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A villa is a type of house that was originally an
ancient Roman In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives. A historian is a person who studi ...
upper-class Upper class in modern societies is the social class composed of people who hold the highest social status, usually are the economic inequality, wealthiest members of class society, and wield the greatest political power. According to this view, the ...
country house. Since its origins in the
Roman villa A Roman villa was typically a country house for wealthy people built in the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire. Typology and distribution Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23/2479), called Pliny the Elder (), was a Roman author, a ...
, the idea and function of a villa has evolved considerably. After the fall of the
Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the , run through of the . Beginning with the of the (traditionally dated to 509 BC) and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the , Rome's control rapidly expanded durin ...
, villas became small farming compounds, which were increasingly fortified in
Late Antiquity Late antiquity is a used by historians to describe the time of transition from to the in and adjacent areas bordering the . The popularization of this periodization in English has generally been credited to historian , after the publication o ...
, sometimes transferred to the Church for reuse as a
monastery A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monk A monk (, from el, μοναχός, ''monachos'', "single, solitary" via Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical langua ...

monastery
. Then they gradually re-evolved through the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of w ...
into elegant upper-class country homes. In modern parlance, "villa" can refer to various types and sizes of residences, ranging from the
suburb A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is a , or . It can exist either as part of a city/urban area and can often have a large degree of employment. In some metropolitan areas they exist as separate residential communities within distan ...
an
semi-detached A semi-detached house (often abbreviated to semi) is a single family duplex dwelling house that shares one common wall A wall is a structure and a surface that defines an area; carries a load; provides security, Shelter in place, shelter, or ...
double villa to residences in the
wildland–urban interface The wildland–urban interface (WUI) is a zone of transition between wilderness (unoccupied land) and land development, land developed by human impact on the environment, human activity – an area where a built environment meets or intermingles wi ...
.


Roman

Roman villa A Roman villa was typically a country house for wealthy people built in the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire. Typology and distribution Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23/2479), called Pliny the Elder (), was a Roman author, a ...
s included: * the ''villa urbana'', a country seat that could easily be reached from
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus Romulus was the legendary founder and first king of Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , fo ...
or another city for a night or two * the ''
villa rustica Villa rustica () was the term used by the ancient Romans to denote a villa set in the open countryside, often as the hub of a large agricultural estate (''Latifundia, latifundium''). The adjective ''rusticum'' was used to distinguish it from an urba ...

villa rustica
'', the farm-house estate that was permanently occupied by the servants who had charge generally of the estate, which would centre on the villa itself, perhaps only seasonally occupied. The Roman ''villae rusticae'' at the heart of ''
latifundia A latifundium is a very extensive parcel of privately owned land. The latifundia (Latin: ''latus'', "spacious" and ''fundus'', "farm, estate") of Roman Empire, Roman history were great landed property, landed estates specializing in agriculture dest ...
'' were the earliest versions of what later and elsewhere became called
plantation A plantation is a large-scale estate, generally centered on a plantation house, meant for farming that specializes in cash crops. The crops that are grown include cotton, coffee, tea, cocoa, sugar cane, opium, sisal, oil seeds, oil pa ...

plantation
s. * the ''
otium ''Otium'', a Latin abstract term, has a variety of meanings, including leisure time in which a person can enjoy eating, playing, resting, contemplation and academic endeavors. It sometimes, but not always, relates to a time in a person's retirem ...
villa'' Not included as ''villae'' were the ''
domus In ancient Rome, the ''domus'' (plural ''domūs'', genitive ''domūs'' or ''domī'') was the type of town house occupied by the upper classes and some wealthy freedmen during the Republican Rome, Republican and Imperial Rome, Imperial eras. It w ...

domus
'', city houses for the élite and privileged classes, and the ''
insulae The Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it ...
'', blocks of
apartment building An apartment (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, Americ ...

apartment building
s for the rest of the population. In ''
Satyricon The ''Satyricon'', ''Satyricon'' ''liber'' (''The Book of Satyrlike Adventures''), or ''Satyrica'', is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was ...

Satyricon
'' (1st century CE),
Petronius Gaius Petronius Arbiter"Gaius Petronius Arbiter"
Britannica.com.
(; ; c. A ...
described the wide range of Roman dwellings. Another type of villae is the "villa maritima", a seaside villa, located on the coast. A concentration of Imperial villas existed on the
Gulf of Naples The Gulf of Naples (), also called the Bay of Naples, is a roughly 15-kilometer-wide (9.3 mi) gulf located along the south-western coast of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links ...
, on the Isle of
Capri Capri ( , ; ; ) is an island located in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the Sorrento Peninsula, on the south side of the Gulf of Naples in the Campania region of Italy. The main town Capri (town), Capri that is located on the island shares the name. It ...

Capri
, at
Monte Circeo Monte may refer to: Places Argentina * Argentine Monte The Argentine Monte (NT0802), or Low Monte, is an ecoregion of dry thorn scrub and grasslands in Argentina. It is one of the driest regions in the country. Human settlements are mainly near wa ...
and at Antium (
Anzio Anzio (, also , ) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides many of the basic civil f ...

Anzio
). Examples include the
Villa of the Papyri The Villa of the Papyri ( it, Villa dei Papiri, also known as ''Villa dei Pisoni'') was an ancient Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century A ...
in
Herculaneum Herculaneum ( it, Ercolano) was an ancient town, located in the modern-day ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and f ...

Herculaneum
; and the
Villa of the Mysteries The Villa of the Mysteries ( it, Villa dei Misteri) is a well-preserved suburban ancient on the outskirts of , southern Italy. It is famous for the series of exquisite s in one room, which are usually thought to show the initiation of a young w ...
and Villa of the Vettii in
Pompeii Pompeii (, ) was an ancient city located in what is now the ''comune The (; plural: ) is a of , roughly equivalent to a or . Importance and function The provides essential public services: of births and deaths, , and maintenan ...

Pompeii
. There was an important villa maritima in
Barcola Barcola is a maritime neighbourhood of Trieste, Italy. It is a popular tourist place with beaches and long promenade walkways, near to the Habsburg-established Miramare, Miramare Castle. Barcola is highly valued for the high quality of life and li ...
near Trieste. This villa was located directly on the coast and was divided into terraces in a representation area in which luxury and power was displayed, a separate living area, a garden, some facilities open to the sea and a thermal bath. Not far from this noble place, which was already popular with the Romans because of its favorable microclimate, one of the most important Villa Maritima of its time, the
Miramare Castle Miramare Castle ( it, Castello di Miramare; es, Castillo de Miramar; german: Schloss Miramar; sl, Grad Miramar) is a 19th-century castle in East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used ...

Miramare Castle
, was built in the 19th century. Wealthy Romans also escaped the summer heat in the hills round Rome, especially around Tibur (
Tivoli Tivoli may refer to: Buildings * Tivoli (Baltimore, Maryland), a mansion built about 1855 * Tivoli Building (Cheyenne, Wyoming), a historic downtown building * Tivoli Hotel in Pirie Street, Adelaide#History and notable buildings, Pirie Street, A ...
and
Frascati Frascati () is a city and ''comune'' in the Metropolitan City of Rome Capital in the Lazio region of central Italy. It is located south-east of Rome, on the Alban Hills close to the ancient city of Tusculum. Frascati is closely associated with ...
), such as at
Hadrian's Villa Hadrian's Villa ( it, Villa Adriana) is a UNESCO World Heritage Site comprising the ruins and archaeological remains of a large Roman villa, villa complex built c. AD 120 by Roman Emperor Hadrian at Tivoli, Italy, Tivoli outside Rome. The site is ...
.
Cicero Marcus Tullius Cicero ( ; ; 3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people ...

Cicero
allegedly possessed no fewer than seven villas, the oldest of which was near
Arpinum Arpino (Neapolitan language, Campanian: ) is a ''comune'' (municipality) in the province of Frosinone, in the Latin Valley, region of Lazio in central Italy, about 100 km SE of Rome. Its Roman name was Arpinum. In Roman times, the town produced ...

Arpinum
, which he inherited.
Pliny the Younger Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus, born Gaius Caecilius or Gaius Caecilius Cilo (61 – c. 113), better known as Pliny the Younger (), was a lawyer, author, and magistrate of Ancient Rome In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman people, Rom ...

Pliny the Younger
had three or four, of which the example near Laurentium is the best known from his descriptions. Roman writers refer with satisfaction to the self-sufficiency of their ''latifundium'' villas, where they drank their own
wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from Fermentation in winemaking, fermented grapes. Yeast in winemaking, Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol and carbon dioxide, releasing heat in the process. Different v ...
and pressed their own
oil An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can b ...

oil
. This was an affectation of urban aristocrats playing at being old-fashioned virtuous Roman farmers, it has been said that the economic independence of later rural villas was a symptom of the increasing economic fragmentation of the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post- period of . As a it included large territorial holdings around the in , , and ruled by . From the t ...

Roman Empire
.


In Roman Britannia

Archaeologists have meticulously examined numerous Roman villas in England. Like their Italian counterparts, they were complete working agrarian societies of fields and
vineyard A vineyard ( , also ) is a plantation A plantation is a large-scale estate, generally centered on a plantation house, meant for farming that specializes in cash crops. The crops that are grown include cotton, coffee, tea, cocoa, sug ...

vineyard
s, perhaps even
tile Tiles are usually thin, square or rectangular coverings manufactured from hard-wearing material such as ceramic, Rock (geology), stone, metal, baked clay, or even glass. They are generally fixed in place in an array to cover roofs, floors, wall ...

tile
works or
quarries Stone quarry in Soignies, Hainaut (province), Belgium">Hainaut_(province).html" ;"title="Soignies, Hainaut (province)">Soignies, Hainaut (province), Belgium A quarry is a type of open-pit mine in which dimension stone, rock, construc ...

quarries
, ranged round a high-status power centre with its baths and gardens. The grand villa at
Woodchester Woodchester is a Gloucestershire Gloucestershire ( abbreviated Glos) (Welsh language, Welsh: Swydd Gaerloyw) is a Counties of England, county in South West England. The county comprises part of the Cotswold Hills, part of the flat fertile ...
preserved its mosaic floors when the Anglo-Saxon parish church was built (not by chance) upon its site. Grave-diggers preparing for burials in the churchyard as late as the 18th century had to punch through the intact mosaic floors. The even more palatial ''villa rustica'' at Fishbourne Roman Palace, Fishbourne near Winchester was built (uncharacteristically) as a large open rectangle, with porticos enclosing gardens entered through a portico. Towards the end of the 3rd century, Roman towns in Roman Britain, Britain ceased to expand: like patricians near the centre of the empire, Roman Britons withdrew from the cities to their villas, which entered on a palatial building phase, a "golden age" of villa life. ''Villae rusticae'' are essential in the Empire's economy. Two kinds of villa-plan in Roman Britain may be characteristic of Roman villas in general. The more usual plan extended wings of rooms all opening onto a linking portico, which might be extended at right angles, even to enclose a courtyard. The other kind featured an aisled central hall like a basilica, suggesting the villa owner's magisterial role. The villa buildings were often independent structures linked by their enclosed courtyards. Timber framing, Timber-framed construction, carefully fitted with Mortise and tenon, mortises and tenons and dowelled together, set on stone footings, were the rule, replaced by stone buildings for the important ceremonial rooms. Traces of window Roman glass, glass have been found, as well as ironwork window Grille (architecture), grilles.


Monastery villas of Late Antiquity

With the Decline of the Roman Empire, decline and collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the fourth and fifth centuries, the villas were more and more isolated and came to be protected by walls. In England the villas were abandoned, Looting, looted, and burned by Anglo-Saxon invaders in the fifth century, but the concept of an isolated, self-sufficient agrarian working community, housed close together, survived into Anglo-Saxon culture as the ''vill'', with its inhabitants – if formally bound to the land – as ''villeins''. In regions on the Continent, Aristocracy (class), aristocrats and territorial magnates donated large working villas and overgrown abandoned ones to individual monks; these might become the nuclei of Monastery, monasteries. In this way, the Italian villa system of late Antiquity survived into the early Medieval period in the form of monasteries that withstood the disruptions of the Gothic War (535–554) and the Lombards. About 529 Benedict of Nursia established his influential monastery of Monte Cassino in the ruins of a villa at Subiaco, Italy, Subiaco that had belonged to Nero. From the sixth to the eighth century, Gallo-Roman villas in the Merovingian royal fisc were repeatedly donated as sites for monasteries under royal patronage in Gaul – Saint-Maur-des-Fossés and Fleury Abbey provide examples. In Germany a famous example is Echternach; as late as 698, Willibrord established an abbey at a Roman villa of Echternach near Trier, presented to him by Adela and Irmina, Irmina, daughter of Dagobert II, king of the Franks. Kintzheim was ''Villa Regis'', the "villa of the king". Around 590, Saint Eligius was born in a highly placed Gallo-Roman culture, Gallo-Roman family at the 'villa' of Chaptelat near Limoges, in Aquitaine (now France). The abbey at Stavelot was founded ca 650 on the domain of a former villa near Liège and the abbey of Vézelay had a similar founding.


Post-Roman era

In post-Roman times a ''villa'' referred to a self-sufficient, usually fortified Italian or Gallo-Roman culture, Gallo-Roman farmstead. It was economically as self-sufficient as a ''village'' and its inhabitants, who might be legally tied to it as serfs were ''villeins''. The Merovingian dynasty, Merovingian Franks inherited the concept, followed by the Carolingian French but the later French term was ''basti'' or ''bastide.'' ''Villa''/''Vila'' (or its cognates) is part of many Spanish and Portuguese placenames, like Vila Real (disambiguation), Vila Real and Villadiego: a ''villa''/''vila'' is a town with a charter (''fuero'' or ''foral'') of lesser importance than a ''ciudad''/''cidade'' ("city"). When it is associated with a personal name, ''villa'' was probably used in the original sense of a country estate rather than a chartered town. Later evolution has made the Hispanic distinction between ''villas'' and ''ciudades'' a purely honorific one. Madrid is the ''Villa y Court, Corte'', the villa considered to be separate from the formerly mobile Noble court, royal court, but the much smaller Ciudad Real was declared ''ciudad'' by the Spanish crown.


Italian Renaissance


Tuscany

In 14th and 15th century Italy, a ''villa'' once more connoted a country house, like the first Medici villas, the Villa del Trebbio and that at Cafaggiolo, both strong fortified houses built in the 14th century in the Mugello region near Florence. In 1450, Giovanni di Cosimo de' Medici, Giovanni de' Medici commenced on a hillside the Villa Medici in Fiesole, Tuscany, probably the first villa created under the instructions of Leon Battista Alberti, who theorized the features of the new idea of villa in his ''De re aedificatoria''. These first examples of Renaissance architecture, Renaissance villa predate the age of Lorenzo de' Medici, who added the Poggio a Caiano#The Medici villa, Villa di Poggio a Caiano by Giuliano da Sangallo, begun in 1470, in Poggio a Caiano, Province of Prato, Tuscany. From Tuscany the idea of ''villa'' was spread again through Italian Renaissance, Renaissance Italy and Europe.


Tuscan villa gardens

The Quattrocento villa gardens were treated as a fundamental and aesthetic link between a residential building and the outdoors, with views over a humanized agricultural landscape, at that time the only desirable aspect of nature. Later villas and gardens include the Palazzo Pitti and Boboli Gardens in Florence, and the Villa di Pratolino in Vaglia.


Rome

Rome had more than its share of villas with easy reach of the small sixteenth-century city: the progenitor, the first ''Roman villa, villa suburbana'' built since Antiquity, was the Belvedere (structure), Belvedere or ''palazzetto'', designed by Antonio Pollaiuolo and built on the slope above the Vatican Palace. The Villa Madama, the design of which, attributed to Raphael and carried out by Giulio Romano in 1520, was one of the most influential private houses ever built; elements derived from Villa Madama appeared in villas through the 19th century. Villa Albani was built near the Porta Salaria. Other are the Villa Borghese gardens, Villa Borghese; the Villa Doria Pamphili (1650); the Villa Giulia of Pope Julius III (1550), designed by Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola, Vignola. The Roman villas Villa Ludovisi and Villa Montalto, were destroyed during the late nineteenth century in the wake of the real estate bubble that took place in Rome after the seat of government of a united Italy was established at Rome. The cool hills of
Frascati Frascati () is a city and ''comune'' in the Metropolitan City of Rome Capital in the Lazio region of central Italy. It is located south-east of Rome, on the Alban Hills close to the ancient city of Tusculum. Frascati is closely associated with ...
gained the Villa Aldobrandini (1592); the Villa Falconieri and the Villa Mondragone. The Villa d'Este near Tivoli, Italy, Tivoli is famous for the water play in its terraced History of gardens, gardens. The Villa Medici was on the edge of Rome, on the Pincian Hill, when it was built in 1540. Besides these designed for seasonal pleasure, usually located within easy distance of a city, other Italian villas were remade from a ''Rocca (architecture), rocca'' or castello, as the family seat of power, such as Villa Caprarola for the House of Farnese, Farnese. Near Siena in Tuscany, the Villa Cetinale was built by Cardinal Flavio Chigi (1631-1693), Flavio Chigi. He employed Carlo Fontana, pupil of Gian Lorenzo Bernini to transform the villa and dramatic gardens in a Roman Baroque style by 1680. The Villa Lante garden is one of the most sublime creations of the Italian villa in the landscape, completed in the 17th century.


Venice

In the later 16th century in the northeastern Italian Peninsula the Palladian villas of the Veneto, designed by Andrea Palladio (1508–1580), were built in Vicenza in the Republic of Venice. Palladio always designed his villas with reference to their setting. He often unified all the farm buildings into the architecture of his extended villas. Examples are the Villa Emo, the Villa Godi, the Villa Forni Cerato, the Villa Capra "La Rotonda", and Villa Foscari. The Villas are grouped into an association (Associazione Ville Venete) and offer touristic itineraries and accommodation possibilities.


Villas abroad


17th century

Soon after in Greenwich England, following his 1613–1615 Grand Tour, Inigo Jones designed and built the Queen's House between 1615–1617 in an early Palladian architecture style adaptation in another country. The Palladian villa style renewed its influence in different countries and eras and remained influential for over four hundred years, with the Neo-Palladian a part of the late 17th century and on Renaissance Revival architecture period.


18th and 19th centuries

Villa Hakasalmi (built in 1834-46) represents Empire-era villa architecture. It was the home of Aurora Karamzin (1808–1902) at the end of the 19th century and is now the city museum of Helsinki, Finland. In the early 18th century the English took up the term, and applied it to compact houses in the country, especially those accessible from London: Chiswick House is an example of such a "party villa". Thanks to the revival of interest in Palladio and Inigo Jones, soon Palladian architecture#Neo-Palladian, Neo-Palladian villas dotted the valley of the River Thames and English countryside. Marble Hill House in England was conceived originally as a "villa" in the 18th-century sense. In many ways the late 18th century Monticello, by Thomas Jefferson in Virginia, United States is a Palladian Revival villa. Other examples of the period and style are Hammond-Harwood House in Annapolis, Maryland; and many pre-American Civil War or Antebellum Plantations, such as Westover Plantation and many other List of James River plantations, James River plantations as well dozens of Antebellum architecture, Antebellum era plantations in the rest of the Old South functioned as the Roman Latifundium villas had. A later revival, in the Gilded Age and early 20th century, produced The Breakers in Newport, Rhode Island, Filoli in Woodside, California, and Dumbarton Oaks in Georgetown, Washington, D.C.; by architects-landscape architects such as Richard Morris Hunt, Willis Polk, and Beatrix Farrand. In the nineteenth century, the term ''villa'' was extended to describe any large
suburb A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is a , or . It can exist either as part of a city/urban area and can often have a large degree of employment. In some metropolitan areas they exist as separate residential communities within distan ...
an house that was free-standing in a landscaped plot of ground. By the time 'semi-detached villas' were being erected at the turn of the twentieth century, the term collapsed under its extension and overuse. The second half of the nineteenth century saw the creation of large "Villenkolonien" in the German speaking countries, wealthy residential areas that were completely made up of large mansion houses and often built to an artfully created masterplan. Also many large mansions for the wealthy German industrialists were built, such as Villa Hügel in Essen. The Villenkolonie of Lichterfelde West in Berlin was conceived after an extended trip by the architect through the South of England. Representative Historicism (art), historicist mansions in Germany include the Heiligendamm and other resort architecture mansions at the Baltic Sea, Rose Island (Lake Starnberg), Rose Island and King's House on Schachen in the Bavarian Alps, Villa Dessauer in Bamberg, Wahnfried, Villa Wahnfried in Bayreuth, Schloss Drachenburg, Drachenburg near Bonn, Hammerschmidt Villa in Bonn, the Liebermann Villa and Schloss Britz, Britz House in Berlin, Albrechtsberg Palace (Dresden), Albrechtsberg, Eckberg, Villa Stockhausen and in Dresden, in Feldafing, in Frankfurt, Jenisch House and Budge-Palais in Hamburg, and in Königstein im Taunus, Königstein, Villa Stuck and in Munich, Schloss Klink at Müritz, Lake Müritz, Villa Ludwigshöhe in Rhineland-Palatinate, Villa Haux in Stuttgart and Weinberg House (Waren), Weinberg House in Waren (Müritz), Waren. In France the Château de Ferrières is an example of the Italian Neo-Renaissance style villa – and in Britain the Mentmore Towers by John Ruskin. A representative building of this style in Germany is Villa Haas (designed by Ludwig Hofmann) in Hesse.


20th – 21st centuries


Europe

During the 19th and 20th century, the term "villa" became widespread for detached mansions in Europe. Special forms are for instance Spa architecture, spa villas (''Kurvillen'' in German) and Resort architecture, seaside villas (''Bädervillen'' in German), that became especially popular at the end of the 19th century. The tradition established back then continued throughout the 20th century and even until today. Another trend was the erection of rather minimalist mansions in the Bauhaus style since the 1920s, that also continues until today. In Denmark, Norway and Sweden "villa" denotes most forms of single-family detached homes, regardless of size and standard.


Americas

The villa concept lived and lives on in the haciendas of Latin America and the estancias of Brazil and Argentina. The oldest are original Portuguese and Spanish Colonial architecture; followed after independences in the Americas from Spain and Portugal, by the Spanish Colonial Revival architecture, Spanish Colonial Revival style with regional variations. In the 20th century International Style (architecture), International Style villas were designed by Roberto Burle Marx, Oscar Niemeyer, Luis Barragán, and other architects developing a unique Euro-Latin synthesized aesthetic. Villas are particularly well represented in California and the West Coast of the United States, where they were originally commissioned by well travelled "upper-class" patrons moving on from the Queen Anne style architecture in the United States, Queen Anne style Victorian architecture and Beaux-Arts architecture. Communities such as Montecito, California, Montecito, Pasadena, California, Pasadena, Bel Air, Los Angeles, Bel Air, Beverly Hills, California, Beverly Hills, and San Marino, California, San Marino in Southern California, and Atherton, California, Atherton and Piedmont, California, Piedmont in the San Francisco Bay Area are a few examples of villa density. The popularity of Mediterranean Revival architecture in its various iterations over the last century has been consistently used in that region and in Florida. Just a few of the notable early architects were Wallace Neff, Addison Mizner, Stanford White, and George Washington Smith (architect), George Washington Smith. A few examples are the Harold Lloyd Estate in Beverly Hills, California, Medici scale Hearst Castle on the Central Coast of California, and Villa Montalvo in the Santa Cruz Mountains of Saratoga, California, Villa Vizcaya in Coconut Grove, Miami, American Craftsman versions are the Gamble House (Pasadena, California), Gamble House and the villas by Greene and Greene in Pasadena, California


Modern villas

Modern architecture has produced some important examples of buildings known as villas: * Villa Noailles by Robert Mallet-Stevens in Hyères, France * Villa Savoye by Le Corbusier in Poissy, France * Villa Mairea by Alvar Aalto in Noormarkku, Finland * Villa Tugendhat by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe in Brno, Czech Republic * Villa Lewaro by Vertner Tandy in Irvington, New York Country-villa examples: * Hollyhock House (1919) by Frank Lloyd Wright in Hollywood * Gropius House by Walter Gropius (1937) in Lincoln, Massachusetts * Fallingwater by Frank Lloyd Wright (1939) in Pennsylvania, U.S. * Farnsworth House by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe in Plano, Illinois * Kaufmann Desert House by Richard Neutra (1946) in Palm Springs, California * Auldbrass Plantation by Frank Lloyd Wright (1940–1951) in Beaufort County, South Carolina * Palácio da Alvorada by Oscar Niemeyer (1958) in Brasília, Brazil * Getty Villa, in Pacific Palisades, Los Angeles.


Other

Today, the term "villa" is often applied to vacation rental properties. In the United Kingdom the term is used for high quality detached homes in warm destinations, particularly Florida and the Mediterranean. The term is also used in Pakistan, and in some of the Caribbean islands such as Jamaica, Saint Barthélemy, Saint Martin (island), Saint Martin, Guadeloupe, British Virgin Islands, and others. It is similar for the coastal resort areas of Baja California Sur and mainland Mexico, and for hospitality industry destination resort "luxury bungalows" in various locations worldwide. In Indonesia, the term "villa" is applied to Dutch colonial country houses (''landhuis''). Nowadays, the term is more popularly applied to vacation rental usually located in countryside area. In Australia, "villas" or "villa units" are terms used to describe a type of townhouse complex which contains, possibly smaller attached or detached houses of up to 3–4 bedrooms that were built since the early 1980s. Housing in New Zealand, In New Zealand, "villa" refers almost exclusively to Victorian era, Victorian and Edwardian era, Edwardian wooden weatherboard houses mainly built between 1880 and 1914, characterised by high ceilings (often ), sash windows, and a long entrance hall. In Cambodia, "villa" is used as a loanword in the local language of Khmer, and is generally used to describe any type of detached townhouse that features yard space. The term doesn't apply to any particular architectural style or size, the only features that distinguish a Khmer villa from another building are the yard space and being fully detached. The terms "twin-villa" and "mini-villa" have been coined meaning semi-detached and smaller versions respectively. Generally, these would be more luxurious and spacious houses than the more common row houses. The yard space would also typically feature some form of garden, trees or greenery. Generally, these would be properties in major cities, where there is more wealth and hence more luxurious houses.


See also

*Dacha *Estate (land), Estate *Great house *Manor house *Mansion *Ultimate bungalow


Notes

{{Authority control Architectural history House styles House types Architecture of Italy Villas, Vacation rental Tourist accommodations