VIJAYA NAGARA ("City of Victory") was the capital city of the historic Vijayanagara Empire which extended over South India . The city's ruins, surrounding the modern-day village of Hampi , are in Ballari district , Karnataka .
* 1 Location * 2 The City
* 3 History
* 3.1 Destruction by the Deccan Sultanate
* 4 The Sacred Centre
* 5 The Royal Centre
* 5.1 Ramachandra Temple * 5.2 Underground Shiva Temple * 5.3 Lotus Mahal * 5.4 Pushkarani * 5.5 Elephant stables
* 6 Other areas * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Notes * 10 External links
Most of the city lies on the south bank of the Tungabhadra River . The city was built around the religious center of the Virupaksha temple complex at Hampi . Other holy places lie within its environs, including the site that legend calls as Kishkindha , which includes the historically important Hanuman temple (the cave home of Anjana , Kesari and Shabari) and a holy pond called the _Pampasarovar_. It is known to house the cave home of Sugriva , the monkey king in the Hindu epic Ramayana .
The city at its greatest extent was considerably larger than the area described here; an account is given at the article on the Vijayanagara metropolitan area . The central areas of the city, which include what are now called the Royal Centre and the Sacred Centre, extend over an area of at least 40 km². It includes the modern village of Hampi . Another village, Kamalapura , lies just outside the old walled city, surrounded by ruins and monuments. The nearest town and railway is in Hospet , about 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) by road. Hosapete lies within the original extents of the old city, though most of the items of interest are walking distance of Hampi and Kamalapura.
The natural setting for the city is a hilly landscape, dotted with granite boulders. The Tungabhadra river runs through it and provides protection from the north. Beyond the hills, on the south bank on which the city was built, a plain extended further the south. Large walls and fortifications of hewn granite defended the centre of the city.
"Ancient City of Beejnuggur: Ruins near Camalapore", photo circa 1865-1871
The name translates as "City of Victory", from _vijaya_ (victory) and _nagara_ (city). As the prosperous capital of the largest and most powerful kingdom of its time in all of India, Vijayanagara attracted people from all around the world.
After Timur's sack of Delhi, North India remained weak and divided up. South India was better off, and the largest and most powerful of the southern kingdoms was Vijayanagar. This state and city attracted many of the Hindu refugees from the north. From contemporary accounts, it appears that the city was rich and very beautiful—The city is such that eye has not seen nor ear heard of any place resembling it upon earth", says Abdur-Razzak from Central Asia. There were arcades and magnificent galleries for the bazaars, and rising above them all was the palace of the king surrounded by "many rivulets and streams flowing through channels of cut stone, polished and even." The whole city was full of gardens, and because of them, as an Italian visitor in 1420, Nicolo Conti writes, the circumference of the city was sixty miles. A later visitor was Paes , a Portuguese who came in 1522 after having visited the Italian cities of the Renaissance. The city of Vijayanagar, he says, is as "large as Rome and very beautiful to the sight"; it is full of charm and wonder with its innumerable lakes and waterways and fruit gardens. It is "the best-provided city in the world" and "everything abounds." The chambers of the palace were a mass of ivory, with roses and lotuses carved in ivory at the top--"it is so rich and beautiful that you would hardly find anywhere, another such. — Jawaharlal Nehru , _The Discovery of India_
The ruined city is a World Heritage Site , known in that context as the Ruins of Hampi. In recent years there have been concerns regarding damage to the site at Hampi from heavy vehicular traffic and the construction of road bridges in the vicinity. Hampi is now listed as a "threatened" World Heritage Site.
Part of a series on the
HISTORY OF KARNATAKA
* Political history of medieval Karnataka * Origin of Karnataka\'s name * Kadambas and Gangas * Chalukya Empire * Rashtrakuta Empire * Western Chalukya Empire * Southern Kalachuri * Hoysala Empire * Vijayanagara Empire * Bahmani Sultanate * Bijapur Sultanate * Kingdom of Mysore * Nayakas of Keladi * Nayakas of Chitradurga * Haleri Kingdom * Unification of Karnataka
* Architecture * Forts
* Economies * Societies
* v * t * e
The Vijayanagara empire was founded by (Harihara) and Bukka , also called the Sangama brothers. The empire consolidated under Harihara I and began to expand and prosper under Bukka Raya. Some time after its original establishment the capital was established at the more defensible and secure location of Vijayanagara on the south side of the river.
Contemporary descriptions depict a very large and highly developed metropolitan area: recent commentators say, "_The massive walls, which can still be traced, enclosed an area of more than sixty square miles, much of which was occupied by fields and gardens watered by canals from the river. The population cannot be estimated with precision, but it was certainly very large when judged by the standards of the fifteenth century. The great majority of the houses were naturally small and undistinguished, but among them were scattered palaces, temples, public buildings, wide streets of shops shaded by trees, busy markets, and all the equipment of a great and wealthy city. The principal buildings were constructed in the regular Hindu style, covered with ornamental carving, and the fragments which have survived suffice to give point to the enthusiastic admiration of the men who saw the city in the days of its magnificence._"
DESTRUCTION BY THE DECCAN SULTANATE
The city flourished between the 14th century and 16th century, during the height of the power of the Vijayanagar empire. During this time, the empire was often in conflict with the neighbouring Muslim kingdoms, collectively termed the Deccan sultanates , which had become established in the northern Deccan . In 1565, at the Battle of Talikota , the empire's armies suffered a massive and catastrophic defeat by an alliance of the sultanates. The Deccan armies subsequently captured Vijayanagara, plundered the city, destroyed many Hindu holy sites and massacred more than 100,000 Hindus. The empire continued to exist but suffered a slow decline, and Vijayanagara was never reoccupied or rebuilt.
THE SACRED CENTRE
This title has been given by historians to the areas extending from Hampi village to Matanga Hill to its east. It is sometimes extended further northeast to the Vitthala Temple. It consists of a hilly region immediately to the south of the Tungabhadra.
This surviving temple and temple complex is the core of the village of Hampi . Also known as the Pampapati temple, it predated the empire, and was extended between the 13th and 17th centuries. It has two courts with _gopurams_ (entrance towers). The main entrance with a 50-meter (160-feet) gopuram faces east into a ceremonial and colonnaded street, that extends for about 1 km (0.62 mi) to a monolithic statue of Nandi .
Another _gopuram_ towards north known as the Kanakagiri _gopura_, leads to a small enclosure with subsidiary shrines and eventually to the river Tungabhadra . The smaller inner _gopura_ and the beautiful _mandapa_ (an open pillared hall or pavillion) were dedicated to the temple by king Krishnadevaraya on his coronation in 1510 CE, making them over 500 years old.
The temple is still in use now. It is dedicated to Virupaksha, an aspect of Shiva and his consort Pampa, a local deity.
The hill is situated to the south of Hampi village. It bears several small temples that predate the construction of Vijayanagara as the capital of the empire, some being as early as the 10th century. The hill was fortified when the main city was constructed, and a number of more recent temples, tanks , entrances, and gopurams exist on the hill, some of which were never completed. Krishna Temple
This is a partly ruined temple, south of Hampi and Hemakuta hill. It was built by the emperor Krishnadevaraya after military campaigns in Odisha . The temple is contained in twin enclosures. Parts of the temple's _gopurams_ have collapsed. There is now no image in the inner sanctuary.
There is a _halegannada _ (old Kannada) stone inscription by Krishnadevaraya dating to 1513 CE in the premises just before the temple. This temple was abandoned since the fall of Vijayanagara and there is no active worship today.
Also to the south of Hampi is this massive rock cut idol of Narasimha , the fierce aspect of Vishnu , 6.7 m high. Originally the idol bore a smaller image of Lakshmi on one knee; this had fallen off, probably due to vandalism. The Lakshmi statue is now in the museum at Kamalapuram. Monolithic Narasimha
Narasimha is depicted seated on the coils of Shesha . Shesha is shown here in a form with seven heads, the heads arching over Narasimha to form a canopy. The statue has been restored sometime after 1984, which is evident from John Gollings’ photograph of the statue taken in around 1984. The granite strap binding between his knees is a recent addition to stabilise it.
The donation of this work is ascribed to either Krishnadeva Raya, or to a wealthy merchant during his reign.
This is a natural cave, said to be the original home of the ape king Sugriva , where Rama is said to have met him and Hanuman on his journey . The cave is marked by coloured markings, and the attentions of pilgrims.
This is situated to the east of Hampi, near the end of the colonnaded street that leads out from the Virupaksha temple. It is in the sacred centre of the city, and by a narrow point of the Tungabhadra river . This temple marks the spot where Rama crowned Sugriva . The temple is still in use, and the garbha griha contains statues of Rama, Lakshmana and Sita all carved out a single boulder. Stone chariot in Vittala temple compound
Situated northeast of Hampi, opposite the village of Anegondi, this is one of the principal monuments of the city. It is dedicated to Vittala , an aspect of Vishnu worshipped in the Maratha country. It is believed to date from the 16th century.
In front of the temple is the world-famous stone chariot or _ratha _. This is one of the three famous stone chariots in India, the other two being in Konark and Mahabalipuram . The wheels of the ratha can be rotated but the government cemented them to avoid the damage caused by the visitors.
One of the notable features of the Vittala Temple is the musical pillars. Each of the pillars that support the roof of the main temple is supported by a pillar representing a musical instrument, and is constructed as 7 minor pillars arranged around a main pillar. These 7 pillars, when struck, emanate the 7 notes from the representative instrument, varying in sound quality based on whether it represents a wind, string or percussion instrument.
The British wanted to check the reason behind this wonder and so they had cut two pillars to check anything was there inside the pillars that was producing the sound. They had found nothing but hollow pillars.Even today we can see those pillars cut by the British.
The road leading to the temple was once a market where the horses were traded. Even today we can see the ruins of the market on both the sides of the road. The temple contains the images of foreigners like Persians selling horses.
The temple is the venue of the annual _Purandaradasa_ festival.
THE KING\'S BALANCE
This structure, the _Tulapurushandana_, stands to the southwest of the Vittala temple. consists of two carved granite pillars, spanned by a carved horizontal granite transom. This was used on ceremonial days, when scales were hung from the transom, and the _Raya_ (the emperor) was ceremonially weighed against gold or jewels. The treasure was then distributed, to Brahmins or others in the city. The King's Balance,
THE ROYAL CENTRE
This extensive area consists of a small plateau, which starts about 2 km (1.2 mi) to the southeast of Hampi , and extends southeast, almost to the village of Kamalapuram . It is separated from the Sacred Centre by a small valley, now consisting of agricultural fields, and which carries irrigation canals or streams that join the river opposite Anegondi. A granite platform overlooks the Royal Centre. The Royal Centre contains the ruins of palaces, administrative buildings, and some temples directly associated with royalty. Little remains of the palaces except the foundations, as they were largely timber structures, for comfort. The temples and some of the other stone structures survive however, as do many of the surrounding city walls.
An aqueduct runs through much of the Royal Enclosure and into the Great Tank where water was brought for special events. The west end of the tank is overlooked by a platform shrine. The aqueduct also runs into the large stepped tank , lined in green diorite, with a geometric design that has not required restoration. Thousand Shiva Lingas
The temple stands in a rectangular courtyard, with entrances facing to the east. Reliefs showing daily life and festival scenes occur on the outer walls of the courtyard. Scenes from the Ramayana occur on the inner courtyard walls, and on the temple itself. There is a well-relief of baby Krishna on the walls.
There are two ornate entranceways, or entrance porches to the temple courtyard, a larger main entranceway towards east and a smaller side entranceway towards north. A small doorway in the south side of the enclosure wall leads to the Royal enclosures.
The temple may have been exclusively for royal use. It is believed to be constructed at the site of Vaali's killing in the hands of Rama. It may have been a private shrine for royalty. It is unusual in that it has four black basalt columns in the _mantapa _ (columned hall). The inner sanctuary of the temple is now empty.
This is also known as the Hazara Rama temple (temple of a thousand Ramas), due to the recurrence of images of Rama on the walls. Sometimes it is called the Hajara Rama temple (the Rama temple in the courtyard).
UNDERGROUND SHIVA TEMPLE
The temple has a] with an antarala and Aradhamantapa and a Mahamantapa. The mahamantapa has pillared corridors that fuse with the pillared Mukhamantapa, making a larger pillared frontal Mantapa which also encloses a Dwajasthamba. The pillars of this temple are plain.
An inscription referring to this temple states that Krishnadevaraya donated Nagalapura and other villages for worship and offerings to the Gods for the merit of his parents Narsa Nayaka and Nagaji Devi.
At times the base of the temple is flooded and may be inaccessible. When it is accessible, masses of small bats may be found in the temple. Lotus Palace
Panorama of Lotus Mahal and compound.
Lotus Mahal, also known as Kamal Mahal or Chitrangini Mahal is situated in the Zenana Enclosure of the monuments. It is a ticketed monument and a single ticket would let you into the Zenana Enclosure covering several monuments including Elephant Stables. The term Zenana refers to the Women and Zenana Enclosure in general would refer to the Queens’ enclosure along with the servants’ quarters around and private temples.
Lotus Mahal is a two storied very symmetric structure exhibiting a fine example of Indo-Islamic architecture. The base of the structure depicts a Hindu foundation of stone just like in the temples, typical of Vijayanagara Architecture while the upper superstructure is Islamic in architecture with pyramidal towers instead of regular dome shapes, giving it a Lotus-like look, originating in the name. Also, this is one of the very few buildings that have the plaster intact though it is defaced at several places due to wear and tear, especially; the dampness on the walls is very visible. The exemplary carvings on the pillar arches including those of birds and delicate art work can be very mesmerizing, especially with the Makara Torana on top of these arches that can still be seen on some of them.
It is also believed that the Mahal or Palace was air-cooled and maintained its temperature during summer. The proof of this can be seen in the pipeline work above and between the arches.
The entire monument is surrounded by a fortifying wall which is rectangular in plan. The four corners of the fortifications have watch towers that would have been used to keep an eye on the intruders into the Women's chambers. While it was a very popular practice to have Eunuchs hold guards at Queens’ Palaces in the North India, especially during Moghul rule, the existence of such a practice has not come to light in the Vijayanagara kingdom and era.
How to Reach There: The Lotus Mahal is situated in the Zenana Enclosure of the Royal Center and could be reached from Hazara Rama Temple.
Also called the Stepped Bath, or the Queen's bath, this is a stepped well designed for bathing. Such sunken wells were created to provide relief from daytime heat. It would have been covered when the city was occupied. Elephant Stables
A set of large stables, to house the ceremonial elephants of the royal household. The area in front of them was a parade ground for the elephants, and for troops. This is another structure that shows Islamic influence in its domes and arched gateways. The guards' barracks are located right next to the elephant stables.
Other monuments and places of interest can be found outside of the above two major centers.
A number of modern populated towns and villages lie within the extents of the original city. These include;
* Anegundi , probably the earliest settlement in the area, on the north side of the Tungabhadra River . * Hampi , the village lies in the middle of the ruins. * Hospet , a town and railhead, to the southwest. * Kamalapura , a small temple town to the southeast of the Royal Centre, also houses an archaeological museum.
* India portal
* Vijayanagara kaalada Sainyavyavasthe matthu Yuddhanithi, Dr.S.Y.Somashekhar, 2009, Sanchike Prakashana, Kannada University, Hampi, Vidyaranya, 583 276, Bellary Dist. * Karnatakada Birudaavaligalu, Dr.S.Y.Somashekhar, 2014, Prasaranga, Kannada University, Hampi, Vidyaranya, 583 276, Bellary Dist. * Sosale Srinivasachar & T.S. Satyan, _Hampi: The fabled capital of the Vijayanagara Empire_, (Directorate of Archaeology and Museums), Govt. of Karnataka, 1995 * J.M. Fritz _et al._, _New Light on Hampi: Recent Research at Vijayanagara_, (Performing Arts Mumbai, 2001) ISBN 81-85026-53-X * A.H. Longhurst, _ Hampi Ruins Described and Illustrated_, (Laurier Books Ltd., 1998) ISBN 81-206-0159-9 * _The Ruins of Hampi:Travel Guide_ ISBN 81-7525-766-0 * Raghu Rai & Usha Rai, _ Vijayanagara Empire: Ruins to Resurrection_, New Delhi, 2014. ISBN 978-93-83098-24-8
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