A vineyard /ˈvɪnjərd/ is a plantation of grape-bearing vines, grown mainly for winemaking, but also raisins, table grapes and non-alcoholic grape juice. The science, practice and study of vineyard production is known as viticulture. A vineyard is often characterised by its terroir, a French term loosely translating as "a sense of place" that refers to the specific geographical and geological characteristics of grapevine plantations, which may be imparted in the wine.
1 History 2 Modern practices 3 Current trends 4 Terroir 5 Vignette 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links
Satyrs in vineyard. Attic red-figure volute-krater, ca. 490 BC, State Collections of Antiques in Munich.
The earliest evidence of wine production dates from between 6000 and
A vineyard with bird-netting
Recently planted vineyard in Medanos, Argentina
The quest for vineyard efficiency has produced a bewildering range of
systems and techniques in recent years. Due to the often much more
fertile New World growing conditions, attention has focussed heavily
on managing the vine's more vigorous growth. Innovation in palissage
(training of the vine, usually along a trellis, and often referred to
as "canopy management") and pruning and thinning methods (which aim to
optimize the Leaf Area/Fruit (LA/F) ratio relative to a vineyard's
microclimate) have largely replaced more general, traditional concepts
like "yield per unit area" in favor of "maximizing yield of desired
quality". Many of these new techniques have since been adopted in
place of traditional practice in the more progressive of the so-called
"Old World" vineyards.
Other recent practices include spraying water on vines to protect them
from sub-zero temperatures (aspersion), new grafting techniques, soil
slotting, and mechanical harvesting. Such techniques have made
possible the development of wine industries in New World countries
such as Canada. Today there is increasing interest in developing
organic, ecologically sensitive and sustainable vineyards. Biodynamics
has become increasingly popular in viticulture. The use of drip
irrigation in recent years has expanded vineyards into areas which
were previously unplantable.
For well over half a century, Cornell University, the University of
California, Davis, and
A vineyard in Napa Valley, California
Numbers of New World vineyard plantings have been increasing almost as
fast as European vineyards are being uprooted. Between 1990 and 2003,
the number of U.S. vineyards increased from 1,180 to 3,860 km2 or
292,000 to 954,000 acres, while Australian vineyard numbers more than
doubled from 590 to 1,440 km2 (146,000 to 356,000 acres) and
Chilean vineyards grew from 654 to 1,679 km2 (161,500 to 415,000
acres). The size of individual vineyards in the New
World is significant. Europe's 1.6 million vineyards are an average of
0.2 km2 (49 acres) each, while the average Australian vineyard is
0.5 km2 (120 acres), providing considerable economies of scale.
^ "8,000-year-old wine unearthed in Georgia". Archeology. 2003.
Retrieved 24 February 2004.
^ Phillips, R. (2000). A Short History of Wine. Harper Collins.
p. 37. ISBN 0-06-093737-8.
^ Jackson, Robert (2000).
Echikson, Tom (2004). Noble Rot: A Bordeaux
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vineyards.
Story of a vineyard: Cahors
A directory of US Vineyards and Wineries
LCCN: sh85143407 GND: 4065141-1 BNF: cb11997712b (data)
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