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The Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
Empire (also called Karnata,[2] and the Kingdom of Bisnegar by the Portuguese) was based in the Deccan Plateau
Deccan Plateau
region in South India. It was established in 1336 by Harihara I and his brother Bukka Raya I of Sangama Dynasty.[3][4][5] The empire rose to prominence as a culmination of attempts by the southern powers to ward off Islamic
Islamic
invasions by the end of the 13th century. It lasted until 1646, although its power declined after a major military defeat in 1565 by the combined armies of the Deccan sultanates. The empire is named after its capital city of Vijayanagara, whose ruins surround present day Hampi, now a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
in Karnataka, India.[6] The writings of medieval European travelers such as Domingo Paes, Fernão Nunes, and Niccolò Da Conti, and the literature in local languages provide crucial information about its history. Archaeological excavations at Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
have revealed the empire's power and wealth. The empire's legacy includes many monuments spread over South India, the best known of which is the group at Hampi. Different temple building traditions in South and Central India
India
came together in the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
Architecture style. This synthesis inspired architectural innovation in Hindu
Hindu
temples construction. Efficient administration and vigorous overseas trade brought new technologies such as water management systems for irrigation. The empire's patronage enabled fine arts and literature to reach new heights in Kannada, Telugu, Tamil, and Sanskrit, while Carnatic music
Carnatic music
evolved into its current form. The Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
Empire created an epoch in South Indian history that transcended regionalism by promoting Hinduism
Hinduism
as a unifying factor.

Contents

1 Alternative name 2 History 3 Governance 4 Economy 5 Culture

5.1 Social life 5.2 Religion 5.3 Language 5.4 Literature 5.5 Architecture

6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

Alternative name[edit] Karnata Rajya (Karnata Empire) was another name for the Vijayanagara Empire, used in some inscriptions[7][8] and literary works of the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
times including the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
work Jambavati Kalyanam by King Krishnadevaraya
Krishnadevaraya
and Telugu work Vasu Charitamu.[9] History[edit] Main articles: Origin of Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
Empire, Ancient City of Vijayanagara, Battle of Raichur, and Battle of Talikota Differing theories have been proposed regarding the origins of the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
empire. Many historians propose that Harihara I and Bukka I, the founders of the empire, were Kannadigas and commanders in the army of the Hoysala Empire
Hoysala Empire
stationed in the Tungabhadra
Tungabhadra
region to ward off Muslim
Muslim
invasions from the Northern India.[10][11][12][13] Others claim that they were Telugu people, first associated with the Kakatiya Kingdom, who took control of the northern parts of the Hoysala Empire during its decline.[14] Irrespective of their origin, historians agree the founders were supported and inspired by Vidyaranya, a saint at the Sringeri
Sringeri
monastery to fight the Muslim
Muslim
invasion of South India.[15][16] Writings by foreign travelers during the late medieval era combined with recent excavations in the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
principality have uncovered much-needed information about the empire's history, fortifications, scientific developments and architectural innovations.[17][18] Before the early 14th-century rise of the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
Empire, the Hindu
Hindu
states of the Deccan — the Yadava Empire of Devagiri, the Kakatiya dynasty
Kakatiya dynasty
of Warangal, the Pandyan Empire
Pandyan Empire
of Madurai
Madurai
had been repeatedly raided and attacked by Muslims from the north, and by 1336 these upper Deccan region (modern day Maharashtra, Telangana) had all been defeated by armies of Sultan Alauddin Khalji
Alauddin Khalji
and Muhammad bin Tughluq of the Delhi Sultanate.[15][19] Further south in the Deccan region, a Hoysala commander, Singeya Nayaka-III (1280–1300 AD) declared independence after the Muslim forces of the Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
defeated and captured the territories of the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri
Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri
in 1294 CE.[20][21] He created the Kampili kingdom, but this was a short lived kingdom during this period of wars.[20][22] Kampili existed near Gulbarga
Gulbarga
and Tungabhadra
Tungabhadra
river in northeastern parts of the present-day Karnataka
Karnataka
state.[22] It ended after a defeat by the armies of Delhi Sultanate. The triumphant army led by Malik Zada sent the news of its victory, over Kampili kingdom, to Muhammad bin Tughluq
Muhammad bin Tughluq
in Delhi by sending a straw-stuffed severed head of the dead Hindu
Hindu
king.[23] Within Kampili, on the day of certain defeat, the populace committed a jauhar (ritual mass suicide) in 1327/28 CE.[23][24] Eight years later, from the ruins of the Kampili kingdom emerged the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
Kingdom in 1336 CE.[21] In the first two decades after the founding of the empire, Harihara I gained control over most of the area south of the Tungabhadra
Tungabhadra
river and earned the title of Purvapaschima Samudradhishavara ("master of the eastern and western seas"). By 1374 Bukka Raya I, successor to Harihara I, had defeated the chiefdom of Arcot, the Reddys of Kondavidu, and the Sultan of Madurai
Madurai
and had gained control over Goa in the west and the Tungabhadra- Krishna River
Krishna River
doab in the north.[25][26] The original capital was in the principality of Anegondi
Anegondi
on the northern banks of the Tungabhadra
Tungabhadra
River in today's Karnataka. It was later moved to nearby Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
on the river's southern banks during the reign of Bukka Raya I, because it was easier to defend against the Muslim
Muslim
armies persistently attacking it from the northern lands.[27] With the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
Kingdom now imperial in stature, Harihara II, the second son of Bukka Raya I, further consolidated the kingdom beyond the Krishna River
Krishna River
and brought the whole of South India
India
under the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
umbrella.[28] The next ruler, Deva Raya
Deva Raya
I, emerged successful against the Gajapatis of Odisha
Odisha
and undertook important works of fortification and irrigation.[29] Italian traveler Niccolo de Conti wrote of him as the most powerful ruler of India.[30] Deva Raya II (called Gajabetekara)[31] succeeded to the throne in 1424 and was possibly the most capable of the Sangama dynasty rulers.[32] He quelled rebelling feudal lords as well as the Zamorin
Zamorin
of Calicut and Quilon
Quilon
in the south. He invaded the island of Lanka
Lanka
and became overlord of the kings of Burma
Burma
at Pegu
Pegu
and Tanasserim.[33][34][35]

Map of South India, 1400 AD

Firuz Bahmani of Bahmani Sultanate
Bahmani Sultanate
entered into a treaty with Deva Raya I of Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
in 1407 that required the latter to pay Bahmani an annual tribute of "100,000 huns, five maunds of pearls and fifty elephants". The Sultanate invaded Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
in 1417 when the latter defaulted in paying the tribute. Such wars for tribute payment by Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
repeated in the 15th century, such as in 1436 when Sultan Ahmad I launched a war to collect the unpaid tribute.[36] The ensuing Sultanates- Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
wars expanded the Vijayanagara military, its power and disputes between its military commanders. In 1485, Saluva Narasimha
Narasimha
led a coup and ended the dynastic rule, while continuing to defend the Empire from raids by the Sultanates created from the continuing disintegration of the Bahmani Sultanate
Bahmani Sultanate
in its north.[37] In 1505, another commander Tuluva Narasa Nayaka took over the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
rule from the Sulava descendant in a coup. The empire came under the rule of Krishna Deva Raya
Deva Raya
in 1509, the son of Tuluva Narasa Nayaka.[38] He strengthened and consolidated the reach of the empire, by hiring both Hindus and Muslims into his army.[39] In the following decades, it covered Southern India
India
and successfully defeated invasions from the five established Deccan Sultanates
Deccan Sultanates
to its north.[40][41] The empire reached its peak during the rule of Krishna Deva Raya
Deva Raya
when Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
armies were consistently victorious.[42][43] The empire gained territory formerly under the Sultanates in the northern Deccan and the territories in the eastern Deccan, including Kalinga, in addition to the already established presence in the south.[44] Many important monuments were either completed or commissioned during the time of Krishna Deva Raya.[45]

Natural fortress at Vijayanagara

Krishna Deva Raya
Deva Raya
was followed by his younger half-brother Achyuta Deva Raya
Deva Raya
in 1529. When Achyuta Deva Raya
Achyuta Deva Raya
died in 1542, Sadashiva Raya, the teenage nephew of Achyuta Raya was appointed king with the caretaker being Aliya Rama Raya, Krishna Deva Raya's son-in-law and someone who had previously served Sultan Quli Qutb al-Mulk from 1512 when al-Mulk was assigned to Golkonda
Golkonda
sultanate.[46] Aliya Rama Raya left the Golconda Sultanate, married Deva Raya's daughter, and thus rose to power. When Sadashiva Raya – Deva Raya's son – was old enough, Aliya Rama Raya
Aliya Rama Raya
imprisoned him and allowed his uncle Achyuta Raya to publicly appear once a year.[47] Further Aliya Rama Raya
Aliya Rama Raya
hired Muslim
Muslim
generals in his army from his previous Sultanate connections, and called himself "Sultan of the World".[48]

Royal Insignia: boar, sun, moon and dagger

The Sultanates to the north of Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
united and attacked Aliya Rama Raya's army, in January 1565, in a war known as the Battle of Talikota.[49] The Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
side was winning the war, state Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund, but suddenly two Muslim
Muslim
generals of the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
army switched sides and turned their loyalty to the Sultanates. The generals captured Aliya Rama Raya
Aliya Rama Raya
and beheaded him on the spot, with Sultan Hussain on the Sultanates side joining them for the execution and stuffing of severed head with straw for display.[50][51] The beheading of Aliya Rama Raya
Aliya Rama Raya
created confusion and havoc in the still loyal portions of the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
army, which were then completely routed. The Sultanates' army plundered Hampi
Hampi
and reduced it to the ruinous state in which it remains; it was never re-occupied.[52] After the death of Aliya Rama Raya
Aliya Rama Raya
in the Battle of Talikota, Tirumala Deva Raya
Deva Raya
started the Aravidu dynasty, moved and founded a new capital of Penukonda to replace the destroyed Hampi, and attempted to reconstitute the remains of Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
Empire.[53] Tirumala abdicated in 1572, dividing the remains of his kingdom to his three sons, and pursued a religious life until his death in 1578. The Aravidu dynasty successors ruled the region but the empire collapsed in 1614, and the final remains ended in 1646, from continued wars with the Bijapur sultanate and others.[54][55][56] During this period, more kingdoms in South India
India
became independent and separate from Vijayanagara. These include the Mysore Kingdom, Keladi Nayaka, Nayaks of Madurai, Nayaks of Tanjore, Nayakas of Chitradurga
Nayakas of Chitradurga
and Nayak Kingdom of Gingee – all of which declared independence and went on to have a significant impact on the history of South India
India
in the coming centuries.[57] Governance[edit] Main article: Military of Vijayanagara The rulers of the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
empire maintained the well-functioning administrative methods developed by their predecessors, the Hoysala, Kakatiya and Pandya kingdoms, to govern their territories and made changes only where necessary.[58] The King was the ultimate authority, assisted by a cabinet of ministers (Pradhana) headed by the prime minister (Mahapradhana). Other important titles recorded were the chief secretary (Karyakartha or Rayaswami) and the imperial officers (Adhikari). All high-ranking ministers and officers were required to have military training.[59] A secretariat near the king's palace employed scribes and officers to maintain records made official by using a wax seal imprinted with the ring of the king.[60] At the lower administrative levels, wealthy feudal landlords (Goudas) supervised accountants (Karanikas or Karnam) and guards (Kavalu). The palace administration was divided into 72 departments (Niyogas), each having several female attendants chosen for their youth and beauty (some imported or captured in victorious battles) who were trained to handle minor administrative matters and to serve men of nobility as courtesans or concubines.[61]

Kannada inscription of King Krishnadeva Raya, dated 1509, at the Virupaksha temple in Hampi, describing his coronation and the construction of the large open mantapa

The empire was divided into five main provinces (Rajya), each under a commander (Dandanayaka or Dandanatha) and headed by a governor, often from the royal family, who used the native language for administrative purposes.[62] A Rajya was divided into regions (Vishaya Vente or Kottam) and further divided into counties (Sime or Nadu), themselves subdivided into municipalities (Kampana or Sthala). Hereditary families ruled their respective territories and paid tribute to the empire, while some areas, such as Keladi and Madurai, came under the direct supervision of a commander. On the battlefield, the king's commanders led the troops. The empire's war strategy rarely involved massive invasions; more often it employed small scale methods such as attacking and destroying individual forts. The empire was among the first in India
India
to use long range artillery commonly manned by foreign gunners (those from present day Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
were considered the best).[63] Army troops were of two types: The king's personal army directly recruited by the empire and the feudal army under each feudatory. King Krishnadevaraya's personal army consisted of 100,000 infantry, 20,000 cavalrymen and over 900 elephants. This number was only a part of the army numbering over 1.1 million soldiers, a figure that varied as an army of two million has also been recorded along with the existence of a navy as evidenced by the use of the term Navigadaprabhu (commander of the navy).[64] The army recruited from all classes of society (supported by the collection of additional feudal tributes from feudatory rulers), and consisted of archers and musketeers wearing quilted tunics, shieldmen with swords and poignards in their girdles, and soldiers carrying shields so large that no armour was necessary. The horses and elephants were fully armoured and the elephants had knives fastened to their tusks to do maximum damage in battle.[65] The capital city was completely dependent on the water supply systems constructed to channel and store water, ensuring a consistent supply throughout the year. The remains of these hydraulic systems have given historians a picture of the prevailing surface water distribution methods in use at that time in the semiarid regions of South India.[66] Contemporary records and notes of foreign travelers describe how huge tanks were constructed by labourers.[67] Excavations have uncovered the remains of a well-connected water distribution system existing solely within the royal enclosure and the large temple complexes (suggesting it was for the exclusive use of royalty, and for special ceremonies) with sophisticated channels using gravity and siphons to transport water through pipelines.[68] The only structures resembling public waterworks are the remains of large water tanks that collected the seasonal monsoon water and then dried up in summer except for the few fed by springs. In the fertile agricultural areas near the Tungabhadra
Tungabhadra
River, canals were dug to guide the river water into irrigation tanks. These canals had sluices that were opened and closed to control the water flow. In other areas the administration encouraged the digging of wells monitored by administrative authorities. Large tanks in the capital city were constructed with royal patronage while smaller tanks were funded by wealthy individuals to gain social and religious merit. Economy[edit]

Ancient market place and plantation at Hampi

The economy of the empire was largely dependent on agriculture. Sorghum (jowar), cotton, and pulse legumes grew in semi-arid regions, while sugarcane, rice, and wheat thrived in rainy areas. Betel
Betel
leaves, areca (for chewing), and coconut were the principal cash crops, and large scale cotton production supplied the weaving centers of the empire's vibrant textile industry. Spices such as turmeric, pepper, cardamom, and ginger grew in the remote Malnad
Malnad
hill region and were transported to the city for trade. The empire's capital city was a thriving business centre that included a burgeoning market in large quantities of precious gems and gold.[69] Prolific temple-building provided employment to thousands of masons, sculptors, and other skilled artisans. Land ownership was important. Most of the growers were tenant farmers and were given the right of part ownership of the land over time. Tax policies encouraging needed produce made distinctions between land use to determine tax levies. For example, the daily market availability of rose petals was important for perfumers, so cultivation of roses received a lower tax assessment.[70] Salt production and the manufacture of salt pans were controlled by similar means. The making of ghee (clarified butter), which was sold as an oil for human consumption and as a fuel for lighting lamps, was profitable.[71] Exports to China intensified and included cotton, spices, jewels, semi-precious stones, ivory, rhino horn, ebony, amber, coral, and aromatic products such as perfumes. Large vessels from China made frequent visits, some captained by the Chinese Admiral Zheng He, and brought Chinese products to the empire's 300 ports, large and small, on the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
and the Bay of Bengal. The ports of Mangalore, Honavar, Bhatkal, Barkur, Cochin, Cannanore, Machilipatnam, and Dharmadam
Dharmadam
were the most important.[72] When merchant ships docked, the merchandise was taken into official custody and taxes levied on all items sold. The security of the merchandise was guaranteed by the administration officials. Traders of many nationalities (Arabs, Persians, Guzerates, Khorassanians) settled in Calicut, drawn by the thriving trade business.[72] Ship building prospered and keeled ships of 1000–1200 bahares (burden) were built without decks by sewing the entire hull with ropes rather than fastening them with nails. Ships sailed to the Red Sea
Red Sea
ports of Aden and Mecca
Mecca
with Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
goods sold as far away as Venice. The empire's principal exports were pepper, ginger, cinnamon, cardamom, myrobalan, tamarind timber, anafistula, precious and semi-precious stones, pearls, musk, ambergris, rhubarb, aloe, cotton cloth and porcelain.[72] Cotton yarn was shipped to Burma
Burma
and indigo to Persia. Chief imports from Palestine were copper, quicksilver (mercury), vermilion, coral, saffron, coloured velvets, rose water, knives, coloured camlets, gold and silver. Persian horses were imported to Cannanore before a two-week land trip to the capital. Silk arrived from China and sugar from Bengal. East coast trade hummed, with goods arriving from Golkonda
Golkonda
where rice, millet, pulses and tobacco were grown on a large scale. Dye crops of indigo and chay root were produced for the weaving industry. A mineral rich region, Machilipatnam
Machilipatnam
was the gateway for high quality iron and steel exports. Diamond mining was active in the Kollur region.[73] The cotton weaving industry produced two types of cottons, plain calico and muslin (brown, bleached or dyed). Cloth printed with coloured patterns crafted by native techniques were exported to Java
Java
and the Far East. Golkonda
Golkonda
specialised in plain cotton and Pulicat
Pulicat
in printed. The main imports on the east coast were non-ferrous metals, camphor, porcelain, silk and luxury goods.[74] Culture[edit] Social life[edit]

Horizontal friezes in relief on the outer wall enclosure of Hazara Rama temple, depicting life in the kingdom

Most information on the social life in Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
empire comes from the writings of foreign visitors and evidence that research teams in the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
area have uncovered. The Hindu
Hindu
caste system was prevalent and rigidly followed, with each caste represented by a local body of elders who represented the community. These elders set the rules and regulations that were implemented with the help of royal decrees. Untouchability
Untouchability
was part of the caste system and these communities were represented by leaders (Kaivadadavaru). The Muslim communities were represented by their own group in coastal Karnataka.[75] The caste system did not, however, prevent distinguished persons from all castes from being promoted to high-ranking cadre in the army and administration. In civil life, by virtue of the caste system, Brahmins enjoyed a high level of respect. With the exception of a few who took to military careers, most Brahmins concentrated on religious and literary matters. Their separation from material wealth and power made them ideal arbiters in local judicial matters, and their presence in every town and village was a calculated investment made by the nobility and aristocracy to maintain order.[76] However, the popularity of low-caste scholars (such as Molla and Kanakadasa) and their works (including those of Vemana and Sarvajna) is an indication of the degree of social fluidity in the society.

Nāga
Nāga
(snake) stone worship at Hampi

Vijaynagar period temple plates at the Dharmeshwara Temple, Kondarahalli, Hoskote, recorded by BL Rice[77]

Sati, the practice where a widow would immolate herself with her dead husband's body, is evidenced in Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
ruins. About fifty inscriptions have been discovered in Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
which are called Satikal (Sati stone) or Sati-virakal (Sati hero stone).[78] According to Ashis Nandy, the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
practice was an example of an "epidemic" of sati practice just like Rajput kingdoms under attack by Mughal armies, attributing the practice to foreign intrusions from the persistent wars between Muslim
Muslim
sultanates and the Hindu
Hindu
kingdom, in contrast to others who question the evidence.[79] According to scholars such as John Hawley, "the evidence about the extent of the custom and about the classes that practiced it is far from clear, since most accounts come from Muslim
Muslim
chroniclers or European travelers" who did not have means and objectivity to report about the practice or its circumstances accurately.[79] The socio-religious movements of the previous centuries, such as Lingayatism, provided momentum for flexible social norms to which women were expected to abide. By this time South Indian women had crossed most barriers and were actively involved in matters hitherto considered the monopoly of men, such as administration, business and trade, and involvement in the fine arts.[80] Tirumalamba Devi who wrote Varadambika Parinayam and Gangadevi
Gangadevi
who wrote Madhuravijayam were among the notable women poets of the era.[25] Early Telugu women poets like Tallapaka Timmakka and Atukuri Molla became popular during this period. The court of the Nayaks of Tanjore
Nayaks of Tanjore
is known to have patronised several women poets. The Devadasi system
Devadasi system
existed, as well as legalised prostitution relegated to a few streets in each city.[81] The popularity of harems amongst men of the royalty is well known from records.

Painted ceiling from the Virupaksha temple depicting Hindu
Hindu
mythology, 14th century.

Well-to-do men wore the Petha or Kulavi, a tall turban made of silk and decorated with gold. As in most Indian societies, jewellery was used by men and women and records describe the use of anklets, bracelets, finger-rings, necklaces and ear rings of various types. During celebrations, men and women adorned themselves with flower garlands and used perfumes made of rose water, civet musk, musk or sandalwood.[82] In stark contrast to the commoners whose lives were modest, the lives of the empire's kings and queens were full of ceremonial pomp in the court. Queens and princesses had numerous attendants who were lavishly dressed and adorned with fine jewellery, their daily duties being light.[83] Physical exercises were popular with men and wrestling was an important male preoccupation for sport and entertainment. Even women wrestlers are mentioned in records.[75] Gymnasiums have been discovered inside royal quarters and records speak of regular physical training for commanders and their armies during peace time.[84] Royal palaces and market places had special arenas where royalty and common people alike amused themselves by watching matches such as cock fights, ram fights and wrestling between women.[84] Excavations within the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
city limits have revealed the existence of various types of community-based activities in the form of engravings on boulders, rock platforms and temple floors, implying these were places of casual social interaction. Some of these games are in use today and others are yet to be identified.[85] Religion[edit] Main article: Haridasas of Vijayanagar Empire

Virupaksha Temple, Hampi

Lakshmi Narasimha
Narasimha
( Avatar
Avatar
of Vishnu) at Hampi

Ornate pillars, Virupaksha temple Hampi

Wall panel relief in Hazare Rama Temple at Hampi

The Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
kings were tolerant of all religions and sects, as writings by foreign visitors show.[86] The kings used titles such as Gobrahamana Pratipalanacharya (literally, "protector of cows and Brahmins") and Hindurayasuratrana (lit, "upholder of Hindu
Hindu
faith") that testified to their intention of protecting Hinduism
Hinduism
and yet were at the same time staunchly Islamicate in their court ceremonials and dress, as Philip Wagoner points out in his 1996 article "Sultan Among Hindu
Hindu
Kings" published in the Journal of Asian Studies. The empire's founders, Harihara I and Bukka Raya I, were devout Shaivas (worshippers of Shiva), but made grants to the Vaishnava
Vaishnava
order of Sringeri
Sringeri
with Vidyaranya as their patron saint, and designated Varaha (the boar, an Avatar
Avatar
of Vishnu) as their emblem.[87] Over one-fourth of the archaeological dig found an " Islamic
Islamic
Quarter" not far from the "Royal Quarter". Nobles from Central Asia's Timurid kingdoms also came to Vijayanagara. The later Saluva and Tuluva
Tuluva
kings were Vaishnava
Vaishnava
by faith, but worshipped at the feet of Lord Virupaksha (Shiva) at Hampi as well as Lord Venkateshwara
Venkateshwara
(Vishnu) at Tirupati. A Sanskrit
Sanskrit
work, Jambavati Kalyanam by King Krishnadevaraya, called Lord Virupaksha Karnata Rajya Raksha Mani ("protective jewel of Karnata Empire").[88] The kings patronised the saints of the dvaita order (philosophy of dualism) of Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
at Udupi.[89] The Bhakti
Bhakti
(devotional) movement was active during this time, and involved well known Haridasas (devotee saints) of that time. Like the Virashaiva
Virashaiva
movement of the 12th century, this movement presented another strong current of devotion, pervading the lives of millions. The haridasas represented two groups, the Vyasakuta and Dasakuta, the former being required to be proficient in the Vedas, Upanishads
Upanishads
and other Darshanas, while the Dasakuta merely conveyed the message of Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
through the Kannada language
Kannada language
to the people in the form of devotional songs (Devaranamas and Kirthanas). The philosophy of Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
was spread by eminent disciples such as Naraharitirtha, Jayatirtha, Sripadaraya, Vyasatirtha, Vadirajatirtha
Vadirajatirtha
and others.[90] Vyasatirtha, the guru (teacher) of Vadirajatirtha, Purandaradasa (Father of Carnatic music[91][92]) and Kanakadasa[93] earned the devotion of King Krishnadevaraya.[94][95][96] The king considered the saint his Kuladevata (family deity) and honoured him in his writings.[97] During this time, another great composer of early carnatic music, Annamacharya
Annamacharya
composed hundreds of Kirthanas in Telugu at Tirupati in present-day Andhra Pradesh.[98] The defeat of the Jain
Jain
Western Ganga Dynasty
Western Ganga Dynasty
by the Cholas in the early 11th century and the rising numbers of followers of Vaishnava Hinduism
Hinduism
and Virashaivism in the 12th century was mirrored by a decreased interest in Jainism.[99] Two notable locations of Jain worship in the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
territory were Shravanabelagola
Shravanabelagola
and Kambadahalli. Islamic
Islamic
contact with South India
India
began as early as the 7th century, a result of trade between the Southern kingdoms and Arab
Arab
lands. Jumma Masjids existed in the Rashtrakuta empire by the 10th century[100] and many mosques flourished on the Malabar coast
Malabar coast
by the early 14th century.[101] Muslim
Muslim
settlers married local women; their children were known as Mappillas (Moplahs) and were actively involved in horse trading and manning shipping fleets. The interactions between the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
empire and the Bahamani Sultanates to the north increased the presence of Muslims in the south. The introduction of Christianity began as early as the 8th century as shown by the finding of copper plates inscribed with land grants to Malabar Christians. Christian travelers wrote of the scarcity of Christians in South India
India
in the Middle Ages, promoting its attractiveness to missionaries.[102] The arrival of the Portuguese in the 15th century and their connections through trade with the empire, the propagation of the faith by Saint Xavier (1545) and later the presence of Dutch settlements fostered the growth of Christianity
Christianity
in the south. Language[edit] Kannada, Telugu and Tamil were used in their respective regions of the empire. Over 7000 inscriptions (Shilashasana) including 300 copper plate inscriptions (Tamarashasana) have been recovered, almost half of which are in Kannada, the remaining in Telugu, Tamil and Sanskrit.[103][104][105] Bilingual inscriptions had lost favour by the 14th century.[106] The empire minted coins at Hampi, Penugonda and Tirupati with Nagari, Kannada and Telugu legends usually carrying the name of the ruler.[107][108] Gold, silver and copper were used to issue coins called Gadyana, Varaha, Pon, Pagoda, Pratapa, Pana, Kasu and Jital.[109] The coins contained the images of various gods including Balakrishna (infant Krishna), Venkateshwara
Venkateshwara
(the presiding deity of the temple at Tirupati), goddesses such as Bhudevi
Bhudevi
and Sridevi, divine couples, animals such as bulls and elephants and birds. The earliest coins feature Hanuman
Hanuman
and Garuda
Garuda
(divine eagle), the vehicle of Lord Vishnu. Kannada and Telugu inscriptions have been deciphered and recorded by historians of the Archaeological Survey of India.[110][111] Literature[edit] Main articles: Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
Empire Literature and Vijayanagara literature in Kannada During the rule of the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
Empire, poets, scholars and philosophers wrote primarily in Kannada, Telugu and Sanskrit, and also in other regional languages such as Tamil and covered such subjects as religion, biography, Prabandha (fiction), music, grammar, poetry, medicine and mathematics. The administrative and court languages of the Empire were Kannada and Telugu—the latter was the court language and gained even more cultural prominence during the reign of the last Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
kings.[112][113][114] Telugu was a popular literary medium, reaching its peak under the patronage of Krishnadevaraya.[113] Most Sanskrit
Sanskrit
works were commentaries either on the Vedas
Vedas
or on the Ramayana
Ramayana
and Mahabharata
Mahabharata
epics, written by well known figures such as Sayana and Vidyaranya that extolled the superiority of the Advaita philosophy over other rival Hindu
Hindu
philosophies.[115] Other writers were famous Dvaita
Dvaita
saints of the Udupi
Udupi
order such as Jayatirtha (earning the title Tikacharya for his polemicial writings), Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha
who wrote rebuttals to the Advaita
Advaita
philosophy and of the conclusions of earlier logicians, and Vadirajatirtha
Vadirajatirtha
and Sripadaraya both of whom criticised the beliefs of Adi Sankara.[96] Apart from these saints, noted Sanskrit
Sanskrit
scholars adorned the courts of the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
kings and their feudal chiefs. Some members of the royal family were writers of merit and authored important works such as Jambavati Kalyana by King Krishnadevaraya,[9] and Madura Vijayam
Madura Vijayam
by Princess Gangadevi, a daughter-in-law of King Bukka I. Also known as Veerakamparaya Charita, the book dwells on the conquest of the Madurai Sultanate by the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
empire.[116]

Poetic inscription in Kannada by Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
poet Manjaraja (1398 CE)

The Kannada poets and scholars of the empire produced important writings supporting the Vaishnava
Vaishnava
Bhakti
Bhakti
movement heralded by the Haridasas (devotees of Vishnu), Brahminical and Veerashaiva (Lingayatism) literature. The Haridasa
Haridasa
poets celebrated their devotion through songs called Devaranama (lyrical poems) in the native meters of Sangatya (quatrain), Suladi (beat based), Ugabhoga (melody based) and Mundige (cryptic).[117] Their inspirations were the teachings of Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
and Vyasatirtha. Purandaradasa
Purandaradasa
and Kanakadasa
Kanakadasa
are considered the foremost among many Dasas (devotees) by virtue of their immense contribution.[118] Kumara Vyasa, the most notable of Brahmin scholars wrote Gadugina Bharata, a translation of the epic Mahabharata. This work marks a transition of Kannada literature from old Kannada to modern Kannada.[119] Chamarasa was a famous Veerashaiva scholar and poet who had many debates with Vaishnava
Vaishnava
scholars in the court of Devaraya II. His Prabhulinga Leele, later translated into Telugu and Tamil, was a eulogy of Saint Allama Prabhu
Allama Prabhu
(the saint was considered an incarnation of Lord Ganapathi
Ganapathi
while Parvati
Parvati
took the form of a princess of Banavasi).[120][121] At this peak of Telugu literature, the most famous writing in the Prabandha style was Manucharitamu. King Krishnadevaraya
Krishnadevaraya
was an accomplished Telugu scholar and wrote the celebrated Amuktamalyada.[122] Amuktamalyada
Amuktamalyada
("One who wears and gives away garlands") narrates the story of the wedding of the god Vishnu
Vishnu
to Andal, the Tamil Alvar saint poet and the daughter of Periyalvar
Periyalvar
at Srirangam.[123][124][125] In his court were eight famous scholars regarded as the pillars (Ashtadiggajas) of the literary assembly. The most famous among them were Allasani Peddana who held the honorific Andhrakavitapitamaha (lit, "father of Telugu poetry") and Tenali Ramakrishna, the court jester who authored several notable works.[126] The other six poets were Nandi Thimmana (Mukku Timmana), Ayyalaraju Ramabhadra, Madayyagari Mallana, Bhattu Murthi (Ramaraja Bhushana), Pingali Surana, and Dhurjati. This was the age of Srinatha, the greatest of all Telugu poets of the time. He wrote books such as Marutratcharitamu and Salivahana-sapta-sati. He was patronised by King Devaraya II and enjoyed the same status as important ministers in the court.[127] Though much of the Tamil literature from this period came from Tamil speaking regions ruled by the feudatory Pandya who gave particular attention on the cultivation of Tamil literature, some poets were patronised by the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
kings. Svarupananda Desikar wrote an anthology of 2824 verses, Sivaprakasap-perundirattu, on the Advaita philosophy. His pupil the ascetic, Tattuvarayar, wrote a shorter anthology, Kurundirattu, that contained about half the number of verses. Krishnadevaraya
Krishnadevaraya
patronised the Tamil Vaishnava
Vaishnava
poet Haridasa whose Irusamaya Vilakkam was an exposition of the two Hindu
Hindu
systems, Vaishnava
Vaishnava
and Shaiva, with a preference for the former.[128] Notable among secular writings on music and medicine were Vidyaranya's Sangitsara, Praudha Raya's Ratiratnapradipika, Sayana's Ayurveda Sudhanidhi and Lakshmana Pandita's Vaidyarajavallabham.[129] The Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics flourished during this period under such well known scholars as Madhava (c. 1340–1425) who made important contributions to Trigonometery and Calculus, and Nilakantha Somayaji (c. 1444–1545) who postulated on the orbitals of planets.[130] Architecture[edit] Main articles: Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
Architecture, Vijayanagara, Hampi, and List of Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
era temples in Karnataka

Yali pillars in Aghoreshwara Temple at Ikkeri in Shimoga District

Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
architecture is a vibrant combination of the Chalukya, Hoysala, Pandya and Chola styles, idioms that prospered in previous centuries.[131][132] Its legacy of sculpture, architecture and painting influenced the development of the arts long after the empire came to an end. Its stylistic hallmark is the ornate pillared Kalyanamantapa (marriage hall), Vasanthamantapa (open pillared halls) and the Rayagopura (tower). Artisans used the locally available hard granite because of its durability since the kingdom was under constant threat of invasion. While the empire's monuments are spread over the whole of Southern India, nothing surpasses the vast open-air theatre of monuments at its capital at Vijayanagara, a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site.[133] In the 14th century the kings continued to build vesara or Deccan-style monuments but later incorporated Dravida-style gopuras to meet their ritualistic needs. The Prasanna Virupaksha temple (underground temple) of Bukka and the Hazare Rama temple of Deva Raya are examples of Deccan architecture.[134] The varied and intricate ornamentation of the pillars is a mark of their work.[135] At Hampi, though the Vitthala temple is the best example of their pillared Kalyanamantapa style, the Hazara Ramaswamy temple is a modest but perfectly finished example.[136] A visible aspect of their style is their return to the simplistic and serene art developed by the Chalukya dynasty.[137] A grand specimen of Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
art, the Vitthala temple, took several decades to complete during the reign of the Tuluva
Tuluva
kings.[138]

Market place at Hampi
Hampi
and the sacred tank located near the Krishna temple.

Stone temple car in the Vitthala Temple at Hampi

Another element of the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
style is the carving and consecration of large monoliths such as the Sasivekaalu (mustard) Ganesha
Ganesha
and Kadalekaalu (ground nut) Ganesha
Ganesha
at Hampi, the Gommateshwara
Gommateshwara
(Bahubali) monoliths in Karkala
Karkala
and Venur, and the Nandi bull in Lepakshi. The Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
temples of Kolar, Kanakagiri, Sringeri
Sringeri
and other towns of Karnataka; the temples of Tadpatri, Lepakshi, Ahobilam, Tirumala Venkateswara Temple
Tirumala Venkateswara Temple
and Srikalahasti
Srikalahasti
in Andhra Pradesh; and the temples of Vellore, Kumbakonam, Kanchi
Kanchi
and Srirangam
Srirangam
in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
are examples of this style. Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
art includes wall-paintings such as the Dashavatara
Dashavatara
and Girijakalyana (marriage of Parvati, Shiva's consort) in the Virupaksha Temple at Hampi, the Shivapurana murals (tales of Shiva) at the Virabhadra temple at Lepakshi, and those at the Kamaakshi and Varadaraja temples at Kanchi.[139] This mingling of the South Indian styles resulted in a richness not seen in earlier centuries, a focus on reliefs in addition to sculpture that surpasses that previously in India.[140] An aspect of Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
architecture that shows the cosmopolitanism of the great city is the presence of many secular structures bearing Islamic
Islamic
features. While political history concentrates on the ongoing conflict between the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
empire and the Deccan Sultanates, the architectural record reflects a more creative interaction. There are many arches, domes and vaults that show these influences. The concentration of structures like pavilions, stables and towers suggests they were for use by royalty.[141] The decorative details of these structures may have been absorbed into Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
architecture during the early 15th century, coinciding with the rule of Deva Raya
Deva Raya
I and Deva Raya
Deva Raya
II. These kings are known to have employed many Muslims in their army and court, some of whom may have been Muslim
Muslim
architects. This harmonious exchange of architectural ideas must have happened during rare periods of peace between the Hindu
Hindu
and Muslim kingdoms.[142] The "Great Platform" (Mahanavami Dibba) has relief carvings in which the figures seem to have the facial features of central Asian Turks who were known to have been employed as royal attendants.[143] See also[edit]

India
India
portal

Hampi History of India History of South India Karnataka Military of Vijayanagara Political history of medieval Karnataka Andhra Pradesh List of Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
era temples in Karnataka

Notes[edit]

^ Bridges, Elizabeth J. (2016). " Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
Empire". In Dalziel, N.; MacKenzie, J. M. The Encyclopedia of Empire. pp. 1–5. doi:10.1002/9781118455074.wbeoe424.  ^ Stein 1989, p. 1. ^ By James Mansel Longworth page 204 ^ edited by J C morris page 261 ^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 103–106. ISBN 978-93-80607-34-4.  ^ "Master Plan for Hampi
Hampi
Local Planning Area" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 April 2013.  ^ K.V.Ramesh. "Telugu Inscriptions from Vijayanagar Dynasty, vol16, Introduction". Archaeological Survey of India. What Is India Publishers (P) Ltd., Saturday, December 30, 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-31.  ^ Nilakanta Sastri 1955, p. 268 ^ a b New Light on Hampi, Recent research in Vijayanagara, edited by John M. Fritz and George Michell, MARG, 2001, p14 ^ Historians such as P. B. Desai (History of Vijayanagar Empire, 1936), Henry Heras (The Aravidu Dynasty of Vijayanagara, 1927), B.A. Saletore (Social and Political Life in the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
Empire, 1930), G.S. Gai (Archaeological Survey of India), William Coelho (The Hoysala Vamsa, 1955) and Kamath (Kamath 2001, pp157–160) ^ Karmarkar (1947), p30 ^ Kulke and Rothermund (2004), p188 ^ Rice (1897), p345 ^ Robert Sewell (A Forgotten Empire Vijayanagar: A Contribution to the History of India, 1901), Nilakanta Sastri 1955, N. Ventakaramanayya (The Early Muslim
Muslim
expansion in South India, 1942) and B. Surya Narayana Rao (History of Vijayanagar, 1993) in Kamath (2001) pp157–160. ^ a b Nilakanta Sastri 1955, p. 216 ^ Kamath 2001, p. 160 ^ Portuguese travelers Barbosa, Barradas and Italian Varthema and Caesar Fredericci in 1567, Persian Abdur Razzak in 1440, Barani, Isamy, Tabataba, Nizamuddin Bakshi, Ferishta and Shirazi and vernacular works from the 14th century to the 16th century. (Kamath 2001, pp157–158) ^ Fritz & Michell (2001) pp1–11 ^ VA Smith. The Oxford History of India. Clarendon: Oxford University Press. pp. 275–298.  ^ a b Burton Stein (1989). The New Cambridge History of India: Vijayanagara. Cambridge University Press. pp. 18–19. ISBN 978-0-521-26693-2.  ^ a b David Gilmartin; Bruce B. Lawrence (2000). Beyond Turk and Hindu: Rethinking Religious Identities in Islamicate South Asia. University Press of Florida. pp. 300–306, 321–322. ISBN 978-0-8130-3099-9.  ^ a b Cynthia Talbot (2001). Precolonial India
India
in Practice: Society, Region, and Identity in Medieval Andhra. Oxford University Press. pp. 281–282. ISBN 978-0-19-803123-9.  ^ a b Mary Storm (2015). Head and Heart: Valour and Self-Sacrifice in the Art of India. Taylor & Francis. p. 311. ISBN 978-1-317-32556-7.  ^ Kanhaiya L Srivastava (1980). The position of Hindus under the Delhi Sultanate, 1206-1526. Munshiram Manoharlal. p. 202.  ^ a b Kamath (2001), p162 ^ Nilakanta Sastri 1955, p. 317 ^ VA Smith. The Oxford History of India. Clarendon: Oxford University Press. pp. 299–302.  ^ The success was probably also due to the peaceful nature of Muhammad II Bahmani, according to Nilakanta Sastri 1955, p. 242 ^ From the notes of Portuguese Nuniz. Robert Sewell notes that a big dam across was built the Tungabhadra
Tungabhadra
and an aqueduct 15 miles (24 km) long was cut out of rock (Nilakanta Sastri 1955, p. 243). ^ Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture, John Stewart Bowman p.271, (2013), Columbia University Press, New York, ISBN 0-231-11004-9 ^ Also deciphered as Gajaventekara, a metaphor for "great hunter of his enemies", or "hunter of elephants" (Kamath 2001, p163). ^ Nilakanta Sastri 1955, p. 244 ^ From the notes of Persian Abdur Razzak. Writings of Nuniz confirms that the kings of Burma
Burma
paid tributes to Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
empire Nilakanta Sastri 1955, p. 245 ^ Kamath (2001), p164 ^ From the notes of Abdur Razzak about Vijayanagara: a city like this had not been seen by the pupil of the eye nor had an ear heard of anything equal to it in the world (Hampi, A Travel Guide 2003, p11) ^ Eaton 2006, pp. 89-90 with footnote 28. ^ Eaton 2006, pp. 86-87. ^ Nilakanta Sastri 1955, p. 250 ^ Eaton 2006, pp. 87-88. ^ Nilakanta Sastri 1955, p. 239 ^ Kamath (2001), p159 ^ From the notes of Portuguese traveler Domingo Paes about Krishna Deva Raya: A king who was perfect in all things (Hampi, A Travel Guide 2003, p31) ^ Eaton 2006, pp. 88-89. ^ The notes of Portuguese Barbosa during the time of Krishna Deva Raya confirms a very rich and well provided Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
city (Kamath 2001, p186) ^ Most monuments including the royal platform (Mahanavami Dibba) were actually built over a period spanning several decades (Dallapiccola 2001, p66) ^ Eaton 2006, p. 79, Quote: "Rama Raya first appears in recorded history in 1512, when Sultan Quli Qutb al-Mulk enrolled this Telugu warrior as a military commander and holder of a land assignment in the newly emerged sultanate of Golkonda.". ^ Eaton 2006, p. 92. ^ Eaton 2006, pp. 93-101. ^ Eaton 2006, pp. 96-98. ^ Hermann Kulke; Dietmar Rothermund (2004). A History of India. Routledge. p. 191. ISBN 978-0-415-32920-0. , Quote: "When battle was joined in January 1565, it seemed to be turning in favor of Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
- suddenly, however, two Muslim
Muslim
generals of Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
changes sides. Rama Raya was taken prisoner and immediately beheaded." ^ Eaton 2006, pp. 98, Quote: "Husain (...) ordered him beheaded on the spot, and his head stuffed with straw (for display).". ^ Eaton 2006, pp. 98-101. ^ Eaton 2006, pp. 100-101. ^ Kamath (2001), p174 ^ Vijaya Ramaswamy (2007). Historical Dictionary of the Tamils. Scarecrow Press. pp. Li–Lii. ISBN 978-0-8108-6445-0.  ^ Eaton 2006, pp. 101-115. ^ Kamath (2001), p220, p226, p234 ^ A war administration, (K.M. Panikkar in Kamath 2001, p174) ^ From the notes of Persian Abdur Razzak and research by B.A. Saletore (Kamath 2001, p175) ^ From the notes of Nuniz (Kamath 2001, p175) ^ Nilakanta Sastri 1955, p. 286 ^ From the notes of Duarte Barbosa (Kamath 2001, p176). However, the kingdom may have had nine provinces ( T. V. Mahalingam in Kamath 2001, p176) ^ Nilakanta Sastri 1955, p. 287 ^ From the notes of Abdur Razzaq and Paes respectively (Kamath 2001, p176) ^ From the notes of Nuniz Nilakanta Sastri 1955, p. 288) ^ Davison-Jenkins (2001), p89 ^ From the notes of Domingo Paes and Nuniz (Davison-Jenkins 2001, p98) ^ Davison-Jenkins (2001), p90 ^ From the notes of Duarte Barbosa (Kamath 2001, p181). ^ From the notes of Abdur Razzak in Nilakanta Sastri 1955, p. 298 ^ From the notes of Abdur Razzak in Nilakanta Sastri 1955, p. 299 ^ a b c From the notes of Abdur Razzak in Nilakanta Sastri 1955, p. 304 ^ Nilakanta Sastri 1955, p. 305 ^ Nilakanta Sastri 1955, p. 306 ^ a b Kamath (2001), p179 ^ According to Sir Charles Elliot, the intellectual superiority of Brahmins justified their high position in society (Nilakanta Sastri 1955, p. 289) ^ Rice, Benjamin Lewis (1894). Epigraphia Carnatica: Volume IX: Inscriptions in the Bangalore District. Mysore State, British India: Mysore Department of Archaeology. Retrieved 5 August 2015.  ^ Verghese (2001), p 41 ^ a b John Stratton Hawley (1994). Sati, the Blessing and the Curse: The Burning of Wives in India. Oxford University Press. pp. 150–151. ISBN 978-0-19-536022-6.  ^ B.A. Saletore
B.A. Saletore
in Kamath (2001), p179 ^ Kamath, p180 ^ Kamath (2001), p. 180 ^ From the writings of Portuguese Domingo Paes (Nilakanta Sastri 1955, p. 296) ^ a b Nilakanta Sastri 1955, p. 296 ^ Mack (2001), p39 ^ From the notes of Duarte Barbosa (Kamath 2001, p. 178) ^ Kamath (2001), p. 177 ^ Fritz & Michell, p. 14 ^ Kamath (2001), p. 177–178 ^ Shiva
Shiva
Prakash in Ayyappapanicker (1997), p192, pp194–196 ^ Iyer (2006), p93 ^ Owing to his contributions to carnatic music, Purandaradasa
Purandaradasa
is known as Karnataka
Karnataka
Sangita Pitamaha. (Kamat, Saint Purandaradasa) ^ Shiva
Shiva
Prakash (1997), p196 ^ Shiva
Shiva
Prakash (1997), p195 ^ Kamath (2001), p178 ^ a b Nilakanta Sastri 1955, p. 324 ^ Pujar, Narahari S.; Shrisha Rao; H.P. Raghunandan. "Sri Vyasa Tirtha". Dvaita
Dvaita
Home Page. Retrieved 2006-12-31.  ^ Kamath (2001), p185 ^ Kamath (2001), pp.112, 132 ^ From the notes of Arab
Arab
writer Al-Ishtakhri (Nilakanta Sastri 1955, p. 396) ^ From the notes of Ibn Batuta (Nilakanta Sastri 1955, p. 396) ^ From the notes of Jordanus in 1320–21 (Nilakanta Sastri 1955, p. 397) ^ G.S. Gai in Kamath (2001), p10, 157. ^ Arthikaje, Mangalore. "The Vijayanagar Empire". 1998–2000 OurKarnataka.Com, Inc. Retrieved 2006-12-31.  ^ Subbarayalu, Y; Rajavelu, S, eds. (2015). Inscriptions of the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
Rulers: Volume V, Part 1 (Tamil Inscriptions). New Delhi: Indian Council of Historical Research. ISBN 938060775X.  ^ Thapar (2003), pp 393–95 ^ " Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
Coins". Government Museum Chennai. Retrieved 2006-12-31.  ^ Prabhu, Govindaraya S. "Catalogue, Part one". Vijayanagara, the forgotten empire. Prabhu's Web Page On Indian Coinage. Retrieved 2006-12-31.  ^ Harihariah Oruganti. "Coinage". Catalogue. Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
Coins. Archived from the original on 30 December 2006. Retrieved 31 December 2006.  ^ Ramesh, K. V. "Stones 1–25". South Indian Inscription, Volume 16: Telugu Inscriptions from Vijayanagar Dynasty. New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India. Retrieved 2006-12-31.  ^ Sastry & Rao, Shama & Lakshminarayan. "Miscellaneous Inscriptions, Part II". South Indian Inscription, Volume 9: Kannada Inscriptions from Madras Presidency. New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India. Retrieved 2006-12-31.  ^ Pollock, Sheldon. Retrieved 2013-07-23. Quote:"Telugu had certainly been more privileged than Kannada as a language of courtly culture during the reign of the last Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
kings, especially Krsnadevaraya (d.1529) , Nagaraj in Pollock (2003), p378 ^ a b Quote:"Royal patronage was also directed to the support of literature in several languages: Sanskrit
Sanskrit
(the pan-Indian literary language), Kannada (the language of the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
home base in Karnataka), and Telugu (the language of Andhra). Works in all three languages were produced by poets assembled at the courts of the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
kings". Quote:"The Telugu language
Telugu language
became particularly prominent in the ruling circles by the early 16th century, because of the large number of warrior lords who were either from Andhra or had served the kingdom there", Asher and Talbot (2006), pp 74–75 ^ "Telugu Literature". Retrieved 2013-07-19. Telugu literature flowered in the early 16th century under the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
empire, of which Telugu was the court language.   ^ Nilakanta Sastri 1955, p. 321 ^ Devi, Ganga (1924). Sastri, G Harihara; Sastri, V Srinivasa, eds. Madhura Vijaya (or Veerakamparaya Charita): An Historical Kavya. Trivandrum, British India: Sridhara Power Press. Retrieved 21 June 2016.  ^ Shiva
Shiva
Prakash in Ayyappapanicker (1997), p164, pp 193–194, p203 ^ Nilakanta Sastri 1955, p. 365 ^ Nilakanta Sastri 1955, p. 364 ^ Nilakanta Sastri 1955, p. 363 ^ Rice E.P. (1921), p.68 ^ During the rule of Krishnadevaraya, encouragement was given to the creation of original Prabandhas (stories) from Puranic
Puranic
themes (Nilakanta Sastri 1955, p. 372) ^ Rao, Pappu Venugopala (22 June 2010). "A masterpiece in Telugu literature" (Chennai). The Hindu. Retrieved 9 June 2016.  ^ Krishnadevaraya
Krishnadevaraya
(2010). Reddy, Srinivas, ed. Giver of the Worn Garland: Krishnadevaraya's Amuktamalyada. Penguin UK. ISBN 8184753055. Retrieved 9 June 2016.  ^ Krishnadevaraya
Krishnadevaraya
(1907). Amuktamalyada. London: Telugu Collection for the British Library. Retrieved 9 June 2016.  ^ Like the nine gems of King Vikramaditya's court, the Ashtadiggajas were famous during the 16th century.(Nilakanta Sastri 1955, p. 372) ^ Nilakanta Sastri 1955, p. 370 ^ Nilakanta Sastri 1955, p. 347 ^ Prasad (1988), pp.268–270 ^ "History of Science and Philosophy of Science: A Historical Perspective of the Evolution of Ideas in Science", editor: Pradip Kumar Sengupta, author: Subhash Kak, 2010, p91, vol XIII, part 6, Publisher: Pearson Longman, ISBN 978-81-317-1930-5 ^ Art critic Percy Brown calls Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
architecture a blossoming of Dravidian style (Kamath 2001, p182) ^ Arthikaje, Literary Activity, Art and Architecture, History of karnataka. OurKarnataka.Com ^ "So intimate are the rocks and the monuments they were used for make, it was sometimes impossible to say where nature ended and art began" (Art critic Percy Brown, quoted in Hampi, A Travel Guide, p64) ^ Fritz & Michell, p9 ^ Nilakanta Sastri about the importance of pillars in the Vijayanagar style in Kamath (2001), p183 ^ "Drama in stone" wrote art critic Percy Brown, much of the beauty of Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
architecture came from their pillars and piers and the styles of sculpting (Hampi, A Travel Guide, p77) ^ About the sculptures in Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
style, see Kamath (2001), p184 ^ Several monuments are categorised as Tuluva
Tuluva
art (Fritz & Michell 2001, p9) ^ Some of these paintings may have been redone in later centuries (Rajashekhar in Kamath 2001, p184) ^ Historians and art critics K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, A. L. Basham, James Fergusson and S. K. Saraswathi have commented about Vijayanagara architecture (Arthikaje Literary Activity). ^ Fritz & Michell (2001), p10 ^ Philon (2001), p87 ^ Dallapiccola (2001), p69

References[edit]

Arthikaje. "Literary Activity, Art and Architecture". History of karnataka. OurKarnataka.Com. Archived from the original on 12 October 2008. Retrieved 2006-12-31.  Dallapiccola, Anna L. (2001). " Relief
Relief
carvings on the great platform". In John M. Fritz and George Michell (editors). New Light on Hampi: Recent Research at Vijayanagara. Mumbai: MARG. ISBN 81-85026-53-X. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link) Davison-Jenkins, Dominic J. (2001). "Hydraulic works". In John M. Fritz and George Michell (editors). New Light on Hampi: Recent Research at Vijayanagara. Mumbai: MARG. ISBN 81-85026-53-X. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link) Durga Prasad, J. (1988). History of the Andhras up to 1565 A. D. (PDF). Guntur: P.G. Publisher. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 April 2006. Retrieved 2007-01-27.  Eaton, Richard M. (2006). A social history of the Deccan, 1300–1761: eight Indian lives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-71627-7.  Hampi
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Further reading[edit]

Bang, Peter Fibiger; Kolodziejczyk, Dariusz, eds. (2012). "Ideologies of state building in Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
India". Universal Empire: A Comparative Approach to Imperial Culture and Representation in Eurasian History. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-02267-6.  Stein, Burton (1989). The New Cambridge History of India: Vijayanagara. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-26693-2. 

External links[edit]

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– History and Tourism www.Hampi.in – Photos, descriptions & maps of the Hampi
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Ruins. Archaeos Mapping Project at Vijayanagara
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– Seasons 2–3 Archaeos Mapping Project at Vijayanagara
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– Seasons 1–4 Summary Coins of Vijayanagar Indian Inscriptions - Archaeological Survey Of India Hazararama Temple Photographs, 2013 Mahanavami Dibba Photographs, 2013

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