Vijay L. Kelkar (born 15 May 1942) is an Indian economist and academic, who is currently the Chairman of the Forum of Federations, Ottawa & India Development Foundation, New Delhi and Chairman of Janwani – a social initiative of the Mahratta Chamber of Commerce,Industries and Agriculture (MCCIA) in Pune. He has been appointed as a trustee of Sri Sathya Sai Central Trust (Puttaparthi, A.P.) on 4 January 2014. He was also the Chairman of the Finance Commission until January 2010. He was earlier Advisor to the Minister of Finance (2002–2004), and is known for his role in economic reforms in India. Prior to this, he remained Finance Secretary, Government of India 1998–1999, and in 1999 he has been nominated as Executive director of India, Bangladesh, Bhutan and Sri Lanka on the board of the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
Kelkar, holds B.E., from College of Engineering Pune, India, 1963, M.S., from University of Minnesota, US, 1965 and Ph.D. in economics from University of California Berkeley, US, 1970.
Kelkar has taught at Administrative Staff College of India, Hyderabad, Center for Economic Development and Administration, Kathmandu, Nepal, South Asia Institute, Heidelberg University, Germany and University of California, Berkeley.
He has held various senior-level positions in the Government of India, as well as in international organizations:
- President, Indian Statistical Institute
- Chairman, CSIR-Tech Pvt Ltd (www.csirtech.com)
- Chairman, National Stock Exchange of India Limited
- Chairman, Forum of Federations, Ottawa 
- Chairman, India Development Foundation
- Vice President, Pune International Center
- Chairman, Thirteenth Finance Commission, India
- Chairman, IDFC Private Equity, Mumbai
- Advisor to Minister of Finance, Government of India in the rank of a Minister of State, from August 2002 to September 2004
- Executive Director for India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Bhutan at the International Monetary Fund, Washington, D.C., USA from August 1999 to August 2002
- Finance Secretary, Government of India, 1998–1999
- Chairman, Tariff Commission, Government of India, 1997–1998
- Secretary, Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas, Government of India, 1994–1997
- Director & Coordinator, International Trade Division, UNCTAD, Geneva, Switzerland, 1991–1994
- Chairman, Bureau of Industrial Costs & Prices and Secretary to the Government of India, New Delhi, 1987–1991
- Secretary, Economic Advisory Council to the Prime Minister, Government of India, New Delhi, 1985–1988
- Advisor, Economic Policy & Planning, Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas, Government of India, New Delhi, 1982–1987
- Economic Advisor, Ministry of Commerce, Govt of India, 1977–1981
- Chairman of the Board of Green Infra Limited
Committees and commissions headed
Kelkar was awarded the 2011 Padma Vibhushan, the second highest civilian award, in January 2011.
Vijay Kelkar is married and has a daughter.