The Info List - Vipassanā

(Pāli) or vipaśyanā (Sanskrit: विपश्यन) in the Buddhist tradition means insight into the true nature of reality.[1] In the Theravada
tradition this specifically refers to insight into the three marks of existence: impermanence, suffering or unsatisfactoriness, and the realisation of non-self. Vipassanā
meditation in conjunction with Samatha
meditation is a necessary part of all Buddhist traditions. Therefore, it is important to distinguish Vipassanā
on the one hand, and the Vipassana movement on the other, which was represented in the Theravada
tradition by Ledi Sayadaw and Mogok Sayadaw
Mogok Sayadaw
and popularised by Mahasi Sayadaw, V. R. Dhiravamsa and [2][3][4] S. N. Goenka.


1 Etymology 2 Insight

2.1 Origins 2.2 Sudden insight 2.3 Relation with samatha

3 Vipassanā

3.1 Theravāda

3.1.1 Insight in the Four Noble Truths 3.1.2 Vipassanā
movement 3.1.3 Vipassana-meditation in the modern Vipassana movement 3.1.4 Stages of Jhana in the Vipassana movement

3.2 Northern tradition and Mahāyāna

3.2.1 East Asian Mahāyāna 3.2.2 Tibetan Buddhism 3.2.3 Mahāmudrā and Dzogchen

4 See also

4.1 Buddhism 4.2 Christianity

5 Notes 6 References 7 Sources 8 External links

8.1 History 8.2 Background 8.3 Practice

Etymology[edit] See also: Enlightenment in Buddhism, Sotāpanna, Jnana, Prajna, Bodhi, Vidhya, and Kensho Vipassanā
is a Pali
word from the Sanskrit
prefix "vi-" and verbal root paś. It is often translated as "insight" or "clear-seeing", though the "in-" prefix may be misleading; "vi" in Indo-Aryan languages is equivalent to the Latin "dis." The "vi" in vipassanā may then mean to see into, see through or to see 'in a special way.'[1] Alternatively, the "vi" can function as an intensive, and thus vipassanā may mean "seeing deeply."[citation needed] A synonym for "Vipassanā" is paccakkha (Pāli; Sanskrit: pratyakṣa), "before the eyes," which refers to direct experiential perception. Thus, the type of seeing denoted by "vipassanā" is that of direct perception, as opposed to knowledge derived from reasoning or argument.[citation needed] In Tibetan, vipaśyanā is lhagthong (wylie: lhag mthong). The term "lhag" means "higher", "superior", "greater"; the term "thong" is "view" or "to see". So together, lhagthong may be rendered into English as "superior seeing", "great vision" or "supreme wisdom." This may be interpreted as a "superior manner of seeing", and also as "seeing that which is the essential nature." Its nature is a lucidity—a clarity of mind.[5] Henepola Gunaratana
Henepola Gunaratana
defined Vipassanā

Looking into something with clarity and precision, seeing each component as distinct and separate, and piercing all the way through so as to perceive the most fundamental reality of that thing"[1]

Insight[edit] Origins[edit] According to Richard Gombrich
Richard Gombrich
a development took place in early Buddhism
resulting in a change in doctrine, which considered prajna to be an alternative means to "enlightenment".[6] The suttas contain traces of ancient debates between Mahayana
and Theravada
schools in the interpretation of the teachings and the development of insight. In the sutta pitaka the term "vipassanā" is hardly mentioned, while they frequently mention jhana as the meditative practice to be undertaken.[7][citation not found][note 1] According to Vetter and Bronkhorst, dhyāna itself constituted the original "liberating practice".[8][9][10][citation not found] Vetter further argues that the eightfold path constitutes a body of practices which prepare one, and lead up to, the practice of dhyana.[11] Norman notes that "the Buddha's way to release [...] was by means of meditative practices."[12] Out of these debates developed the idea that bare insight suffices to reach liberation, by discerning the Three marks (qualities) of (human) existence (tilakkhana), namely dukkha (suffering), anatta (non-self) and anicca (impermanence).[13] Sudden insight[edit] The Sthaviravāda, one of the early Buddhist schools from which the Theravada-tradition originates, emphasized sudden insight:

In the Sthaviravada [...] progress in understanding comes all at once, 'insight' (abhisamaya) does not come 'gradually' (successively - anapurva).[14]

The Mahasanghika, another one of the early Buddhist schools, had the doctrine of ekaksana-citt, "according to which a Buddha knows everything in a single thought-instant".[15][citation not found] This process however, meant to apply only to the Buddha and Peccaka buddhas. Lay people may have to experience various levels of insights to become fully enlightened. The Mahayana
tradition emphasizes prajna, insight into sunyata, dharmata, the two truths doctrine, clarity and emptiness, or bliss and emptiness:[16]

[T]he very title of a large corpus of early Mahayana
literature, the Prajnaparamita, shows that to some extent the historian may extrapolate the trend to extol insight, prajna, at the expense of dispassion, viraga, the control of the emotions.[17]

Although Theravada
and Mahayana
are commonly understood as different streams of Buddhism, their practice however, may reflect emphasis on insight as a common denominator:

In practice and understanding Zen
is actually very close to the Theravada
Forest Tradition even though its language and teachings are heavily influenced by Taoism and Confucianism.[18][note 2]

The emphasis on insight is discernible in the emphasis in Chán on sudden insight,[14] though in the Chán-tradition this insight is to be followed by gradual cultivation.[note 3] Relation with samatha[edit] See also: Samatha, Samadhi
(Buddhism), Dhyāna in Buddhism, Mahamudra, and Raja yoga In all Buddhist schools two types of meditation practices are followed: samatha (Pāli: Samatha, Sanskrit: śamatha; English: "calm abiding") and vipassanā (Pali: vipassanā, Sanskrit: vipaśyanā, English: "clear seeing").[20] Samatha
is a primary meditation aimed at calming the mind, and is also well-known and widely used in non-buddhist traditions. It is, however, vipassanā, the systematic investigation of self and phenomena that is unique to the Buddhist tradition. To gain true insight Samatha
and Vipassanā
needs to be conjoined. There are two different traditions concerning the sequence of the two. The Samatha
first approach is the most common, and involves cultivating a stable samatha before practicing vipassanā. Different traditions describe different levels of Samatha
as being sufficient. In some access to first dhyana is said to be enough. In others full attainment of dhyana is enough. Yet in others only full attainment of the four form and formless absorption dhyana states are said to be sufficient. The approach of first cultivating Samatha
is recommended by most of the great scholar-practitioners of ancient India. In the Mahayana
this approach is reflected in the sutra approach of for example Shantideva
and Kamalashila. Through Shamatha disturbing emotions are abandoned and thus facilitates clear seeing Vipashyana. In the Mahayana
sutra approach Vipashyana is cultivated through reasoning, logic and analysis in conjunction with Shamatha. In contrast, in the Vipashyana directly approach represented by for example the siddha tradition of the direct approach of Mahamudra
and Dzogchen, the view of Vipashyana is ascertained directly through looking into one's own mind. After this initial recognition of Vipashyana the steadiness of Shamatha is developed within that recognition. It is however also common in the direct approach to first develop enough Shamatha to serve as a basis for Vipashyana. In that case the view of Vipashyana is ascertained through meditation. In sum, the traditions differ in the sequence but all comes down to the union of Samatha
and Vipassanā. It is therefore faulty to claim that only Samatha
or only Vipassanā
is sufficient.[21] In the Theravada
tradition, samatha is regarded as a preparation for vipassanā, pacifying the mind and strengthening concentration in order for insight to arise, which leads to liberation. In contrast, the modern Vipassana Movement gives more emphasis to Vipassanā already from the start, highlighting the risks of going out of course when strong samatha is developed.[22] For this the Vipassana Movement has been criticised, especially in Sri Lanka.[23][24] Though both terms appear in the Sutta Pitaka[note 4], Gombrich and Brooks argue that the distinction as two separate paths originates in the earliest interpretations of the Sutta Pitaka,[13] not in the suttas themselves.[29][note 5] According to Gombrich, the distinction between vipassanā and samatha did not originate in the suttas, but in the interpretation of the suttas.[13][note 6] Various traditions disagree which techniques belong to which pole.[31] Vipassanā
meditation[edit] See also: Buddhist Paths to liberation Vipassanā
can be cultivated by the practice that includes contemplation and introspection through primarily awareness and observation of bodily sensations. The practices may differ in the modern Buddhist traditions and non-sectarian groups according to the founder but the main objective is to develop insight. [1] Theravāda[edit] Insight in the Four Noble Truths[edit] According to the Theravada-tradition, Buddhist practices lead to insight in the Four Noble Truths, which can only be reached by practising the Noble Eightfold Path. According to Theravāda tradition, enlightenment or Nibbana
can only be attained by discerning all Vipassanā
insight levels when the Eightfold Noble Path is followed ardently. This is a developmental process where various Vipassanā
insights are discerned; the final enlightenment may come suddenly, as proposed by other schools. Vipassanā
movement[edit] See also: Vipassana movement
Vipassana movement
and Buddhist modernism The term vipassana is often conflated with the Vipassana movement, a movement which started in the 1950s in Burma
but has gained wide renown mainly through American Buddhist teachers such as Joseph Goldstein, Tara Brach, Gil Fronsdal, Sharon Salzberg, and Jack Kornfield. The movement has had a wide appeal due to being open and inclusive to different Buddhist and non-buddhist wisdom, poetry as well as science. It has together with the modern American Zen tradition served as one of the main inspirations for the 'mindfulness movement' as developed by Jon Kabat-Zinn
Jon Kabat-Zinn
and others. The Vipassanā
Movement, also known as the Insight Meditation Movement, is rooted in Theravāda Buddhism, especially from the Thai Forest Tradition and the "New Burmese Method", as well as the modern influences[32] on the traditions of Sri Lanka, Burma, Laos
and Thailand
originating from various Theravāda teachers like Ledi Sayadaw, Mogok Sayadaw
Mogok Sayadaw
(who was less known to the West due to lack of International Mogok Centres), Mahasi Sayadaw, Ajahn Chah, and Dipa Ma, as well as derivatives from those traditions such as the movement led by S. N. Goenka. In the Vipassanā
Movement, the emphasis is on the Satipatthana
Sutta and the use of mindfulness to gain insight into the impermanence of the self. Vipassana-meditation in the modern Vipassana movement[edit] See also: Four stages of enlightenment Vipassanā-meditation uses mindfulness of breathing, combined with the contemplation of impermanence, to gain insight into the true nature of this reality. All phenomena are investigated, and concluded to be painful and unsubstantial, without an immortal entity or self-view, and in its ever-changing and impermanent nature.[33][17] Mindfulness of breathing is described throughout the Sutta Pitaka. The Satipatthana
Sutta describes it as going into the forest and sitting beneath a tree and then to simply watch the breath. If the breath is long, to notice that the breath is long, if the breath is short, to notice that the breath is short.[34][35] By observing the breath one becomes aware of the perpetual changes involved in breathing, and the arising and passing away of mindfulness. One can also be aware of and gain insight into impermanence through the observation of bodily sensations and their nature of arising and passing away.[36] Eventually Vipassanā-meditation leads to insight into the impermanence of all phenomena, the absence of a permanent self, and the cause of suffering, thereby leading to liberation from suffering.[17] Stages of Jhana in the Vipassana movement[edit] Vipassanā
jhanas are stages that describe the development of samatha in vipassanā meditation practice as described in modern Burmese Vipassana meditation.[37] Mahasi Sayadaw's student Sayadaw U Pandita described the four vipassanā jhanas as follows:[38]

The meditator first explores the body/mind connection as one, nonduality; discovering three characteristics. The first jhana consists in seeing these points and in the presence of vitakka and vicara. Phenomena reveal themselves as appearing and ceasing. In the second jhana, the practice seems effortless. Vitaka and vicara both disappear. In the third jhana, piti, the joy, disappears too: there is only happiness (sukha) and concentration. The fourth jhana arises, characterised by purity of mindfulness due to equanimity. The practice leads to direct knowledge. The comfort disappears because the dissolution of all phenomena is clearly visible. The practice will show every phenomenon as unstable, transient, disenchanting. The desire of freedom will take place.

Northern tradition and Mahāyāna[edit] Like the southern Theravada
tradition, the north Indian Buddhist traditions like the Sarvastivada
and the Sautrantika practiced vipaśyanā meditation as outlined in texts like the Abhidharmakosha of Vasubandhu
and the Yogacarabhumi. The Abhidharmakosha
states that vipaśyanā is practiced once one has reached samadhi (absorption) by cultivating the four foundations of mindfulness (smrtyupasthanas).[39] This is achieved according to Vasubandhu:

"By considering the unique characteristics (svalaksana) and the general characteristics (samanyalaksana) of the body, sensation, the mind, and the dharmas." "'The unique characteristics' means its self nature (svabhava)." "The general characteristics" signifies the fact that "All conditioned things are impermanent; all impure dharmas are suffering; and that all the dharmas are empty (sunya) and not-self (anatmaka)."[39]

These works are some of the main texts used to study vipaśyanā in the Mahāyāna
tradition. Mahāyāna
vipaśyanā differs from the Theravada
tradition in its strong emphasis on the meditation on emptiness (shunyata) of all phenomena. The Mahayana Akṣayamati-nirdeśa refers to vipaśyanā as seeing phenomena as they really are, that is, empty, without self, nonarisen, and without grasping. The Prajnaparamita
sutra in 8,000 lines states that the practice of insight is the non-appropriation of any dharmas, including the five aggregates:

So too, a Bodhisattva
coursing in perfect wisdom and developing as such, neither does nor even can stand in form, feeling, perception, impulse and consciousness...This concentrated insight of a Bodhisattva is called 'the non-appropriation of all dharmas'.[40]

Likewise the Prajnaparamita
in 25,000 lines states that a Bodhisattva should know the nature of the five aggregates as well as all dharmas thus:

That form, etc. [feeling, perception, impulse and consciousness], which is like a dream, like an echo, a mock show, a mirage, a reflection of the moon in water, an apparition, that is neither bound nor freed. Even so form, etc., which is past, future, or present, is neither bound nor freed. And why? Because of the nonbeing-ness of form, etc. Even so form, etc., whether it be wholesome or unwholesome, defiled or undefiled, tainted or untainted, with or without outflows, worldly or supramundane, defiled or purified, is neither bound nor freed, on account of its non-beingness, its isolatedness, its quiet calm, its emptiness, signless-ness, wishless-ness, because it has not been brought together or produced. And that is true of all dharmas.[41]

Asanga's Abhidharma-samuccaya states that the practice of śamatha-vipaśyanā is a part of a Bodhisattva's path at the beginning, in the first "path of preparation" (Sambharamarga).[42] The later Indian Mahayana
scholastic tradition, as exemplified by Shantideva's Bodhicaryavatara, saw śamatha as a necessary prerequisite to vipaśyanā and thus one needed to first begin with calm abiding meditation and then proceed to insight. In the Panjika commentary of Prajnakaramati on the Bodhicaryavatara, vipaśyanā is defined simply as "wisdom (prajña) that has the nature of thorough knowledge of reality as it is."[43] East Asian Mahāyāna[edit] In Chinese Buddhism, the works of Tiantai
master Zhiyi
(such as the Mohe Zhiguan, "Great śamatha-vipaśyanā") are some of the most influential texts which discuss vipaśyanā meditation from a Mahāyāna
perspective. In this text Zhiyi
teaches the contemplation of the skandhas, ayatanas, dhātus, the Kleshas, false views and several other elements.[44] Likewise the influential text called the Awakening of Faith
Awakening of Faith
scripture has a section on calm and insight meditation.[45] It states:

He who practices 'clear observation' should observe that all conditioned phenomena in the world are unstationary and are subject to instantaneous transformation and destruction; that all activities of the mind arise and are extinguished from moment or moment; and that, therefore, all of these induce suffering. He should observe that all that had been conceived in the past was as hazy as a dream, that all that is being conceived in the future will be like clouds that rise up suddenly. He should also observe that the physical existences of all living beings in the world are impure and that among these various filthy things there is not a single one that can be sought after with joy.[46]

The Chan (Zen) Buddhist tradition advocates the simultaneous practice of śamatha and vipaśyanā, and this is called the practice of Silent Illumination.[47] The classic Chan text known as the Platform Sutra states:

Calming is the essence of wisdom. And wisdom is the natural function of calming [i.e., prajñā and samādhi]. At the time of prajñā, samādhi exists in that. At the time of samādhi, prajñā exists in that. How is it that samādhi and prajñā are equivalent? It is like the light of the lamp. When the lamp exists, there is light. When there is no lamp, there is darkness. The lamp is the essence of light. The light is the natural function of the lamp. Although their names are different, in essence, they are fundamentally identical. The teaching of samādhi and prajñā is just like this.[47]

Tibetan Buddhism[edit] Main articles: Vajrayana
and Tibetan Buddhism In Tibetan Buddhism, the classical practice of śamatha and vipaśyanā is strongly influenced by the Mahāyāna
text called the Bhavanakrama
of Indian master Kamalaśīla. Kamalaśīla
defines vipaśyanā as "the discernment of reality" (bhūta-pratyavekṣā) and "accurately realizing the true nature of dharmas".[48] Indian Mahāyāna
employed both deductive investigation (applying ideas to experience) and inductive investigation (drawing conclusions from direct experience) in the practice of vipaśyanā.[note 7][note 8] According to Leah Zahler, only the tradition of deductive analysis in vipaśyanā was transmitted to Tibet in the sūtrayāna context.[note 9] In Tibet direct examination of moment-to-moment experience as a means of generating insight became exclusively associated with vajrayāna.[51][note 10][note 11] Mahāmudrā and Dzogchen[edit] Mahāmudrā and Dzogchen
use vipaśyanā extensively. This includes some methods of the other traditions, but also their own specific approaches. They place a greater emphasis on meditation on symbolic images. Additionally in the Vajrayāna (tantric) path, the true nature of mind is pointed out by the guru, and this serves as a direct form of insight.[note 12] See also[edit]



Atthakavagga and Parayanavagga Global Vipassana Pagoda Jñāna Meditation Neural mechanisms of mindfulness meditation Upasana Vipassana Meditation
Centre Vipassī Buddha Zazen


Apophatic theology Monastic silence


^ Thanissaro Bhikkhu: "If you look directly at the Pali
discourses — the earliest extant sources for our knowledge of the Buddha's teachings — you'll find that although they do use the word samatha to mean tranquillity, and vipassanā to mean clear-seeing, they otherwise confirm none of the received wisdom about these terms. Only rarely do they make use of the word vipassanā — a sharp contrast to their frequent use of the word jhana. When they depict the Buddha telling his disciples to go meditate, they never quote him as saying "go do vipassanā," but always "go do jhana." And they never equate the word vipassanā with any mindfulness techniques."[7][citation not found] ^ Khantipalo
recommends the use of the koan-like question "Who?" to penetrate "this not-self-nature of the five aggregates": "In Zen Buddhism
this technique has been formulated in several koans, such as 'Who drags this corpse around?'"[19] ^ This "gradual training" is expressed in teachings as the Five ranks of enlightenment, Ten Ox-Herding Pictures which detail the steps on the Path, The Three mysterious Gates of Linji, and the Four Ways of Knowing of Hakuin. ^ See, for example:

AN 4.170 (Pali): “Yo hi koci, āvuso, bhikkhu vā bhikkhunī vā mama santike arahattappattiṁ byākaroti, sabbo so catūhi maggehi, etesaṁ vā aññatarena. Katamehi catūhi? Idha, āvuso, bhikkhu samathapubbaṅgamaṁ vipassanaṁ bhāveti[...] Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhu vipassanāpubbaṅgamaṁ samathaṁ bhāveti[...] Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhu samathavipassanaṁ yuganaddhaṁ bhāveti[...] Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhuno dhammuddhaccaviggahitaṁ mānasaṁ hoti[...] English translation: Friends, whoever — monk or nun — declares the attainment of arahantship in my presence, they all do it by means of one or another of four paths. Which four? There is the case where a monk has developed insight preceded by tranquility. [...] Then there is the case where a monk has developed tranquillity preceded by insight. [...] Then there is the case where a monk has developed tranquillity in tandem with insight. [...] "Then there is the case where a monk's mind has its restlessness concerning the Dhamma [Comm: the corruptions of insight] well under control.[25]

AN 2.30 Vijja-bhagiya Sutta, A Share in Clear Knowing: "These two qualities have a share in clear knowing. Which two? Tranquility (samatha) & insight (vipassana). "When tranquility is developed, what purpose does it serve? The mind is developed. And when the mind is developed, what purpose does it serve? Passion is abandoned. "When insight is developed, what purpose does it serve? Discernment is developed. And when discernment is developed, what purpose does it serve? Ignorance is abandoned. "Defiled by passion, the mind is not released. Defiled by ignorance, discernment does not develop. Thus from the fading of passion is there awareness-release. From the fading of ignorance is there discernment-release."[26]

SN 43.2 (Pali): "Katamo ca, bhikkhave, asaṅkhatagāmimaggo? Samatho ca vipassanā".[27] English translation: "And what, bhikkhus, is the path leading to the unconditioned? Serenity and insight."[28] ^ Brooks: "While many commentaries and translations of the Buddha's Discourses claim the Buddha taught two practice paths, one called "shamata" and the other called "vipassanā," there is in fact no place in the suttas where one can definitively claim that."[29] ^ Henepola Gunaratana: "The classical source for the distinction between the two vehicles of serenity and insight is the Visuddhimagga."[30] ^ Corresponding respectively to the "contemplative forms" and "experiential forms" in the Theravāda school described above ^ Leah Zahler: "The practice tradition suggested by the Treasury [Abhidharma-kośa] .. . — and also by Asaṅga's Grounds of Hearers — is one in which mindfulness of breathing becomes a basis for inductive reasoning on such topics as the five aggregates; as a result of such inductive reasoning, the meditator progresses through the Hearer paths of preparation, seeing, and meditation. It seems at least possible that both Vasubandhu
and Asaṅga presented their respective versions of such a method, analogous to but different from modern Theravāda insight meditation, and that Gelukpa scholars were unable to reconstruct it in the absence of a practice tradition because of the great difference between this type of inductive meditative reasoning based on observation and the types of meditative reasoning using consequences (thal 'gyur, prasaanga) or syllogisms (sbyor ba, prayoga) with which Gelukpas were familiar. Thus, although Gelukpa scholars give detailed interpretations of the systems of breath meditation set forth in Vasubandu's and Asaṅga's texts, they may not fully account for the higher stages of breath meditation set forth in those texts [...] it appears that neither the Gelukpa textbook writers nor modern scholars such as Lati Rinpoche
and Gendun Lodro were in a position to conclude that the first moment of the fifth stage of Vasubandhu's system of breath meditation coincides with the attainment of special insight and that, therefore, the first four stages must be a method for cultivating special insight [although this is clearly the case].[49] ^ This tradition is outlined by Kamalaśīla
in his three Bhāvanākrama
texts (particularly the second one), following in turn an approach described in the Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra.[50] One scholar describes his approach thus: "the overall picture painted by Kamalaśīla
is that of a kind of serial alternation between observation and analysis that takes place entirely within the sphere of meditative concentration" in which the analysis portion consists of Madhyamaka
reasonings.[50] ^ According to contemporary Tibetan scholar Thrangu Rinpoche
Thrangu Rinpoche
the Vajrayana
cultivates direct experience. Thrangu Rinpoche: "The approach in the sutras [...] is to develop a conceptual understanding of emptiness and gradually refine that understanding through meditation, which eventually produces a direct experience of emptiness [...] we are proceeding from a conceptual understanding produced by analysis and logical inference into a direct experience [...] this takes a great deal of time [...] we are essentially taking inferential reasoning as our method or as the path. There is an alternative [...] which the Buddha taught in the tantras [...] the primary difference between the sutra approach and the approach of Vajrayana
(secret mantra or tantra) is that in the sutra approach, we take inferential reasoning as our path and in the Vajrayana
approach, we take direct experience as our path. In the Vajrayana
we are cultivating simple, direct experience or "looking." We do this primarily by simply looking directly at our own mind."[51] ^ Khenchen Thrangu Rinpoche
Thrangu Rinpoche
also explains: "In general there are two kinds of meditation: the meditation of the paṇḍita who is a scholar and the nonanalytical meditation or direct meditation of the kusulu, or simple yogi. . . the analytical meditation of the paṇḍita occurs when somebody examines and analyzes something thoroughly until a very clear understanding of it is developed. . . The direct, nonanalytical meditation is called kusulu meditation in Sanskrit. This was translated as trömeh in Tibetan, which means "without complication" or being very simple without the analysis and learning of a great scholar. Instead, the mind is relaxed and without applying analysis so it just rests in its nature. In the sūtra tradition, there are some nonanalytic meditations, but mostly this tradition uses analytic meditation."[52] ^ Thrangu Rinpoche
Thrangu Rinpoche
describes the approach using a guru: "In the Sūtra path one proceeds by examining and analyzing phenomena, using reasoning. One recognizes that all phenomena lack any true existence and that all appearances are merely interdependently related and are without any inherent nature. They are empty yet apparent, apparent yet empty. The path of Mahāmudrā is different in that one proceeds using the instructions concerning the nature of mind that are given by one's guru. This is called taking direct perception or direct experiences as the path. The fruition of śamatha is purity of mind, a mind undisturbed by false conception or emotional afflictions. The fruition of vipaśyanā is knowledge (prajnā) and pure wisdom (jñāna). Jñāna
is called the wisdom of nature of phenomena and it comes about through the realization of the true nature of phenomena.[53]


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n.d. ^ Vetter 1988, p. xxi-xxii. ^ Bronkhorst 1993. ^ Cousins 1996, p. 58. ^ Vetter 1988, p. xxx. ^ Norman 1997, p. 29. ^ a b c Gombrich 1997, p. 96-144. ^ a b Warder 2000, p. 284. ^ Gomez 1991, p. 69. ^ Defined by Reginald A. Ray. ""Vipashyana," by Reginald A. Ray. ''Buddhadharma: The Practitioner's Quarterly'', Summer 2004". Archive.thebuddhadharma.com. Retrieved 2013-05-30.  ^ a b c Gombrich 1997, p. 133. ^ "Through the Looking Glass, ''Essential Buddhism''". Bhikkhucintita.wordpress.com. Retrieved 2013-05-30.  ^ Khantipalo
1984, p. 71. ^ "What is Theravada
Buddhism?". Access to Insight. Access to Insight. Retrieved 17 August 2013.  ^ Thrangu Rinpoche, Essentials of Mahamudra ^ Bond 1992, p. 167. ^ Bond 1992, p. 162-171. ^ Robert H. Sharf, Division of Social and Transcultural Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University ^ "AN 4.170 Yuganaddha Sutta: ''In Tandem''. Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu". Accesstoinsight.org. 2010-07-03. Retrieved 2013-05-30.  ^ "AN 2.30 Vijja-bhagiya Sutta, ''A Share in Clear Knowing''. Translated from the Pali
by Thanissaro Bhikkhu". Accesstoinsight.org. 2010-08-08. Retrieved 2013-05-30.  ^ "SN 43.2". Agama.buddhason.org. Retrieved 2013-05-30.  ^ Bikkhu Bodhi, The Connected Discourses of the Buddha, p. 1373 ^ a b Brooks 2006. ^ "Henepola Gunaratana, ''The Jhanas in Theravada
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Sutta ^ "The Art of Living: Vipassana Meditation". Dhamma.org. Retrieved 2013-05-30.  ^ Ingram, Daniel (2008), Mastering the core teachings of the Buddha, Karnac Books, p.246 ^ Sayadaw U Pandita, In this very life ^ a b De La Vallee Poussin (trans.); Pruden, Leo M. (trans.) Abhidharmakosabhasyam of Vasubandhu
Vol. III page 925 ^ Babcock (Copper), Richard (trans.) The Prajna Paramita Sutra
on the Buddha-Mother's Producing the Three Dharma
Treasures, Spoken by the Buddha (Also known as:) The Perfection of Wisdom in 8000 Lines, The Smaller Prajna Paramita Sutra
(Tripitaka: 0227)(Taisho Tripitaka: 0228) , Translated into Chinese during Song Dynasty by Tripitaka Master Danapala, chapter 1. http://www.fodian.net/world/0228_01.html ^ Conze, Edward. The Large Sutra
on Perfect Wisdom: With the Divisions of the Abhisamayalankara (Center for South and Southeast Asia Studies, UC Berkeley) page 141 ^ Rahula; Boin-Webb. Abhidharmasamuccaya The Compendium of the Higher Teaching by Asanga, 1971 page xxiii ^ Wallace, B. Alan; Wallace, Vesa A. A guide to the bodhisattva way of life (Bodhicaryavatara) by Santideva, Snow Lion Publications Ithaca, New York US, page 90, http://www.drepunggomangusa.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/shantideva-bodhicaryavatara-wallace.pdf ^ Fa Qing,The Śamatha
and Vipaśyanā in Tian Tai, Poh Ming Tse Symposium 2013: One Master Three Meditative Traditions. Singapore, August 30, 2013; pp.30-47 ^ Harvey, Peter. An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices, page 257. ^ Hakedas, Yoshito, S. The Awakening of Faith
Awakening of Faith
in Mahayana, Attributed to Asvaghosha, 1967, page 33, http://www.acharia.org/downloads/the_awakening_of_faith_in_mahayana_english.pdf ^ a b Guo Gu, Silent Illumination Guo Gu, Insight Journal 2014. ^ Adam, Martin T. Two Concepts of Meditation
and Three Kinds of Wisdom in Kamalaśīla’s Bhāvanākramas: A Problem of Translation. University of Victoria, page 78-79 ^ Zahler 108, 113 ^ a b "Some Notes on Kamalasila's Understanding of Insight Considered as the Discernment of Reality (bhūta-pratyavekṣā)", by Martin Adam, Buddhist Studies Review, Vol. 25, No.2, 2008, p 3 ^ a b Pointing out the Dharmakaya by Thrangu Rinpoche. Snow Lion: 2003. ISBN 1-55939-203-7, pg 56 ^ The Practice of Tranquillity & Insight: A Guide to Tibetan Buddhist Meditation
by Khenchen Thrangu Rinpoche. Shambhala Publications: 1994. ISBN 0-87773-943-9 pg 91-93 ^ Thrangu Rinpoche, Looking Directly at Mind : The Moonlight of Mahāmudrā


Bond, George D. (1992), The Buddhist Revival in Sri Lanka: Religious Tradition, Reinterpretation and Response, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers  Bronkhorst, Johannes (1993), The Two Traditions Of Meditation
In Ancient India, Motilal Banarsidass Publ.  Brooks, Jeffrey S. (2006), A Critique of the Abhidhamma and Visuddhimagga  Buswell, Robert E. JR; Gimello, Robert M., eds. (1994), Paths to Liberation. The Marga and its Transformations in Buddhist Thought, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers  Cousins, L. S. (1996), "The origins of insight meditation", in Skorupski, T., The Buddhist Forum IV, seminar papers 1994–1996 (pp. 35–58) (PDF), London, UK: School of Oriental and African Studies  Fronsdal, Gil (1998), Insight Meditation
in the United States: Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness. In: Charles S. Prebish and Kenneth K. Tanaka, The Faces of Buddhism
in America, Chapter 9  Glickman, Marshall (1998), Beyond the Breath: Extraordinary Mindfulness Through Whole-Body Vipassana Meditation, Tuttle Publishing, ISBN 1-58290-043-4  Gomez, Luis O. (1991), Purifying Gold: The Metaphor of Effort and Intuition in Buddhist Thought and Practice. In: Peter N. Gregory (editor)(1991), Sudden and Gradual. Approaches to Enlightenment in Chinese Thought, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited  Gombrich, Richard F. (1997), How Buddhism
Began. The Conditioned Genesis of the Early Teachings, New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd.  Gunaratana, Henepola (2011), Mindfulness in plain English, Wisdom Publications, p. 21, ISBN 978-0861719068  Khantipalo, Bikkhu (1984), Calm and Insight. A buddhist Manual for Meditators, London and Dublin: Curzon Press Ltd.  King, Winston L. (1992), Theravada
Meditation. The Buddhist Transformation of Yoga, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass  Koster, Frits (2009), Basisprincipes Vipassana-meditatie. Mindfulness als weg naar bevrijdend inzicht, Asoka  Mathes, Klaus-Dieter (2003), Blending the Sūtras with the Tantras: The influence of Maitrīpa and his circle on the formation of Sūtra Mahāmudrā in the Kagyu Schools. In: Tibetan Buddhist Literature and Praxis: Studies in its Formative Period, 900–1400. Tibetan Studies: Proceedings of the Tenth Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies, Oxford  McMahan, David L. (2008), The Making of Buddhist Modernism, Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780195183276  Norman, K.R. (1997), A Philological Approach to Buddhism. The Bukkyo Dendo Kybkai Lectures 1994 (PDF), School ofOriental and African Studies (University of London)  Nyanaponika (1998), Het hart van boeddhistische meditatie (The heart of Buddhist Meditation), Asoka  Ray, Reginald A., ed. (2004), In the Presence of Masters: Wisdom from 30 Contemporary Tibetan Buddhist Teachers, ISBN 1-57062-849-1  Schmithausen, Lambert (1986), Critical Response. In: Ronald W. Neufeldt (ed.), "Karma and rebirth: Post-classical developments", SUNY  Schumann, Hans Wolfgang (1974), Buddhism: an outline of its teachings and schools, Theosophical Pub. House  Thanissaro Bhikkhu
(1997), One Tool Among Many. The Place of Vipassana in Buddhist Practice  Vetter, Tilmann (1988), The Ideas and Meditative Practices of Early Buddhism, BRILL  Warder, A.K. (2000), Indian Buddhism, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers 

External links[edit] History[edit]

Theravāda Spirituality in the West David Chapman, Theravada
reinvents meditation


Insight Meditation
Online From Buddhanet.net A Honed and Heavy Axe Mahasi Sayadaw, Satipatthana
Vipassana: Criticisms and Replies Jeffrey S, Brooks, The Fruits (Phala) of the Contemplative Life Publications in the Theravāda tradition/ Pariyatti.org Publications and resources on Vipassana meditation (as taught by S.N. Goenka) (vipassanabookstore.org)


From Yellowrobe.com Vipassana Meditation
as taught by S.N. Goenka
S.N. Goenka
and his assistant teachers in the tradition of Sayagyi U Ba Khin at free centers worldwide Saddhamma Foundation Information about practicing Vipassana meditation. Practical Guidelines for Vipassanâ by Ayya Khema A Meditator's Handbook by Bill Crecelius Turning to the Source by V.R. Dhiravamsa The Middle Path of Live by V.R. Dhiravamsa Healing through Pure Mindfulness by V.R. Dhiravamsa

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