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Bisakol

  Masbateño   Southern Sorsogon   Central Sorsogon West Visayan   Cuyonon   Caluyanon   Aklanon   Karay-a   Inonhan   Ratagnon Asi   Asi South Visayan   Surigaonon   Butuanon   Tausug Other legend   Widespread/L2 use of Cebuano   Widespread/L2 use of Hiligaynon

Visayan (Bisaya or Binisaya) is a group of languages of the Philippines
Philippines
that are related to Tagalog and Bikol, all three of which are part of the Central Philippine languages. Most Visayan languages are spoken in the whole Visayas
Visayas
section of the country, but they are also spoken in the Bicol Region
Bicol Region
(particularly in Masbate), islands south of Luzon, such as those that make up Romblon, most of the areas of Mindanao
Mindanao
and the province of Sulu located southwest of Mindanao. Some residents of Metro Manila
Metro Manila
also speak Visayan. Over 30 languages constitute the Visayan language family. The Visayan language with the most speakers is Cebuano, spoken by 20 million people as a native language in Central Visayas, parts of Eastern Visayas, and most of Mindanao. Two other well-known and widespread Visayan languages
Visayan languages
are Hiligaynon (Ilonggo), spoken by 10 million in most of Western Visayas
Visayas
and SOCCSKSARGEN; and Waray-Waray, spoken by 3 million in Eastern Visayas.

Contents

1 Nomenclature 2 Internal classification

2.1 Ethnologue
Ethnologue
Classification

3 Reconstruction 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Nomenclature[edit] Native speakers of Visayan languages, especially Cebuano, Hiligaynon and Waray not only refer to their language by their local name, but also by Bisaya or Binisaya, meaning Visayan language. This is misleading or may lead to confusion as different languages may be called Bisaya by their respective speakers despite their languages being mutually unintelligible. However, languages that are classified within the Visayan language family but spoken natively in places outside of the Visayas
Visayas
do not use the self-reference Bisaya or Binisaya. To speakers of Masbateño, Romblomanon, Surigaonon and Butuanon, the term Visaya usually refers to either Cebuano or Hiligaynon. Since Tausugs are mostly Muslims, they view the term Bisaya as a religious term referring to Christian Filipinos (mostly referring to either Cebuano and/or Hiligaynon as they are the neighboring languages). There have been no proven accounts to verify the origins of Bisaya. However, there is an ethnic group in Malaysia
Malaysia
and Brunei
Brunei
who call themselves with the same name. However, these ethnic groups in the Philippines
Philippines
must not be confused with those in Borneo. Internal classification[edit] David Zorc gives the following internal classification for the Visayan languages (Zorc 1977:32).[2] The five primary branches are South, Cebuan, Central, Banton, and West. However, Zorc notes that the Visayan language family is more like a dialect continuum rather than a set of readily distinguishable languages. The South Visayan languages are considered to have diverged first, followed by Cebuan and then the rest of the three branches. Also, in the Visayas
Visayas
section, the province of Romblon
Romblon
has the most linguistic diversity, as languages from three primary Visayan branches are spoken there aside from the indigenous Romblomanon and Banton. Notably, Baybayanon and Porohanon have Warayan substrata, indicating a more widespread distribution of Waray before Cebuano speakers started to expand considerably starting from the mid-1800s.[3] A total of 36 varieties are listed below. Individual languages are marked by italics.

Visayan

1. South (spoken on the northeastern coast of Mindanao)

Butuan-Tausug

Tausug Butuanon

Surigao

Surigaonon Tandaganon

2. Cebuan (spoken in Cebu, Bohol, Siquijor, Eastern Negros, western Leyte
Leyte
and northern, southeastern and northwestern parts of Mindanao)

Cebuan

Cebuano

Boholano

3. Central (spoken across most of the Visayan region)

Warayan (spoken in eastern Leyte, Biliran
Biliran
and Samar)

Waray Baybayanon Kabalian

Peripheral

Hiligaynon (Ilonggo) (spoken in eastern Panay
Panay
and Guimaras, Western Negros and south-central Mindanao) Capiznon Bantayanon Porohanon Ati

Romblon
Romblon
(also the name of the province)

Romblomanon

Bisakol

Masbateño Sorsoganon

Southern Sorsogon (Gubat) Central Sorsogon (Masbate)

4. Asi (spoken in northwestern Romblon
Romblon
Province)

Asi

5. West

Aklan (spoken in northwestern Panay)

Aklanon/Inakeanon Malaynon

Karayan

Karay-a (spoken in western and inland Panay)

North-Central (spoken on Tablas Island
Tablas Island
and the southern tip of Mindoro)

Inonhan (language related to Karayan)

Kuyan (spoken in the archipelagos west of Panay
Panay
and Romblon
Romblon
as well as the southern tip of Mindoro)

Ratagnon Cuyonon

Caluyanon

Caluyanon

The auxiliary language of Eskayan is grammatically Visayan, but has essentially no Visayan (or Philippine) vocabulary. Ethnologue
Ethnologue
Classification[edit] Ethnologue
Ethnologue
classifies the 25 Visayan languages
Visayan languages
into five subgroups:

Language family No. of Languages Languages

Banton 1 Bantoanon

Cebuan 1 Cebuano

Central Visayan 1 Bantayanon

Peripheral 5 Ati, Capiznon, Hiligaynon, Masbateño, Porohanon

Romblon 1 Romblomanon

Warayan 3 Baybayanon, Kabalian, Northern Sorsoganon

Gubat 1 Southern Sorsoganon

Samar-Waray 1 Waray

South Visayan 2 Surigaonon, Tandaganon

Butuan-Tausug 2 Butuanon, Tausug

West Visayan 2 Aklanon, Caluyanon

Aklan 1 Malaynon

Karay-an 1 Karay-a

Cuyan 2 Cuyonon, Ratagnon

North-Central 1 Inonhan

Total 25

Reconstruction[edit] David Zorc's reconstruction of Proto-Visayan had 15 consonants and 4 vowels (Zorc 1977:201).[2] Vowel
Vowel
length, primary stress (penultimate and ultimate), and secondary stress (pre-penultimate) are also reconstructed by Zorc.

Proto-Visayan Consonants

Bilabial Dental Palatal Velar Glottal

Plosive Voiceless p t

k ʔ

Voiced b d

ɡ

Nasal m n

ŋ

Fricative

s

h

Lateral

l

Approximant w

j

Proto-Visayan Vowels

Height Front Central Back

Close i /i/

u /u/

Mid

ə /ə/

Open

a /a/

See also[edit]

Visayan people Bisalog Bislish Bisakol
Bisakol
languages

References[edit]

^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Bisayan". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ a b Zorc, David Paul. The Bisayan Dialects of the Philippines: Subgrouping and Reconstruction. Canberra, Australia: Dept. of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1977. ^ Lobel, Jason. 2009. Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World, 914-917. Oxford: Elsevier.

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Bisaya phrasebook.

Kaipuleohone's Robert Blust
Robert Blust
collection includes materials on Bisaya.

v t e

Visayan languages

Asi

Asi

Cebuan

Cebuano

Boholano

Central

Romblomanon

Warayan

Baybayanon Kinabalian Waray

Peripheral

Ati Bantayanon Capiznon Hiligaynon Porohanon

Bisakol ?

Masbateño North Sorsogon (Masbate) South Sorsogon (Gubat)

West

Aklanon Caluyanon Kinaray-a Onhan

Kuyan

Cuyonon Ratagnon

South

Surigaonon

Butuan-Tausug

Butuanon Tausug

See also: Visayan peoples

v t e

Philippine languages

Northern Philippine

Batanic (Bashiic) ?

Itbayat Ivatan Yami

Northern Luzon

Ilocano Arta † Dicamay Agta †

Cagayan Valley

Ibanag Isnag Atta Itawis Yogad Cagayan Aeta Gaddang Ga'dang

South-Central Cordilleran

Pangasinan Northern Alta Southern Alta Isinai Itneg Kalinga Ifugao Tuwali ? Balangao Bontok-Finallig Kankanaey Ilongot Ibaloi Iwaak Kallahan Karao

Central Luzon

Kapampangan Remontado Agta (Sinauna) Abellen Ambala Bolinao Botolan Mag-antsi Mag-indi Mariveleño Sambal

Northern Mindoro

Alangan Iraya Tadyawan

Greater Central Philippine ?

Southern Mindoro

Buhid Hanuno'o Tawbuid

Central Philippine

Tagalic

Tagalog Kasiguranin

Bikol

Central Bikol Isarog Agta Mount Iraya Agta Albay Bikol Mount Iriga Agta Rinconada Pandan Bikol

Visayan

Cebuano

Boholano

Hiligaynon Waray Tausug Karay-a Aklanon Capiznon Asi Baybayanon Kabalian Bantayanon Porohanon Romblomanon Caluyanon Onhan Cuyunon Ratagnon Surigaonon Butuanon

Bisakol ?

Masbateño Sorsoganon

Unclassified

Sulod Magahat Karolanos Ata †

Mansakan

Davawenyo Kalagan Kamayo Mamanwa Mandaya Mansaka

Palawan

Aborlan Tagbanwa Central Tagbanwa Palawan Batak Palawano

Mindanao

Subanon

Danao

Maguindanao Maranao Iranun

Manobo

Agusan Ata Manobo Matigsalug Obo Ilianen Western Bukidnon Binukid Higaonon Kagayanen Kamigin Cotabato Manobo Sarangani Tagabawa

Gorontalo-Mongondow

Bolango Buol Bintauna Gorontalo Kaidipang Lolak Suwawa Mongondow Ponosakan

Kalamian

Agutaynen Calamian Tagbanwa

Bilic

Bagobo B'laan T'boli Tiruray

Sangiric

Sangirese Talaud Bantik Ratahan

Minahasan

Tonsawang Tontemboan Tombulu Tondano Tonsea

Unclassified

Umiray Dumaget Ati

Manide-Inagta

Inagta Alabat Manide

† indicates extinct status ? indicates classification dispute

v t e

Visayan-speaking peoples

Visayan

Aklanon Boholano Butuanon Caluyanon Capiznon Cebuano Davaoeño Eskaya Hiligaynon Karay-a Masbateño Negrense* Porohanon Romblomanon Surigaonon Waray

Moro

Tausūg

Mangyan

Ratagnon

Negrito

Ati

* - Not an official ethnic group

v t e

Languages of the Philippines

Official languages

Filipino English

Regional languages

Aklanon Bikol Cebuano Chavacano Hiligaynon Ibanag Ilocano Ivatan Kapampangan Karay-a Maguindanao Maranao Pangasinan Sambal Surigaonon Tagalog Tausug Waray Yakan

Indigenous languages (by region)

Luzon

Ilocos

Bolinao

Cordillera

Atta Balangao Bontoc Ga'dang Kalinga Kallahan Kankanaey Ibaloi Ifugao Isnag Itneg Itawis Iwaak Malaweg Tuwali

Cagayan Valley

Arta Atta Central Cagayan Agta Dinapigue Agta Dupaningan Agta Gaddang Ilongot Isinai Itbayat Itawis Kallahan Karao Malaweg Nagtipunan Agta Paranan Agta Paranan Yogad

Central Luzon

Abellen Ambala Antsi Botolan Casiguran Dumagat Agta Indi Kasiguranin Mariveleño Northern Alta Southern Alta Umiray Dumaget

Calabarzon

Inagta Alabat Manide Remontado Agta Southern Alta Umiray Dumaget

Metro Manila

Hokaglish Taglish

Mimaropa

Agutaynen Alangan Asi Calamian Tagbanwa Central Tagbanwa Cuyonon Iraya Kagayanen Molbog Onhan Palawan Batak Palawano Ratagnon Romblomanon Tadyawan

Bicol

Albay Bikol Inagta Partido Manide Masbateño Mount Iraya Agta Pandan Bikol Rinconada Bikol Sorsoganon Southern Catanduanes Bikol

Visayas

Western Visayas

Ati Caluyanon Capiznon Sulod

Negros Island

Ata Karolanos Magahat

Central Visayas

Bantayanon Eskayan Porohanon

Eastern Visayas

Abaknon Baybay Kabalian

Mindanao

Zamboanga Peninsula

Subanon

Northern Mindanao

Bukid Higaonon Ilianen Iranun Kamigin Matigsalug Subanon Western Bukidnon

Caraga

Agusan Ata Manobo Butuanon Higaonon Kamayo Mamanwa

Davao

Bagobo B'laan Davawenyo Kalagan Mandaya Mansaka Obo Sangirese Sarangani Tagabawa

Soccsksargen

B'laan Cotabato Manobo Ilianen Iranun Obo Tboli Tiruray

Muslim Mindanao

Iranun Pangutaran Sama Sama

Immigrant languages

Arabic Basque Chinese

Mandarin Hokkien

French German Japanese Korean Malay

Indonesian Malaysian

Sindhi Spanish

History

Vietnamese

Sign languages

American Sign Philippine Sign

Historical languages

Proto-Philippine Old Tagalog

v t e

Languages of Malaysia

Main

Official

Malaysian

Recognised

English (comparison with British English)

Significant minority

Chinese

Sino-Tibetan

Cantonese Eastern Min Fuqing Fuzhou Hokkien Mandarin Chinese Malaysian Mandarin Pu-Xian Min Penang Hokkien Southern Peninsular Malaysian Hokkien Yue Chinese

Indian

Dravidian

Malayalam Tamil

Malaysian Tamil

Telugu

Indo-European

Gujarati Hindi Punjabi Urdu

Families

Austroasiatic

Aslian

Austronesian

Bornean Land Dayak Malayic Philippine Sama–Bajaw

Tai-Kadai

Tai

Creoles

Chavacano Kristang Manglish Other Malay trade and creole languages

Natives & Indigenous

Nationwide

Banjar Buginese Javanese Malay (Malayan)

Peninsular Malaysia

Baba Malay Batek Baweanese Cheq Wong Chetty Malay Duano’ Jah Hut Jahai Jakun Jedek Kedah Malay Kelantan-Pattani Malay Kenaboi1 Kensiu Kintaq Kristang Lanoh Mah Meri Minriq Mintil Mos Negeri Sembilan Malay Orang Kanaq Orang Seletar Pahang Malay Perak Malay Rawa Malay Sabüm1 Semai Semaq Beri Semelai Semnam Southern Thai Temiar Temoq2 Temuan Terengganu Malay Wila'1

East Malaysia

Abai Bahau Bajaw Balau Belait Berawan Biatah Bintulu Bonggi Bookan Bruneian/Kedayan Malay Brunei
Brunei
Bisaya Bukar Sadong Bukitan Coastal Kadazan Cocos Malay Daro-Matu Dumpas Dusun Eastern Kadazan Gana’ Iban Ida'an Iranun Jagoi Jangkang Kajaman Kalabakan Kanowit Kayan Kelabit Kendayan Keningau Murut Kinabatangan Kiput Klias River Kadazan Kota Marudu Talantang Kuijau Lahanan Lelak1 Lengilu1 Lotud Lun Bawang Mainstream Kenyah Maranao Melanau Molbog Momogun Murik Kayan Narom Nonukan Tidong Okolod Paluan Papar Punan Batu2 Penan Remun Sa'ban Sabah
Sabah
Bisaya Sabah
Sabah
Malay Sama Sarawak Malay Sebop Sebuyau Sekapan Selungai Murut Sembakung Seru1 Serudung Sian Suluk Sungai Tagol Timugon Tombonuwo Tring Tringgus Tutoh Ukit2 Uma’ Lasan

Mixed & Others

Rojak Tanglish Esperanto

Immigrants

African Arab Bangladeshi Burmese Cambodian East Timorese Filipino Indonesian

comparison with Malaysian

Iranian Japanese Korean Laotian Nepalese Pakistani Sri Lankan Thai Vietnamese

Signs

Main

Malaysian Sign Language (Manually Coded Malay)

By states

Penang Sign Language Selangor Sign Language

1 Extinct languages. 2 Nearly extinc

.