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VIJAYENDRA TīRTHA (also known as Vijayīndra Tīrtha) (1514-1593) was a Dvaita
Dvaita
philosopher and dialectician. A prolific writer and an unrelenting polemicist, he is said to have authored 104 treatises expounding the principles of Dvaita
Dvaita
and defending it against attacks from the contemporary orthodox schools of Vedanta
Vedanta
and the heterodox Veerashaiva movement. He held the pontifical seat at Kumbakonam
Kumbakonam
under the rule of Thanjavur Nayaks where he participated in polemical discussions with the Advaita
Advaita
philosopher Appayya Dikshita
Appayya Dikshita
and the Veerashaiva Emme Basava. Inscriptions from that era record grants of villages received by Vijayindra for his triumph over theological debates . Legend ascribes to him mastery over 64 arts and his erudition, writes Sharma, "is evident from a few of his works bearing on Purva Mimamsa , Nyaya
Nyaya
and Kavya literature".

CONTENTS

* 1 Life * 2 Works * 3 List of Notable Works * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 Bibliography * 7 External links

LIFE

Almost nothing is known about his early life and family. Most of the information on Vijayendra is derived from a few inscriptions and two hagiographies: Rāghavendra Vijaya and Guruguṇastavana. Born as Vitthalācharya, he studied Vedanta
Vedanta
, Mimamsa
Mimamsa
and Nyaya
Nyaya
under the philosopher Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha
. He also received training in Kavya (poetics), Natya
Natya
(drama) and Alankara (rhetoric). Aged 25, he moved to Kumbakonam
Kumbakonam
at the behest of Surendra Tirtha, the erstwhile pontiff of the Vibhudendra mutt. Vitthala eventually succeeded Surendra as the pontiff with the title VIJAYīNDRA TīRTHA. Inscriptional evidence and traditional accounts note that Vijayendra received patronage from Aliya Rama Raya
Aliya Rama Raya
and grants from Sevappa Nayak of Tanjore
Tanjore
. After defeating Emme Basava in a debate, the Veerashaiva temple in Kumbakonam
Kumbakonam
was handed over to Vijayendra. He was involved in severe polemical discussions with his rival and friend Appayya Dikshita
Appayya Dikshita
, with several of his works dedicated to refuting the claims of Appayya. After his death in 1595, his mortal remains were enshrined in the mutt at Kumbakonam. He was succeeded by Sudhindra Tirtha.

WORKS

Vijayendra tirtha is credited with as many as 104 literary works of which many are non-extant. A few that remain mainly consist of commentaries on the works of Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha
(Laghu Amoda) and Madhva (Tattvaprakasika Tippani), polemical works refuting the works of Appayya Dikshita
Appayya Dikshita
and several treatises dealing with the issue of compatibility of Dvaita
Dvaita
with Mimamsa
Mimamsa
(Chakra Mimamsa). A few poems and three dramatical works have been attributed to him as well.

LIST OF NOTABLE WORKS

104 works are attributed to Vijayendra of which only sixty are extant. Except for a few notable works, many remain unprinted. The manuscripts are preserved in mutts at Nanjangud , Mantralaya and Kumbakonam
Kumbakonam
.

NAME DESCRIPTION REFERENCES

Tattvamanimanekyapetika Commentary on Brahma Sutra Bhashya of Madhva
Madhva

Gudabhavaprakasika Commentary on Tattvodyota of Madhva
Madhva

Tattvaprakasika Tippani Summary of Tattva Prakasika of Madhva
Madhva

Laghu Amoda Commentary on Nyayamruta of Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha

Nyayamauktikamala Commentary on Tatparya Chandrika of Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha

Yuktiratnakara Commentary on Tarka Tandava of Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha

Pramana Paddhati Vyakhyana Gloss on Pramana Paddhati of Jayatirtha
Jayatirtha

Adhikaranamala Treatise on the Mimamsa
Mimamsa
elements in Nyayamruta

Chandrikodahrta Nyaya
Nyaya
Vivaranam Treatise on the Mimamsa
Mimamsa
elements in Tatparya Chandrika

Appayya Kapola Chapetika Refutation of the works of Appayya Dikshita
Appayya Dikshita

Madhva
Madhva
Kantako Dhara Rebuttal to Madhvatantramukhabhanga of Appayya Dikshita
Appayya Dikshita

Chakra Mimamsa Defence of mudradharana from the viewpoint of Mimamsa
Mimamsa

Bhedavidyavilasa Polemical treatise emphasising the doctrine of five-fold difference

Paratattva Prakasika Criticism of Appayya Dikshita's Sivatattvaviveka

Brahmasutra Nyayasangraha Gist of Brahma Sutra distilling elements from Anu Vyakhyana of Madhva

Siddhanta Sarasara Viveka Polemical tract against the tenets of Visistadvaita
Visistadvaita
and Shiva Advaita
Advaita

Ananda Taratamya Vadartha Polemical tract against the tenets of Visistadvaita
Visistadvaita

Nyayadhvadipika Manual on the Mimamsa
Mimamsa
elements in Dvaita
Dvaita

Upasamhara Vijaya Rejoinder to Upakrama Parakrama of Appayya Dikshita

Pistapashu Mimamsa Treatise arguing for the usage of flour-made animals for rituals

Mimamsa
Mimamsa
Naya Kaumudi The compatibility between the works of Madhva
Madhva
and Mimamsa
Mimamsa
is explored

Advaita
Advaita
Siksha Polemical rebuttal to Advaitadipika of Narasimhasrama

Shaiva Sarvasva Khandanam Treatise arguing for the supremacy of Vishnu
Vishnu

Subhadra
Subhadra
Dhananjaya Drama on the marriage of Arjuna
Arjuna
and Subhadra
Subhadra

Narayana
Narayana
Sabdartha Nirvachana Monograph on the etymology of the word Narayana
Narayana

Turiyasiva Khandana Polemical tract arguing against the fourth stage of consciousness of Advaita

NOTES

* ^ According to the songs of Purandara , Surendra, impressed by the brilliance of the young Vitthala, asked Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha
to gift him Vitthala * ^ Mudradharana is the Vaishnavite practice of branding the symbols of Vishnu
Vishnu
on the body

REFERENCES

* ^ Sharma , p. 169. * ^ Sarma , p. 551. * ^ Sharma , p. 172. * ^ Sharma 2000 , p. 165. * ^ Vriddhagirisan 1995 , p. 56. * ^ A B Sharma 2000 , p. 172. * ^ A B Sharma 2000 , p. 171. * ^ Sharma 2000 , p. 168. * ^ Heras 1927 , p. 553. * ^ Sharma , p. 173-189. * ^ A B C Sharma 2000 , p. 173. * ^ Sarma 1937 , p. 551. * ^ A B Sarma 1937 , p. 552. * ^ A B Sharma 2000 , p. 176. * ^ A B C Heras 1980 , p. 522. * ^ A B Sarma 1937 , p. 554. * ^ Sarma 1937 , p. 557. * ^ Sharma 2000 , p. 179. * ^ A B Sharma 2000 , p. 180. * ^ A B Pandurangi 2004 . * ^ A B Sarma 1937 , p. 556. * ^ A B Sharma 2000 , p. 188. * ^ Sharma 2000 , p. 189. * ^ Fischer , p. 121. * ^ Fischer 2017 , p. 130.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Sharma, B. N. Krishnamurti (2000). A History of the