Vijayendra Tīrtha (also known as Vijayīndra Tīrtha) (1514-1595) was
Dvaita philosopher and dialectician. A prolific writer and an
unrelenting polemicist, he is said to have authored 104 treatises
expounding the principles of
Dvaita and defending it against attacks
from the contemporary orthodox schools of
Vedanta and the heterodox
Veerashaiva movement. He held the pontifical seat at
the rule of
Thanjavur Nayaks where he participated in polemical
discussions with the
Appayya Dikshita and the
Veerashaiva Emme Basava. Inscriptions from that era record grants
of villages received by Vijayindra for his triumph over theological
debates . Legend ascribes to him mastery over 64 arts and his
erudition, writes Sharma, "is evident from a few of his works bearing
on Purva Mimamsa,
3 List of Notable Works
7 External links
Almost nothing is known about his early life and family. Most of the
information on Vijayendra is derived from a few inscriptions and two
hagiographies: Rāghavendra Vijaya and Guruguṇastavana. Born as
Vitthalācharya, he studied Vedanta,
Nyaya under the
philosopher Vyasatirtha.  He also received training in Kavya
Natya (drama) and Alankara (rhetoric). Aged 25, he moved to
Kumbakonam at the behest of Surendra Tirtha, the erstwhile pontiff of
the Vibhudendra mutt. [note 1] Vitthala eventually succeeded Surendra
as the pontiff with the title Vijayīndra Tīrtha. Inscriptional
evidence and traditional accounts note that Vijayendra received
Aliya Rama Raya
Aliya Rama Raya and grants from
Sevappa Nayak of
Tanjore.  After defeating Emme Basava in a debate, the Veerashaiva
Kumbakonam was handed over to Vijayendra.  He was
involved in severe polemical discussions with his rival and friend
Appayya Dikshita, with several of his works dedicated to refuting the
claims of Appayya.  After his death in 1595, his mortal remains
were enshrined in the mutt at Kumbakonam. He was succeeded by
Vijayendra tirtha is credited with as many as 104 literary works of
which many are non-extant. A few that remain mainly consist of
commentaries on the works of
Vyasatirtha (Laghu Amoda) and Madhva
(Tattvaprakasika Tippani), polemical works refuting the works of
Appayya Dikshita and several treatises dealing with the issue of
Mimamsa (Chakra Mimamsa). A few poems and
three dramatical works have been attributed to him as well.
List of Notable Works
104 works are attributed to Vijayendra of which only sixty are extant.
Except for a few notable works, many remain unprinted. The manuscripts
are preserved in mutts at Nanjangud,
Mantralayam and Kumbakonam.
Commentary on Brahma Sutra Bhashya of Madhva
Commentary on Tattvodyota of Madhva
Summary of Tattva Prakasika of Madhva
Commentary on Nyayamruta of Vyasatirtha
Commentary on Tatparya Chandrika of Vyasatirtha
Commentary on Tarka Tandava of Vyasatirtha
Pramana Paddhati Vyakhyana
Gloss on Pramana Paddhati of Jayatirtha
Treatise on the
Mimamsa elements in Nyayamruta
Treatise on the
Mimamsa elements in Tatparya Chandrika
Appayya Kapola Chapetika
Refutation of the works of Appayya Dikshita
Madhva Kantako Dhara
Rebuttal to Madhvatantramukhabhanga of Appayya Dikshita
Defence of mudradharana from the viewpoint of
Mimamsa [note 2]
Polemical treatise emphasising the doctrine of five-fold difference
Criticism of Appayya Dikshita's Sivatattvaviveka
Gist of Brahma Sutra distilling elements from Anu Vyakhyana of Madhva
Siddhanta Sarasara Viveka
Polemical tract against the tenets of
Visistadvaita and Shiva Advaita
Ananda Taratamya Vadartha
Polemical tract against the tenets of Visistadvaita
Manual on the
Mimamsa elements in Dvaita
Rejoinder to Upakrama Parakrama of Appayya Dikshita
Treatise arguing for the usage of flour-made animals for rituals
Mimamsa Naya Kaumudi
The compatibility between the works of
Mimamsa is explored
Polemical rebuttal to Advaitadipika of Narasimhasrama
Shaiva Sarvasva Khandanam
Treatise arguing for the supremacy of Vishnu
Drama on the marriage of
Arjuna and Subhadra
Narayana Sabdartha Nirvachana
Monograph on the etymology of the word Narayana
Polemical tract arguing against the fourth stage of consciousness of
Tatparya Chandrika Kuchodya Kuthara
Refutation in favour of Tatparya Chandrika by Vyasatirtha
^ According to the songs of Purandara, Surendra, impressed by the
brilliance of the young Vitthala, asked
Vyasatirtha to gift him
^ Mudradharana is the Vaishnavite practice of branding the symbols of
Vishnu on the body
^ Sharma, p. 172.
^ Sarma, p. 551.
^ Sharma 2000, p. 165.
^ Vriddhagirisan 1995, p. 56.
^ a b Sharma 2000, p. 172.
^ a b Sharma 2000, p. 171.
^ Sharma 2000, p. 168.
^ Heras 1927, p. 553.
^ Sharma, p. 173-189.
^ a b c Sharma 2000, p. 173.
^ Sarma 1937, p. 551.
^ a b Sarma 1937, p. 552.
^ a b Sharma 2000, p. 176.
^ a b c Heras 1980, p. 522.
^ a b Sarma 1937, p. 554.
^ Sarma 1937, p. 557.
^ Sharma 2000, p. 179.
^ a b Sharma 2000, p. 180.
^ a b Pandurangi 2004.
^ a b Sarma 1937, p. 556.
^ a b Sharma 2000, p. 188.
^ Sharma 2000, p. 189.
^ Fischer, p. 121.
^ Fischer 2017, p. 130.
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Dvaita School of
Vedānta and Its Literature, Vol. 2, 3rd Edition. Motilal Banarsidass.
Vriddhagirisan, V (1995). Nayaks of Tanjore. Asian Educational
Services. ISBN 978-8120609969.
Sarma, R. Nagaraja (1937). Reign of realism in Indian philosophy.
Pandurangi, K.T (2004). Nyayadhvadipika.
Vedanta Studies and
Hebbar, B.N (2004). The Sri Krsna Temple at Udupi. Nataraj Books.
Fischer, Elaine (2017). Hindu Pluralism: Religion and the Public
Sphere in Early Modern South India. University of California Press.
Heras, Henry (1927). South India Under the Vijayanagara Empire: The
Aravidu Dynasty, Volume 2. Cosmo.
Mahalingam, T.V (1937). Administration and Social Life Under
Vijayanagar: Administration. University of Madras.
Vijayendra Tirtha and the origin of Kashi Math
Biographical Sketch on