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Publius Vergilius Maro (Classical Latin: [ˈpuː.blɪ.ʊs wɛrˈɡɪ.lɪ.ʊs ˈma.roː]; traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC[1]), usually called Virgil
Virgil
or Vergil /ˈvɜːrdʒɪl/ in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period. He wrote three of the most famous poems in Latin
Latin
literature: the Eclogues
Eclogues
(or Bucolics), the Georgics, and the epic Aeneid. A number of minor poems, collected in the Appendix Vergiliana, are sometimes attributed to him.[2][3] Virgil
Virgil
is traditionally ranked as one of Rome's greatest poets. His Aeneid
Aeneid
has been considered the national epic of ancient Rome
Rome
since the time of its composition. Modeled after Homer's Iliad
Iliad
and Odyssey, the Aeneid
Aeneid
follows the Trojan refugee Aeneas
Aeneas
as he struggles to fulfill his destiny and reach Italy, where his descendants Romulus and Remus were to found the city of Rome. Virgil's work has had wide and deep influence on Western literature, most notably Dante's Divine Comedy, in which Virgil
Virgil
appears as Dante's guide through Hell
Hell
and Purgatory.[4]

Contents

1 Life and works

1.1 Birth and biographical tradition 1.2 Early works 1.3 The Eclogues 1.4 The Georgics 1.5 The Aeneid 1.6 Reception of the Aeneid 1.7 Virgil's death and editing of the Aeneid

2 Later views and reception

2.1 In antiquity 2.2 Late antiquity and Middle Ages 2.3 Legends 2.4 Virgil's tomb

3 Spelling 4 References 5 Sources 6 Further reading 7 External links

Life and works[edit] Birth and biographical tradition[edit]

A bust of Virgil
Virgil
in Naples

Virgil's biographical tradition is thought to depend on a lost biography by Varius, Virgil's editor, which was incorporated into the biography by Suetonius
Suetonius
and the commentaries of Servius
Servius
and Donatus, the two great commentators on Virgil's poetry. Although the commentaries no doubt record much factual information about Virgil, some of their evidence can be shown to rely on inferences made from his poetry and allegorizing; thus, Virgil's biographical tradition remains problematic.[5] The tradition holds that Virgil
Virgil
was born in the village of Andes, near Mantua[6] in Cisalpine Gaul.[7] Analysis of his name has led to beliefs that he descended from earlier Roman colonists. Modern speculation ultimately is not supported by narrative evidence either from his own writings or his later biographers. Macrobius
Macrobius
says that Virgil's father was of a humble background; however, scholars generally believe that Virgil
Virgil
was from an equestrian landowning family which could afford to give him an education. He attended schools in Cremona, Mediolanum, Rome
Rome
and Naples. After considering briefly a career in rhetoric and law, the young Virgil
Virgil
turned his talents to poetry.[8] According to Robert Seymour Conway, the only ancient source which reports the actual distance between Andes and Mantua
Mantua
is a surviving fragment from the works of Marcus Valerius Probus. Probus flourished during the reign of Nero
Nero
(reigned 54-68). [9] Probus reports that Andes was located 30 Roman miles from Mantua. Conway translated this to a distance of about 45 kilometres or 28 English miles. [9] Relatively little is known about the family of Virgil. His father reportedly belonged to gens Vergilia, and his mother belonged to gens Magia. [9] According to Conway, gens Vergilia is poorly attested in inscriptions from the entire Northern Italy, where Mantua
Mantua
is located. Among thousands of surviving ancient inscriptions from this region, there are only 8 or 9 mentions of individuals called "Vergilius" (masculine) or "Vergilia" (feminine). Out of these mentions, 3 appear in inscriptions from Verona, and one in an inscription from Calvisano. [9] Conway theorized that the inscription from Calvisano
Calvisano
had to do with a kinswoman of Virgil. Calvisano
Calvisano
is located 30 Roman miles from Mantua, and would fit with Probus' description of Andes. [9] The inscription in this case is a votive offering to the Matronae (a group of deities) by a woman called Vergilia, asking the goddesses to deliver from danger another woman, called Munatia. Conway notes that the offering belongs to a common type for this era, where women made requests for deities to preserve the lives of female loved ones who were pregnant and were about to give birth. In most cases, the woman making the request was the mother of a woman who was pregnant or otherwise in danger. Though there is another inscription from Calvisano, where a woman asks the deities to preserve the life of her sister. [9] Munatia, the woman who Vergilia wished to protect, was likely a close relative of Vergilia or Vergilia's daughter. The name "Munatia" indicates that this woman was a member of gens Munatia, and makes it likely that Vergilia married into this family. [9] [9] Early works[edit] Main article: Appendix Vergiliana According to the commentators, Virgil
Virgil
received his first education when he was five years old and he later went to Cremona, Milan, and finally Rome
Rome
to study rhetoric, medicine, and astronomy, which he soon abandoned for philosophy. From Virgil's admiring references to the neoteric writers Pollio and Cinna, it has been inferred that he was, for a time, associated with Catullus' neoteric circle. According to Servius, schoolmates considered Virgil
Virgil
extremely shy and reserved, and he was nicknamed "Parthenias" or "maiden" because of his social aloofness. Virgil
Virgil
also seems to have suffered bad health throughout his life and in some ways lived the life of an invalid. According to the Catalepton, he began to write poetry while in the Epicurean
Epicurean
school of Siro the Epicurean
Epicurean
at Naples. A group of small works attributed to the youthful Virgil
Virgil
by the commentators survive collected under the title Appendix Vergiliana, but are largely considered spurious by scholars. One, the Catalepton, consists of fourteen short poems,[10] some of which may be Virgil's, and another, a short narrative poem titled the Culex ("The Gnat"), was attributed to Virgil
Virgil
as early as the 1st century AD. The Eclogues[edit] Main article: Eclogues

Page from the beginning of the Eclogues
Eclogues
in the 5th-century Vergilius Romanus

The biographical tradition asserts that Virgil
Virgil
began the hexameter Eclogues
Eclogues
(or Bucolics) in 42 BC and it is thought that the collection was published around 39–38 BC, although this is controversial.[10] The Eclogues
Eclogues
(from the Greek for "selections") are a group of ten poems roughly modeled on the bucolic hexameter poetry ("pastoral poetry") of the Hellenistic poet Theocritus. After his victory in the Battle of Philippi
Battle of Philippi
in 42 BC, fought against the army led by the assassins of Julius Caesar, Octavian
Octavian
tried to pay off his veterans with land expropriated from towns in northern Italy, supposedly including, according to the tradition, an estate near Mantua
Mantua
belonging to Virgil. The loss of his family farm and the attempt through poetic petitions to regain his property have traditionally been seen as Virgil's motives in the composition of the Eclogues. This is now thought to be an unsupported inference from interpretations of the Eclogues. In Eclogues
Eclogues
1 and 9, Virgil
Virgil
indeed dramatizes the contrasting feelings caused by the brutality of the land expropriations through pastoral idiom, but offers no indisputable evidence of the supposed biographic incident. While some readers have identified the poet himself with various characters and their vicissitudes, whether gratitude by an old rustic to a new god (Ecl. 1), frustrated love by a rustic singer for a distant boy (his master's pet, Ecl. 2), or a master singer's claim to have composed several eclogues (Ecl. 5), modern scholars largely reject such efforts to garner biographical details from works of fiction, preferring to interpret an author's characters and themes as illustrations of contemporary life and thought. The ten Eclogues
Eclogues
present traditional pastoral themes with a fresh perspective. Eclogues
Eclogues
1 and 9 address the land confiscations and their effects on the Italian countryside. 2 and 3 are pastoral and erotic, discussing both homosexual love (Ecl. 2) and attraction toward people of any gender (Ecl. 3). Eclogue 4, addressed to Asinius Pollio, the so-called "Messianic Eclogue" uses the imagery of the golden age in connection with the birth of a child (who the child was meant to be has been subject to debate). 5 and 8 describe the myth of Daphnis
Daphnis
in a song contest, 6, the cosmic and mythological song of Silenus; 7, a heated poetic contest, and 10 the sufferings of the contemporary elegiac poet Cornelius Gallus. Virgil is credited[by whom?] in the Eclogues
Eclogues
with establishing Arcadia as a poetic ideal that still resonates in Western literature and visual arts and setting the stage for the development of Latin
Latin
pastoral by Calpurnius Siculus, Nemesianus, and later writers. The Georgics[edit] Main article: Georgics Sometime after the publication of the Eclogues
Eclogues
(probably before 37 BC),[11] Virgil
Virgil
became part of the circle of Maecenas, Octavian's capable agent d'affaires who sought to counter sympathy for Antony among the leading families by rallying Roman literary figures to Octavian's side. Virgil
Virgil
came to know many of the other leading literary figures of the time, including Horace, in whose poetry he is often mentioned,[12] and Varius Rufus, who later helped finish the Aeneid.

Late 17th-century illustration of a passage from the Georgics
Georgics
by Jerzy Siemiginowski-Eleuter

At Maecenas' insistence (according to the tradition) Virgil
Virgil
spent the ensuing years (perhaps 37–29 BC) on the long didactic hexameter poem called the Georgics
Georgics
(from Greek, "On Working the Earth") which he dedicated to Maecenas. The ostensible theme of the Georgics
Georgics
is instruction in the methods of running a farm. In handling this theme, Virgil
Virgil
follows in the didactic ("how to") tradition of the Greek poet Hesiod's Works and Days
Works and Days
and several works of the later Hellenistic poets. The four books of the Georgics
Georgics
focus respectively on raising crops and trees (1 and 2), livestock and horses (3), and beekeeping and the qualities of bees (4). Well-known passages include the beloved Laus Italiae of Book 2, the prologue description of the temple in Book 3, and the description of the plague at the end of Book 3. Book 4 concludes with a long mythological narrative, in the form of an epyllion which describes vividly the discovery of beekeeping by Aristaeus
Aristaeus
and the story of Orpheus' journey to the underworld. Ancient scholars, such as Servius, conjectured that the Aristaeus
Aristaeus
episode replaced, at the emperor's request, a long section in praise of Virgil's friend, the poet Gallus, who was disgraced by Augustus, and who committed suicide in 26 BC. The Georgics' tone wavers between optimism and pessimism, sparking critical debate on the poet's intentions,[13] but the work lays the foundations for later didactic poetry. Virgil
Virgil
and Maecenas
Maecenas
are said to have taken turns reading the Georgics
Georgics
to Octavian
Octavian
upon his return from defeating Antony and Cleopatra
Cleopatra
at the Battle of Actium
Battle of Actium
in 31 BC. The Aeneid[edit] Main article: Aeneid

A 1st-century terracotta expressing the pietas of Aeneas, who carries his aged father and leads his young son

The Aeneid
Aeneid
is widely considered Virgil's finest work and one of the most important poems in the history of western literature. Virgil worked on the Aeneid
Aeneid
during the last eleven years of his life (29–19 BC), commissioned, according to Propertius, by Augustus.[14] The epic poem consists of 12 books in dactylic hexameter verse which describe the journey of Aeneas, a warrior fleeing the sack of Troy, to Italy, his battle with the Italian prince Turnus, and the foundation of a city from which Rome
Rome
would emerge. The Aeneid's first six books describe the journey of Aeneas
Aeneas
from Troy to Rome. Virgil
Virgil
made use of several models in the composition of his epic;[11] Homer, the preeminent author of classical epic, is everywhere present, but Virgil also makes special use of the Latin
Latin
poet Ennius
Ennius
and the Hellenistic poet Apollonius of Rhodes among the various other writers to which he alludes. Although the Aeneid
Aeneid
casts itself firmly into the epic mode, it often seeks to expand the genre by including elements of other genres such as tragedy and aetiological poetry. Ancient commentators noted that Virgil
Virgil
seems to divide the Aeneid
Aeneid
into two sections based on the poetry of Homer; the first six books were viewed as employing the Odyssey
Odyssey
as a model while the last six were connected to the Iliad.[15] Book 1[16] (at the head of the Odyssean section) opens with a storm which Juno, Aeneas' enemy throughout the poem, stirs up against the fleet. The storm drives the hero to the coast of Carthage, which historically was Rome's deadliest foe. The queen, Dido, welcomes the ancestor of the Romans, and under the influence of the gods falls deeply in love with him. At a banquet in Book 2, Aeneas
Aeneas
tells the story of the sack of Troy, the death of his wife, and his escape, to the enthralled Carthaginians, while in Book 3 he recounts to them his wanderings over the Mediterranean in search of a suitable new home. Jupiter in Book 4 recalls the lingering Aeneas
Aeneas
to his duty to found a new city, and he slips away from Carthage, leaving Dido
Dido
to commit suicide, cursing Aeneas
Aeneas
and calling down revenge in a symbolic anticipation of the fierce wars between Carthage
Carthage
and Rome. In Book 5, funeral games are celebrated for Aeneas' father Anchises, who had died a year before. On reaching Cumae, in Italy
Italy
in Book 6, Aeneas
Aeneas
consults the Cumaean Sibyl, who conducts him through the Underworld
Underworld
where Aeneas
Aeneas
meets the dead Anchises
Anchises
who reveals Rome's destiny to his son. Book 7 (beginning the Iliadic half) opens with an address to the muse and recounts Aeneas' arrival in Italy
Italy
and betrothal to Lavinia, daughter of King Latinus. Lavinia
Lavinia
had already been promised to Turnus, the king of the Rutulians, who is roused to war by the Fury Allecto, and Amata Lavinia's mother. In Book 8, Aeneas
Aeneas
allies with King Evander, who occupies the future site of Rome, and is given new armor and a shield depicting Roman history. Book 9 records an assault by Nisus and Euryalus
Nisus and Euryalus
on the Rutulians, Book 10, the death of Evander's young son Pallas, and 11 the death of the Volscian warrior princess Camilla and the decision to settle the war with a duel between Aeneas and Turnus. The Aeneid
Aeneid
ends in Book 12 with the taking of Latinus' city, the death of Amata, and Aeneas' defeat and killing of Turnus, whose pleas for mercy are spurned. The final book ends with the image of Turnus' soul lamenting as it flees to the underworld. Reception of the Aeneid[edit]

Virgil
Virgil
Reading the Aeneid
Aeneid
to Augustus, Octavia, and Livia by Jean-Baptiste Wicar, Art Institute of Chicago

Critics of the Aeneid
Aeneid
focus on a variety of issues.[17] The tone of the poem as a whole is a particular matter of debate; some see the poem as ultimately pessimistic and politically subversive to the Augustan regime, while others view it as a celebration of the new imperial dynasty. Virgil
Virgil
makes use of the symbolism of the Augustan regime, and some scholars see strong associations between Augustus
Augustus
and Aeneas, the one as founder and the other as re-founder of Rome. A strong teleology, or drive towards a climax, has been detected in the poem. The Aeneid
Aeneid
is full of prophecies about the future of Rome, the deeds of Augustus, his ancestors, and famous Romans, and the Carthaginian Wars; the shield of Aeneas
Aeneas
even depicts Augustus' victory at Actium against Mark Antony
Mark Antony
and Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII in 31 BC. A further focus of study is the character of Aeneas. As the protagonist of the poem, Aeneas
Aeneas
seems to waver constantly between his emotions and commitment to his prophetic duty to found Rome; critics note the breakdown of Aeneas' emotional control in the last sections of the poem where the "pious" and "righteous" Aeneas
Aeneas
mercilessly slaughters Turnus. The Aeneid
Aeneid
appears to have been a great success. Virgil
Virgil
is said to have recited Books 2, 4, and 6 to Augustus;[11] and Book 6 apparently caused Augustus' sister Octavia to faint. Although the truth of this claim is subject to scholarly scepticism, it has served as a basis for later art, such as Jean-Baptiste Wicar's Virgil
Virgil
Reading the Aeneid. Unfortunately, some lines of the poem were left unfinished, and the whole was unedited, at Virgil's death in 19 BC. Virgil's death and editing of the Aeneid[edit] According to the tradition, Virgil
Virgil
traveled to Greece
Greece
in about 19 BC to revise the Aeneid. After meeting Augustus
Augustus
in Athens and deciding to return home, Virgil
Virgil
caught a fever while visiting a town near Megara. After crossing to Italy
Italy
by ship, weakened with disease, Virgil
Virgil
died in Brundisium
Brundisium
harbor on September 21, 19 BC. Augustus
Augustus
ordered Virgil's literary executors, Lucius Varius Rufus and Plotius Tucca, to disregard Virgil's own wish that the poem be burned, instead ordering it published with as few editorial changes as possible.[18] As a result, the text of the Aeneid
Aeneid
that exists may contain faults which Virgil
Virgil
was planning to correct before publication. However, the only obvious imperfections are a few lines of verse that are metrically unfinished (i.e. not a complete line of dactylic hexameter). Some scholars have argued that Virgil
Virgil
deliberately left these metrically incomplete lines for dramatic effect.[19] Other alleged imperfections are subject to scholarly debate. Later views and reception[edit] In antiquity[edit]

A 3rd-century Tunisian mosaic of Virgil
Virgil
seated between Clio
Clio
and Melpomene
Melpomene
(from Hadrumetum
Hadrumetum
[Sousse])

The works of Virgil
Virgil
almost from the moment of their publication revolutionized Latin
Latin
poetry. The Eclogues, Georgics, and above all the Aeneid
Aeneid
became standard texts in school curricula with which all educated Romans were familiar. Poets following Virgil
Virgil
often refer intertextually to his works to generate meaning in their own poetry. The Augustan poet Ovid
Ovid
parodies the opening lines of the Aeneid
Aeneid
in Amores 1.1.1–2, and his summary of the Aeneas
Aeneas
story in Book 14 of the Metamorphoses, the so-called "mini-Aeneid", has been viewed as a particularly important example of post-Virgilian response to the epic genre. Lucan's epic, the Bellum Civile has been considered an anti-Virgilian epic, disposing with the divine mechanism, treating historical events, and diverging drastically from Virgilian epic practice. The Flavian poet Statius
Statius
in his 12-book epic Thebaid engages closely with the poetry of Virgil; in his epilogue he advises his poem not to "rival the divine Aeneid, but follow afar and ever venerate its footsteps."[20] In Silius Italicus, Virgil
Virgil
finds one of his most ardent admirers. With almost every line of his epic Punica
Punica
Silius references Virgil. Indeed, Silius is known to have bought Virgil's tomb and worshipped the poet.[21] Partially as a result of his so-called "Messianic" Fourth Eclogue—widely interpreted later to have predicted the birth of Jesus Christ— Virgil
Virgil
was in later antiquity imputed to have the magical abilities of a seer; the Sortes Vergilianae, the process of using Virgil's poetry as a tool of divination, is found in the time of Hadrian, and continued into the Middle Ages. In a similar vein Macrobius
Macrobius
in the Saturnalia credits the work of Virgil
Virgil
as the embodiment of human knowledge and experience, mirroring the Greek conception of Homer.[11] Virgil
Virgil
also found commentators in antiquity. Servius, a commentator of the 4th century AD, based his work on the commentary of Donatus. Servius' commentary provides us with a great deal of information about Virgil's life, sources, and references; however, many modern scholars find the variable quality of his work and the often simplistic interpretations frustrating. Late antiquity and Middle Ages[edit]

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A 5th-century portrait of Virgil
Virgil
from the Vergilius Romanus

Even as the Western Roman empire collapsed, literate men acknowledged that Virgil
Virgil
was a master poet. Gregory of Tours
Gregory of Tours
read Virgil, whom he quotes in several places, along with some other Latin
Latin
poets, though he cautions that "we ought not to relate their lying fables, lest we fall under sentence of eternal death." Dante
Dante
made Virgil
Virgil
his guide in Hell
Hell
and the greater part of Purgatory in The Divine Comedy. Dante
Dante
also mentions Virgil
Virgil
in De vulgari eloquentia, along with Ovid, Lucan
Lucan
and Statius, as one of the four regulati poetae (ii, vi, 7). The best-known surviving manuscripts of Virgil's works include the Vergilius Augusteus, the Vergilius Vaticanus
Vergilius Vaticanus
and the Vergilius Romanus. Legends[edit]

Virgil
Virgil
in his Basket, Lucas van Leyden, 1525

In the Middle Ages, Virgil's reputation was such that it inspired legends associating him with magic and prophecy. From at least the 3rd century, Christian thinkers interpreted Eclogues
Eclogues
4, which describes the birth of a boy ushering in a golden age, as a prediction of Jesus' birth. In consequence, Virgil
Virgil
came to be seen on a similar level to the Hebrew prophets of the Bible as one who had heralded Christianity.[22] Possibly as early as the second century AD, Virgil's works were seen as having magical properties and were used for divination. In what became known as the Sortes Vergilianae (Virgilian Lots), passages would be selected at random and interpreted to answer questions.[23] In the 12th century, starting around Naples
Naples
but eventually spreading widely throughout Europe, a tradition developed in which Virgil
Virgil
was regarded as a great magician. Legends about Virgil
Virgil
and his magical powers remained popular for over two hundred years, arguably becoming as prominent as his writings themselves.[24] Virgil's legacy in medieval Wales
Wales
was such that the Welsh version of his name, Fferyllt or Pheryllt, became a generic term for magic-worker, and survives in the modern Welsh word for pharmacist, fferyllydd.[25] The legend of " Virgil
Virgil
in his basket" arose in the Middle Ages, and is often seen in art and mentioned in literature as part of the Power of Women literary topos, demonstrating the disruptive force of female attractiveness on men. In this story Virgil
Virgil
became enamoured of a beautiful woman, sometimes described as the emperor's daughter or mistress and called Lucretia. She played him along and agreed to an assignation at her house, which he was to sneak into at night by climbing into a large basket let down from a window. When he did so he was only hoisted halfway up the wall and then left him trapped there into the next day, exposed to public ridicule. The story paralleled that of Phyllis riding Aristotle. Among other artists depicting the scene, Lucas van Leyden
Lucas van Leyden
made a woodcut and later an engraving.[26] Virgil's tomb[edit]

Virgil's tomb

The verse inscription at Virgil's tomb
Virgil's tomb
was supposedly composed by the poet himself: Mantua
Mantua
me genuit, Calabri rapuere, tenet nunc Parthenope. Cecini pascua, rura, duces. (" Mantua
Mantua
gave me life, the Calabrians took it away, Naples
Naples
holds me now; I sang of pastures, farms, and commanders." [trans. Bernard Knox])

The structure known as "Virgil's tomb" is found at the entrance of an ancient Roman tunnel (also known as "grotta vecchia") in Piedigrotta, a district 3 kilometres (2 mi) from the centre of Naples, near the Mergellina
Mergellina
harbor, on the road heading north along the coast to Pozzuoli. While Virgil
Virgil
was already the object of literary admiration and veneration before his death, in the Middle Ages his name became associated with miraculous powers, and for a couple of centuries his tomb was the destination of pilgrimages and veneration.[27] Spelling[edit] By the fourth or fifth century A.D. the original spelling Vergilius had been corrupted to Virgilius, and then the latter spelling spread to the modern European languages.[28] The error probably originated with scribes reproducing manuscripts by dictation. The error persisted even though, as early as the 15th century, the classical scholar Poliziano
Poliziano
had shown Vergilius to be the original spelling.[29] Today, the anglicisations Vergil and Virgil
Virgil
are both acceptable.[30] References[edit]

^ Jones, Peter. Reading Virgil: AeneidI and II. Cambridge University Press. pp. 1, 4. ISBN 9780521768665. Retrieved 23 November 2016.  ^ Bunson, Matthew. Encyclopedia of the Roman Empire. Infobase Publishing. p. 584. ISBN 9781438110271. Retrieved 23 November 2016.  ^ Roberts, John. The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192801463. Retrieved 23 November 2016.  ^ Ruud, Jay. Critical Companion to Dante. Infobase Publishing. p. 376. ISBN 9781438108414. Retrieved 23 November 2016.  ^ Don Fowler " Virgil
Virgil
(Publius Vergilius Maro)" in The Oxford Classical Dictionary, (3.ed. 1996, Oxford), pg.1602 ^ The epitaph on his tomb in Posilipo near Naples
Naples
was Mantua
Mantua
me genuit; Calabri rapuere; tenet nunc Parthenope. Cecini pascua, rura, duces (" Mantua
Mantua
gave birth to me, the Calabrians took me, now Naples holds me; I sang of pastures [the Eclogues], country [the Georgics] and leaders [the Aeneid]"). ^ Map of Cisalpine Gaul ^ http://www.usu.edu/markdamen/1320AncLit/chapters/11verg.htm ^ a b c d e f g h Conway (1967), p. 14-41 ^ a b Fowler, pg.1602 ^ a b c d Fowler, pg.1603 ^ Horace, Satires 1.5, 1.6, and Odes 1.3 ^ Fowler, pg.1605 ^ Avery, W. T. (1957). " Augustus
Augustus
and the "Aeneid"". The Classical Journal. 52 (5): 225–229.  ^ Jenkyns, p. 53 ^ For a succinct summary, see Globalnet.co.uk ^ For a bibliography and summary see Fowler, pg.1605–6 ^ Sellar, William Young; Glover, Terrot Reaveley (1911). "Virgil". Encyclopædia Britannica. 28 (11th ed.). p. 112. Retrieved 2012-06-07.  ^ Miller, F. J. (1909). "Evidences of Incompleteness in the "Aeneid" of Vergil". The Classical Journal. 4 (11th ed.). p. 343. Retrieved 2015-11-01.  ^ Theb.12.816–7 ^ Pliny Ep. 3.7.8 ^ Ziolkowski, Jan M.; Putnam, Michael C. J. (2008). The Virgilian Tradition: The First Fifteen Hundred Years. Yale University Press. pp. xxxiv–xxxv. ISBN 0300108222. Retrieved November 11, 2013.  ^ Ziolkowski & Putnam, pp. xxxiv, 829–830. ^ Ziolkowski & Putnam, p. xxxiv. ^ Ziolkowski & Putnem, pp. 101–102. ^ Snyder, James. Northern Renaissance Art, 1985, Harry N. Abrams, ISBN 0136235964, pp. 461–462 ^ Chambers, Robert (1832). The Book of Days. London: W and R Chambers. p. 366.  ^ Comparetti, Domenico. Vergil in the Middle Ages. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691026785. Retrieved 23 November 2016.  ^ Wilson-Okamura, David Scott. Virgil
Virgil
in the Renaissance. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521198127. Retrieved 23 November 2016.  ^ Winkler, Anthony C.; McCuen-Metherell, Jo Ray. Writing the Research Paper: A Handbook. Cengage Learning. p. 278. ISBN 1133169023. Retrieved 23 November 2016. 

Sources[edit]

Conway, Robert Seymour (1967), "Where Was Vergil's Farm", Harvard Lectures on the Vergilian Age, Biblo and Tannen, ISBN 978-0819601827 

Library resources about Virgil

Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

By Virgil

Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

Further reading[edit]

Anderson, W. S., and L. N. Quartarone. Approaches to Teaching Vergil's Aeneid. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2002. Buckham, Philip Wentworth; Spence, Joseph; Holdsworth, Edward; Warburton, William; Jortin, John. Miscellanea Virgiliana: In Scriptis Maxime Eruditorum Virorum Varie Dispersa, in Unum Fasciculum Collecta. Cambridge: Printed for W. P. Grant, 1825. Conway, R. S. (1915). The Youth of Vergil: A Lecture Delivered in the John Rylands Library on 9 December, 1914.  Farrell, J., and Michael C. J. Putnam, eds. A Companion to Vergil's Aeneid
Aeneid
and Its Tradition. Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World. Literature and Culture. Chichester/Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010. Farrell, J. "The Vergilian Century". Vergilius (1959–), vol. 47, 2001, pp. 11–28. Farrell, J. Vergil's Georgics
Georgics
and the Traditions of Ancient Epic: The Art of Allusion in Literary History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991. Fletcher, K. F. B. Finding Italy: Travel, Nation and Colonization in Vergil's 'Aeneid'. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2014. Hardie, Philip R., ed. Virgil: Critical Assessments of Ancient Authors. 4 vols. New York: Routledge, 1999. Henkel, J. "Vergil Talks Technique: Metapoetic Arboriculture in 'Georgics' 2." Vergilius (1959–), vol. 60, 2014, pp. 33–66. Horsfall, N. The Epic Distilled: Studies in the Composition of the Aeneid. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2016. Mack, S. Patterns of Time in Vergil. Hamden: Archon Books, 1978. Panoussi, V. Greek Tragedy in Vergil's "Aeneid": Ritual, Empire, and Intertext. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009. Quinn, S., ed. Why Vergil? A Collection of Interpretations. Wauconda: Bolchazy-Carducci, 2000. Rossi, A. Contexts of War: Manipulation of Genre in Virgilian Battle Narrative. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2004. Sondrup, Steven P. (2009). "Virgil: From Farms to Empire: Kierkegaard's Understanding of a Roman Poet" in Kierkegaard and the Roman World, ed. Jon Bartley Stewart. Farnham: Ashgate. Syed, Y. Vergil's Aeneid
Aeneid
and the Roman Self: Subject and Nation in Literary Discourse. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2005. Syson, A. 'Fama' and Fiction in Vergil's 'Aeneid'. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2013.

External links[edit]

Find more aboutVirgilat's sister projects

Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Learning resources from Wikiversity

Look up Virgil
Virgil
in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Collected works

Works by Virgil
Virgil
at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Virgil
Virgil
at Internet Archive Works by Virgil
Virgil
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks) Works of Virgil
Virgil
at the Perseus Digital Library

Latin
Latin
texts, translations and commentaries Aeneid
Aeneid
translated by T. C. Williams, 1910 Aeneid
Aeneid
translated by John Dryden, 1697 Aeneid, Eclogues
Eclogues
and Georgics
Georgics
translated by J. C. Greenough, 1900

Works of Virgil
Virgil
at Theoi Project

Aeneid, Eclogues
Eclogues
and Georgics
Georgics
translated by H. R. Fairclough, 1916

Works of Virgil
Virgil
at Sacred Texts

Aeneid
Aeneid
translated by John Dryden, 1697 Eclogues
Eclogues
and Georgics
Georgics
translated by J.W. MacKail, 1934

P. Vergilius Maro at The Latin
Latin
Library Virgil's works: text, concordances and frequency list. Virgil: The Major Texts: contemporary, line by line English translations of Eclogues, Georgics, and Aeneid. Virgil
Virgil
in the collection of Ferdinand, Duke of Calabria
Ferdinand, Duke of Calabria
at Somni:

Publii Vergilii Maronis Opera Naples
Naples
and Milan, 1450. Publii Vergilii Maronis Opera Italy, between 1470 and 1499. Publii Vergilii Maronis Opera Milan, 1465.

Biography

Virgil
Virgil
at Encyclopædia Britannica Suetonius: The Life of Virgil, an English translation. Vita Vergiliana, Aelius Donatus' Life of Virgil
Virgil
in the original Latin. Virgil.org: Aelius Donatus' Life of Virgil
Virgil
translated into English by David Wilson-Okamura Project Gutenberg
Project Gutenberg
edition of Vergil—A Biography, by Tenney Frank. Vergilian Chronology (in German).

Commentary

The Vergil Project. "A new Aeneid
Aeneid
for the 21st century". A review of Robert Fagles's new translation of the Aeneid
Aeneid
in the TLS, February 9, 2007. Virgilmurder (Jean-Yves Maleuvre's website setting forth his theory that Virgil
Virgil
was murdered by Augustus) The Secret History of Virgil, containing a selection on the magical legends and tall tales that circulated about Virgil
Virgil
in the Middle Ages. Interview with Virgil
Virgil
scholar Richard Thomas and poet David Ferry, who recently translated the "Georgics", on ThoughtCast

SORGLL: Aeneid, Bk I, 1–49; read by Robert Sonkowsky SORGLL: Aeneid, Bk IV, 296–396; read by Stephen Daitz Bibliographies

Comprehensive bibliographies on all three of Virgil's major works, downloadable in Word or pdf format Bibliography of works relating Vergil to the literature of the Hellenistic age A selective Bibliographical Guide to Vergil's Aeneid Virgil
Virgil
in Late Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Renaissance: an Online Bibliography

The article above was originally sourced from Nupedia and is open content.

v t e

Works by Virgil

Appendix Vergiliana Eclogues
Eclogues
(Eclogue 4) Georgics Aeneid

Commons Wikiquote Wikisource texts

v t e

Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome
topics

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Law

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Latin

Ammianus Marcellinus Appian Appuleius Asconius Pedianus Augustine Aurelius Victor Ausonius Boëthius Caesar Catullus Cassiodorus Censorinus Cicero Claudian Columella Ennius Eutropius Fabius Pictor Festus Florus Frontinus Fulgentius Gellius Horace Jerome Juvenal Livy Lucan Lucretius Macrobius Marcus Aurelius Martial Orosius Ovid Petronius Phaedrus Plautus Pliny the Elder Pliny the Younger Priscian Propertius Quintilian Quintus Curtius Rufus Sallust Seneca the Elder Seneca the Younger Servius Sidonius Apollinaris Statius Suetonius Symmachus Tacitus Terence Tertullian Tibullus Valerius Antias Valerius Maximus Varro Velleius Paterculus Verrius Flaccus Virgil Vitruvius

Greek

Arrian Cassius Dio Diodorus Siculus Dionysius of Halicarnassus Dioscorides Eusebius of Caesaria Galen Herodian Josephus Pausanias Philostratus Phlegon of Tralles Photius Plutarch Polybius Porphyrius Procopius Strabo Zonaras Zosimus

Major cities

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Lists and other topics

Cities and towns Climate Consuls Distinguished women Emperors Generals Gentes Geographers Institutions Laws Legacy Legions Nomina Tribunes Wars and battles

Fiction Films

Associated subjects

v t e

Virgil's Aeneid
Aeneid
(19 BC)

Characters

Deities

Alecto Crinisus Cupid Hecate Hymen Juno Jupiter Mars Mercury Saturn Tiberinus Venus

Humans

Acestes Achaemenides Achates Actor Aeneads Aeneas Aeolus Ajax the Lesser Aletes Amata Anchises Androgeos Andromache Anna Perenna Antiphates Ascanius Automedon Aventinus Butes Caieta Camilla Capys Cassandra Catillus Clonius Clytius Creusa Cydon Cydonians Dardanus Dares Phrygius Deiphobus Diomedes Elymus Entellus Erulus Euryalus Evander of Pallene Halaesus Halys Helenus Hippocoon Iarbas Ilioneus Juturna Laocoön Latinus Lausus Lavinia Macar Messapus Metabus Mezentius Mimas Misenus Mnestheus Neoptolemus Nisus and Euryalus Ornytus Palinurus Pallas Pandarus Panthous Paris Picus Polites Priam Ripheus Rutuli Salius Sinon Theano Thymoetes Turnus Ucalegon Ufens

Phoenicians

Acerbas Belus II Dido Mattan I Pygmalion of Tyre

Films

The Avenger (1962)

Literature

Roman d'Enéas
Roman d'Enéas
(1160 poem) Dido, Queen of Carthage
Carthage
(c. 1593 play) Amelia (1751 novel) The Dunciad
The Dunciad
(1729 novel) Lavinia
Lavinia
(2008 novel)

Opera

Didone (1641 Cavalli) Achille et Polyxène
Achille et Polyxène
(1687 Lully/Collasse) Dido
Dido
and Aeneas
Aeneas
(1688 Purcell) Didon (1693 Desmarets) Didone abbandonata
Didone abbandonata
(1724 libretto Metastasio) Didone abbandonata
Didone abbandonata
(1724 Sarro) Didone abbandonata
Didone abbandonata
(1724 Albinoni) Didone abbandonata
Didone abbandonata
(1726 Vinci) Didone abbandonata
Didone abbandonata
(1762 Sarti) Didon (1783 Piccinni) Dido, Queen of Carthage
Carthage
(1792 Storace) Les Troyens
Les Troyens
(1858 Berlioz)

Manuscripts

Book of Ballymote Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 31 Vergilius Augusteus Vergilius Romanus Vergilius Vaticanus

Phrases

Ad astra Annuit cœptis Experto crede Lacrimae rerum Obscuris vera involvens Quos ego Timeo Danaos et dona ferentes

Art

Laocoön
Laocoön
and His Sons (25 BC) Aeneas, Anchises, and Ascanius
Ascanius
(1619) Ascanius
Ascanius
Shooting the Stag of Sylvia (1689) Dido
Dido
building Carthage
Carthage
(1815)

Music

"And Then There Was Silence" Gates of Fire

Study

Aposiopesis Dactylic hexameter Hysteron proteron Sortes Vergilianae

Related

Trojan Horse The Golden Bough Eneados Sulpicius Apollinaris "Fortune favours the bold" "Mind over matter"

v t e

" Dido
Dido
and Aeneas" from Virgil's Aeneid

Characters

Dido Aeneas

Operas

Didone (1641, Cavalli) Dido
Dido
and Aeneas
Aeneas
(1688, Purcell)

discography "Dido's Lament"

Didon (1693, Desmarets) Didone abbandonata
Didone abbandonata
(1724, Metastasio) Didone abbandonata
Didone abbandonata
(1724, Sarro) Didone abbandonata
Didone abbandonata
(1724, Albinoni) Didone abbandonata
Didone abbandonata
(1762, Sarti) Didon (1783, Piccinni) Dido, Queen of Carthage
Carthage
(1792, Storace) Les Troyens
Les Troyens
(1863, Berlioz)

Plays

Dido, Queen of Carthage
Carthage
(c. 1593)

Poetry

Roman d'Enéas
Roman d'Enéas
(1160)

Music

Simple Man

Art

Dido
Dido
building Carthage

Related

Low Ham Roman Villa Amelia

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 8194433 LCCN: n79014062 ISNI: 0000 0001 2119 8069 GND: 118626574 SELIBR: 200505 SUDOC: 026674327 BNF: cb11887823w (data) BPN: 92514223 BIBSYS: 90056752 ULAN: 500337098 MusicBrainz: 0109a674-73aa-41a0-b52f-512eb878a6dd NLA: 35579909 NDL: 00459674 NKC: jn19981002320 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV08978 RLS: 000080997 BNE: XX874

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