Austronesian peoples from Taiwan populated the larger island of Luzon
Luzon
and headed south to the Visayas and Mindanao, and then to Indonesia
Indonesia
and Malaysia, then to Pacific Islands and finally to the island of Madagascar, at the west of the Indian Ocean.[23] The study, though, may not explain inter-island migrations, which are also possible, such as Filipinos migrating to any other Philippine provinces. According to Visayan folk traditions, the Visayas
Visayas
were populated by Malays from the collapsing empires of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
and Majapahit migrating from Borneo to Mindanao
Mindanao
and to the Visayas, while other Malay groups crossed to Palawan
Palawan
through Sabah.[citation needed] Other Malays were suggested to have crossed from the island of Samar
Samar
to the Bicol Region
Bicol Region
in Luzon. The theory suggests that those ancient tribal groups who passed through Palawan
Palawan
may have migrated to what is now the island of Luzon.[citation needed] A supplementary theory was that at that period, the Malay people were moving north from Mindanao
Mindanao
to the Visayas
Visayas
and to Luzon. Administrative divisions[edit]

A map of the Visayas
Visayas
colour-coded according to the constituent regions.   Central Visayas   Eastern Visayas   Western Visayas The major islands, from west to east, are Panay, Negros, Cebu, Bohol, Leyte, and Samar.

A map of the Visayas
Visayas
color-coded according to the constituent regions during the inclusion of the then Negros Island
Negros Island
Region.   Western Visayas    Negros Island
Negros Island
Region   Central Visayas   Eastern Visayas

Administratively, the Visayas
Visayas
is divided into 3 regions, namely Western Visayas, Central Visayas
Central Visayas
and Eastern Visayas. Each region is headed by a Regional Director who is elected from a pool of governors from the different provinces in each region. The Visayas
Visayas
is composed of 16 provinces, each headed by a Governor. A governor is elected by popular vote and can serve a maximum of three terms consisting of three years each. Western Visayas
Western Visayas
(Region VI)[edit] Western Visayas
Western Visayas
consists of the islands of Panay
Panay
and Guimaras
Guimaras
and the western half of Negros. The regional center is Iloilo
Iloilo
City. Its provinces are:

Aklan Antique Capiz Guimaras Iloilo Negros Occidental

Central Visayas
Central Visayas
(Region VII)[edit] Central Visayas
Central Visayas
includes the islands of Cebu, Siquijor
Siquijor
and Bohol
Bohol
and the eastern half of Negros. The regional center is Cebu
Cebu
City. Its provinces are:

Bohol Cebu Negros Oriental Siquijor

Eastern Visayas
Eastern Visayas
(Region VIII)[edit] Eastern Visayas
Eastern Visayas
consists of the islands of Leyte, Samar
Samar
and Biliran. The regional center is Tacloban
Tacloban
City. Its provinces are:

Biliran Leyte Southern Leyte Eastern Samar Northern Samar Samar

Major cities and municipalities[edit] Below is a list of cities and major towns in the Visayas
Visayas
by population.

City or municipality Population (2010)[i] Area[ii] Density Province[iii] Region Legal class[iv] Income class[iv] Notes

km2 sq mi /km2 /sq mi

Cebu
Cebu
City 866,171 315.00 121.62 2,700 7,000 Cebu VII HUC 1st Capital of Cebu; regional center of Region 7

Bacolod 511,820 162.67 62.81 3,100 8,000 Negros Occidental VI HUC 1st Capital of Negros Occidental

Iloilo
Iloilo
City 424,619 78.34 30.25 6,200 16,000 Iloilo VI HUC 1st Capital of Iloilo; regional center of Region 6

Lapu-Lapu 350,467 58.10 22.43 6,000 16,000 Cebu VII HUC 1st

Mandaue 331,320 25.18 9.72 13,000 34,000 Cebu VII HUC 1st

Tacloban 221,174 201.72 77.88 1,100 2,800 Leyte VIII HUC 1st Capital of Leyte; regional center of Region 8

Talisay 200,772 39.87 15.39 5,000 13,000 Cebu VII CC 1st

Ormoc 191,200 613.60 236.91 310 800 Leyte VIII ICC 1st

Kabankalan 167,666 697.35 269.25 240 620 Negros Occidental VI CC 1st

Bago 163,045 401.20 154.90 410 1,100 Negros Occidental VI CC 1st

Toledo 157,078 216.28 83.51 730 1,900 Cebu VII CC 1st

Roxas 156,197 95.07 36.71 1,600 4,100 Capiz VI CC 1st Capital of Capiz

Cadiz 151,500 542.57 209.49 280 730 Negros Occidental VI CC 1st

Sagay 140,740 330.34 127.54 430 1,100 Negros Occidental VI CC 1st

San Carlos 129,981 451.50 174.33 290 750 Negros Occidental VI CC 1st

Silay 120,999 214.80 82.93 560 1,500 Negros Occidental VI CC 1st

Dumaguete 120,883 33.62 12.98 3,600 9,300 Negros Oriental VII CC 1st Capital of Negros Oriental

Danao 119,252 107.30 41.43 1,100 2,800 Cebu VII CC 1st

Bayawan 114,074 699.08 269.92 160 410 Negros Oriental VII CC 1st

Carcar 107,323 116.78 45.09 920 2,400 Cebu VII CC 1st

Himamaylan 103,006 367.04 141.71 280 730 Negros Occidental VI CC 1st

Baybay 102,841 459.30 177.34 220 570 Leyte VIII CC

Naga 101,571 101.97 39.37 1,000 2,600 Cebu VII CC

Talisay 97,571 223.73 86.38 440 1,100 Negros Occidental VI CC 1st

Tagbilaran 96,792 331.80 128.11 290 750 Bohol VII CC 1st Capital of Bohol

Catbalogan 94,317 274.22 105.88 340 880 Samar VIII CC

Guihulngan 93,675 388.56 150.02 240 620 Negros Oriental VII CC

Escalante 93,005 192.76 74.43 480 1,200 Negros Occidental VI CC

Victorias 88,299 133.92 51.71 660 1,700 Negros Occidental VI CC 1st

Catarman 84,833 464.43 179.32 180 470 Northern Samar VIII Municipality 1st Capital of Northern Samar

Maasin 81,250 211.71 81.74 380 980 Southern Leyte VIII CC 1st Capital of Southern Leyte

Passi 79,633 251.39 97.06 320 830 Iloilo VI CC 1st

Tanjay 79,098 267.05 103.11 300 780 Negros Oriental VII CC 1st

Kalibo 74,619 45.75 17.66 1,600 4,100 Aklan VI Municipality 1st Capital of Aklan

Bais 74,722 319.64 123.41 230 600 Negros Oriental VII CC 1st

Bogo 69,911 103.52 39.97 680 1,800 Cebu VII CC 1st

Sipalay 67,403 379.78 146.63 180 470 Negros Occidental VI CC 1st

Borongan 64,457 475.00 183.40 140 360 Eastern Samar VIII CC

Capital of Eastern Samar

La Carlota 63,852 137.29 53.01 470 1,200 Negros Occidental VI CC 1st

Canlaon 50,627 170.93 66.00 300 780 Negros Oriental VII CC 1st

San Jose de Buenavista 62,534 48.56 18.75 1,300 3,400 Antique VI Municipality 1st Capital of Antique

Sibalom 60,306 201.30 77.72 300 780 Antique VI Municipality 2nd Municipality in Antique

Mabinay 74,187 319.44 123.34 230 600 Negros Oriental VII Municipality 1st

Naval 48,799 108.24 41.79 450 1,200 Biliran VIII Municipality 1st Capital of Biliran

Jordan 34,791 126.11 48.69 280 730 Guimaras VI Municipality 1st Capital of Guimaras

Siquijor 25,231 82.06 31.68 310 800 Siquijor VII Municipality 1st Capital of Siquijor

Notes

^ Population figures are from the 2010 Census Website. ^ Land area figures are taken from the National Statistical Coordination Board. ^ Highly urbanized cities (HUCs) and independent component cities (ICCs) are legally independent from any province, although they are often grouped with the province they belonged to prior to becoming cities. The province indicated for such cities, as grouped by the National Statistical Coordination Board, is in italics. ^ a b Information on income class (as of June 2012) are from the National Statistical Coordination Board. For legal class, HUC indicates "highly urbanized city", ICC for independent component city, and CC for "component city".

Language[edit] Main articles: Visayan languages, Languages of the Philippines, and Philippine Languages Languages spoken at home are primarily Visayan languages
Visayan languages
despite the usual misconception that these are dialects of a single macrolanguage. Major languages include Hiligaynon or Ilonggo in much of Western Visayas, Cebuano in Central Visayas, and Waray in Eastern Visayas. Other dominant languages are Aklanon, Kinaray-a, and Capiznon. Filipino, the 'national language' based on Tagalog, is widely understood but seldom used. English, another official language, is more widely known and is preferred as the second language most especially among urbanized Visayans. For instance, English rather than Tagalog is frequently used in schools, public signs and mass media. See also[edit]

Visayans Regions of the Philippines Provinces of the Philippines

Notes[edit]

^ Census of Population (2015). Highlights of the Philippine Population 2015 Census of Population. PSA. Retrieved 20 June 2016.  ^ "Visayan Islands" Merriam-Webster Dictionary. http://www.merriam-webster.com/concise/visayan%20islands ^ C.Michael Hogan. 2011. Sulu
Sulu
Sea. Encyclopedia of Earth. Eds. P.Saundry & C.J.Cleveland. Washington DC ^ "Executive Order No. 429". President of the Philippines. Archived from the original on 2007-07-07. Retrieved 2009-05-18.  ^ "Administrative Order No. 129". President of the Philippines. Archived from the original on 2009-07-13. Retrieved 2009-05-18.  ^ On May 23, 2005, Palawan
Palawan
and Puerto Princesa
Puerto Princesa
City were moved to Western Visayas
Western Visayas
by Executive Order No. 429.[4] However, on August 19, 2005, President Arroyo issued Administrative Order No. 129 to hold the earlier E.O. 429 in abeyance pending a review.[5] As of 2010[update], Palawan
Palawan
and the highly urbanized city of Puerto Princesa
Puerto Princesa
still remain a part of the MIMAROPA
MIMAROPA
region. ^ "PSA Makati ActiveStats - PSGC Interactive - List of Regions". Philippine Statistics Authority. June 30, 2015. Archived from the original on October 27, 2008. Retrieved September 18, 2015.  ^ Jovito S. Abellana, "Bisaya Patronymesis Sri Visjaya" (Ms., Cebuano Studies Center, ca. 1960) ^ Rasul, Jainal D. (2003). Agonies and Dreams: The Filipino Muslims and Other Minorities. Quezon
Quezon
City: CARE Minorities. pp. 77. ^ Gray, RD; Drummond, AJ; Greenhill, SJ (2009). "Language Phylogenies Reveal Expansion Pulses and Pauses in Pacific Settlement". Science. 323 (5913): 479–483. doi:10.1126/science.1166858. PMID 19164742.  ^ G. Nye Steiger, H. Otley Beyer, Conrado Benitez, A History of the Orient, Oxford: 1929, Ginn and Company, p. 120. ^ Scott, William Henry (1984). Prehispanic Source Materials. p. 74.  ^ In Panay, the existence of highly developed and independent principalities of Ogtong (Oton) and Araut (Dumangas) was well known to early Spanish settlers in the Philippines. The Augustinian historian Gaspar de San Agustin, for example, wrote about the existence of an ancient and illustrious nobility in Araut, in his book Conquistas de las Islas Filipinas (1565–1615). He said: "También fundó convento el Padre Fray Martin de Rada en Araut- que ahora se llama el convento de Dumangas- con la advocación de nuestro Padre San Agustín...Está fundado este pueblo casi a los fines del río de Halaur, que naciendo en unos altos montes en el centro de esta isla (Panay)...Es el pueblo muy hermoso, ameno y muy lleno de palmares de cocos. Antiguamente era el emporio y corte de la más lucida nobleza de toda aquella isla." Gaspar de San Agustin, O.S.A., Conquistas de las Islas Filipinas (1565-1615), Manuel Merino, O.S.A., ed., Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas: Madrid 1975, pp. 374-375. ^ https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=491869557572311&set=a.216088591817077.50089.112008012225136&type=1&theater ^ Dr. Robert L. Yoder, FAPC."Graciano López Jaena". Universitat Wien. Retrieved 2013-07-26. ^ "Venancio's Leon Kilat". Inquirer.net. Retrieved 2013-07-26. ^ "The Dagohoy Rebellion". Watawat.net. Retrieved 2013-07-26. ^ WorldStatesmen. " Philippines
Philippines
- Republic of Negros". Retrieved 10 August 2010.  ^ President of the Philippines
Philippines
(May 23, 2005). "Executive Order No. 429 s. 2005". Official Gazette. Philippine Government.  ^ President of the Philippines
Philippines
(August 19, 2005). "Administrative Order No. 129 s. 2005". Official Gazette. Philippine Government.  ^ Philippine 2010 Election Results: Region IV-B, Philippine Commission on Elections. ^ Scott 1984, pp. 81–103. ^ Cristian Capelli; et al. (2001). "A Predominantly Indigenous Paternal Heritage for the Austronesian-Speaking Peoples of Insular Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and Oceania" (PDF). American Journal of Human Genetics. 68 (2): 432–443. doi:10.1086/318205. PMC 1235276 . PMID 11170891. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-05-11. 

References[edit]

Scott, William Henry (1984). Prehispanic Source Materials for the study of Philippine History. New Day Publishers. ISBN 971-10-0226-4. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Visayas
Visayas
at Wikimedia Commons Visayas
Visayas
travel guide from Wikivoyage The dictionary definition of visayas at Wiktionary Website related to Visaya knowledge base

v t e

  Administrative divisions of the Philippines

Capital

Manila
Manila
(National Capital Region)

Island groups

Luzon Visayas Mindanao

Regions

Administrative

I – Ilocos Region II – Cagayan
Cagayan
Valley III – Central Luzon IV-A – Calabarzon Mimaropa
Mimaropa
– Southwestern Tagalog Region V – Bicol Region VI – Western Visayas VII – Central Visayas VIII – Eastern Visayas IX – Zamboanga Peninsula X – Northern Mindanao XI – Davao Region XII – Soccsksargen XIII – Caraga CAR – Cordillera Administrative Region NCR – National Capital Region

Autonomous

Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao

Provinces

Abra Agusan del Norte Agusan del Sur Aklan Albay Antique Apayao Aurora Basilan Bataan Batanes Batangas Benguet Biliran Bohol Bukidnon Bulacan Cagayan Camarines Norte Camarines Sur Camiguin Capiz Catanduanes Cavite Cebu Compostela Valley Cotabato Davao del Norte Davao del Sur Davao Occidental Davao Oriental Dinagat Islands Eastern Samar Guimaras Ifugao Ilocos Norte Ilocos Sur Iloilo Isabela Kalinga La Union Laguna Lanao del Norte Lanao del Sur Leyte Maguindanao Marinduque Masbate Misamis Occidental Misamis Oriental Mountain Province Negros Occidental Negros Oriental Northern Samar Nueva Ecija Nueva Vizcaya Occidental Mindoro Oriental Mindoro Palawan Pampanga Pangasinan Quezon Quirino Rizal Romblon Samar Sarangani Siquijor Sorsogon South Cotabato Southern Leyte Sultan Kudarat Sulu Surigao del Norte Surigao del Sur Tarlac Tawi-Tawi Zambales Zamboanga del Norte Zamboanga del Sur Zamboanga Sibugay

Cities

List of cities in the Philippines

Municipalities

List of cities and municipalities in the Philippines

Barangays

Lists of barangays by province Poblacion

Other subdivisions

Puroks Sitios List of primary LGUs Legislative districts Metropolitan areas

Historical

Former provinces Formally proposed provinces Negros Island
Negros Island
Region Southern Tagalog

v t e

Regions of the Philippines

Luzon

I – Ilocos Region II – Cagayan
Cagayan
Valley III – Central Luzon IV-A – Calabarzon Mimaropa
Mimaropa
– Southwestern Tagalog Region V – Bicol Region CAR – Cordillera Administrative Region NCR – National Capital Region

Visayas

VI – Western Visayas VII – Central Visayas VIII – Eastern Visayas

Mindanao

IX – Zamboanga Peninsula X – Northern Mindanao XI – Davao Region XII – Soccsksargen XIII – Caraga ARMM – Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao

Former regions

NIR – Negros Island
Negros Island
Region Southern Tagalog

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 236878820 GND: 4223175-9

Coordinates: 11°00′N 123°30′E / 11.000°N 123.500°E

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