Achintya Bheda Abheda
* Shaiva : Pratyabhijña
TEACHERS (Acharyas )
* Akṣapāda Gotama
ACHINTYA BHEDA ABHEDA
* Kamalakanta Bhattacharya
* Kanada ,
SHASTRAS AND SUTRAS
* Other Indian philosophies
VIJñāNABHIKṣU (also spelled Vijnanabhikshu) was a Hindu
philosopher, variously dated to the 15th or 16th century, known for
his commentary on various schools of
Hindu philosophy , particularly
Yoga text of Patanjali. His scholarship stated that there is a
unity between Vedānta, Yoga, and
Samkhya philosophies, and he is
considered a significant influence on Neo-Advaita movement of the
* 1 Philosophy
* 2 Influence
* 3 Works
* 3.1 Major works
* 3.2 English translations
* 4 See also
* 5 References
* 6 Sources
* 7 External links
He wrote commentaries in the 15th century on three different schools
of Indian philosophy,
Sāṃkhya , and
Yoga , and
integrated them into a nondualism platform that belongs to both the
Bhedabheda and Advaita (nondualism) sub-schools of Vedanta.
According to Andrew Nicholson, this became the basis of Neo-Vedanta.
His integration is known as Avibhaga Advaita ("indistinguishable
non-dualism"). His sub-commentary on the
Yoga Sutras , the
Yogavarttika, has been an influential work.
According to Andrew Fort, Vijnanabhiksu's commetary is Yogic Advaita,
since his commentary is suffused with Advaita-influenced Samkhya-Yoga.
Vijnanabhiksu discusses, adds Fort, a spiritually liberated person as
a yogic jivanmukta .
Vijnanabhiksu as a prime influence on 19th century
Indology and the formation of Neo-
Vedanta . According to Nicholson,
already between the twelfth and the sixteenth century,
... certain thinkers began to treat as a single whole the diverse
philosophical teachings of the Upanishads, epics, Puranas, and the
schools known retrospectively as the "six systems" (saddarsana) of
The tendency of "a blurring of philosophical distinctions" has also
been noted by Burley. Lorenzen locates the origins of a distinct
Hindu identity in the interaction between Muslims and Hindus, and a
process of "mutual self-definition with a contrasting Muslim other",
which started well before 1800. Both the Indian and the European
thinkers who developed the term "Hinduism" in the 19th century were
influenced by these philosophers.
Little good work has been written in English on Vijñānabhikṣu,
and most of the texts in his large corpus have yet to be edited and
Sanskrit , let alone translated into English.
Some major texts attributed to
* Vijnanamritabhashya ("The Nectar of Knowledge Commentary",
Brahma Sutras )
* Ishvaragitabhashya ("Commentary on the
* Sankhyasara ("Quintessence of the
* Sankhyasutrabhashya ("Commentary on the
Sankhya Sutras" of Kapila
* Yogasarasamgraha ("Compendium on the Quintessence of Yoga")
* Yogabhashyavarttika ("Explanation of the Commentary on the Yoga
Sutras " of
* Ganganatha Jha, Yogasarasamgraha of Vijnanabhiksu, New Delhi:
Parimal Publications, 1995.
* José Pereira,
Hindu Theology: A Reader, Garden City: Doubleday,
1976. Includes translated excerpts from Vijnanamritabhashya and
* T.S. Rukmani, Yogavarttika of Vijnanabhiksu, New Delhi: Munshiram
* Nandalal Sinha, The
Samkhya Philosophy, New Delhi: Oriental Books
Reprint Corporation, 1979. Contains a complete translation of
* Shiv Kumar, Samkhyasara of Vijnanabhiksu, Delhi: Eastern Book
* ^ T. S. Rukmani (1978), VIJÑĀNABHIKṢU ON BHAVA-PRATYAYA AND
UPĀYA-PRATYAYA YOGĪS IN YOGA-SUTRAS, Journal of Indian Philosophy,
Vol. 5, No. 4 (August 1978), pages 311-317
* ^ Andrew O. Fort (2006), Vijñānabhikṣu on Two Forms of
"Samādhi", International Journal of
Hindu Studies, Vol. 10, No. 3
(Dec., 2006), pages 271-294
* ^ A B Jeaneane D. Fowler (2002). Perspectives of Reality: An
Introduction to the Philosophy of Hinduism. Sussex Academic Press. p.
202. ISBN 978-1-898723-93-6 .
* ^ T. S. Rukmani (1988), VIJÑĀNABHIKṢU\'S DOUBLE REFLECTION
THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE IN THE YOGA SYSTEM, Journal of Indian Philosophy,
Vol. 16, No. 4 (DECEMBER 1988), pages 367-375
* ^ A B Nicholson 2007
* ^ A B Edwin Francis Bryant; Patañjali (2009). The
of Patañjali: a new edition, translation, and commentary with
insights from the traditional commentators. North Point Press. pp.
190, 239. ISBN 978-0-86547-736-0 .
* ^ A B C Nicholson 2010 .
* ^ Borelli, John (1978). "
Vijnanabhiksu and the Re-Assertion of
Difference-in-Identity Vedanta". Philosophy East and West. 28 (4):
425–437. doi :10.2307/1398647 . access-date= requires url= (help
* ^ Andrew O. Fort (1998). Jivanmukti in Transformation: Embodied
Liberation in Advaita and Neo-Vedanta. State University of New York
Press. p. 125. ISBN 978-0-7914-3904-3 .
* ^ A B Nicholson 2010 , p. 2.
* ^ Burley 2007 , p. 34.
* ^ Lorenzen 2006 , p. 24-33.
* ^ Lorenzen 2006 , p. 27.
* ^ Lorenzen 2006 , p. 26-27.
* ^ Sato, Hiroyuki (1989). "Vijñanabhiksu's Theory of Mutual
Projection". JOURNAL OF INDIAN AND BUDDHIST STUDIES. Japanese
Association of Indian and Buddhist Studies. 37 (2): 945–943. doi
:10.4259/ibk.37.945 . access-date= requires url= (help )
* Burley, Mikel (2007), Classical
Samkhya and Yoga: An Indian
Metaphysics of Experience, Taylor & Francis
* Lorenzen, David N. (2006), Who Invented Hinduism: Essays on
Religion in History, Yoda Press
* Nicholson, Andrew (2007), "Reconciling Dualism and Non-Dualism:
Three Arguments in Vijñānabhikṣu’s Bhedābheda Vedānta",
Journal of Indian Philosophy, 35 (3): 2007, pp 371–403, doi
* Nicholson, Andrew J. (2010), Unifying Hinduism: Philosophy and
Identity in Indian Intellectual History , Columbia University Press
* Daniel P. Sheridan, "Vijnanabhikshu", in Great Thinkers of the
Eastern World, Ian McGready, ed., New York: Harper Collins, 1995, pp.
* A General Idea of Vijñāna Bhikṣu’s Philosophy,