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Việt Minh
Việt Minh
(Vietnamese: [vîət mīɲ] ( listen); abbreviated from Việt Nam Độc Lập Đồng Minh Hội, French: "Ligue pour l'indépendance du Viêt Nam", English: “League for the Independence of Vietnam") was a national independence coalition formed at Pác Bó
Pác Bó
by Hồ Chí Minh on May 19, 1941. The Việt Nam Độc Lập Đồng Minh Hội had previously formed in Nanjing, China, at some point between August 1935 and early 1936 when Vietnamese Nationalist or other Vietnamese nationalist parties formed an anti-imperialist united front. This organization soon lapsed into inactivity, only to be revived by the Indochinese Communist Party (ICP) and Hồ Chí Minh in 1941.[1] The Việt Minh
Việt Minh
established itself as the only organized anti-French and anti-Japanese resistance group.[2] The Việt Minh
Việt Minh
initially formed to seek independence for Vietnam
Vietnam
from the French Empire. The United States supported France. When the Japanese occupation began, the Việt Minh
Việt Minh
opposed Japan with support from the United States and the Republic of China. After World War II, the Việt Minh
Việt Minh
opposed the re-occupation of Vietnam
Vietnam
by France and later opposed South Vietnam
Vietnam
and the United States in the Vietnam War. The political leader and founder of Việt Minh
Việt Minh
was Hồ Chí Minh. The military leadership was under the command of Võ Nguyên Giáp. Other founders were Lê Duản
Lê Duản
and Phạm Văn Đồng. The Việt Minh
Việt Minh
was considered by the Communist Party of Vietnam
Vietnam
as a form of national independence front in Vietnam, it was also known as the Việt Minh's Independent Allied Front, Việt Minh
Việt Minh
Front.[3] The unification of the national front is done by the peoples, classes and internal parties in order to carry out the national revolution against the invasion and oppression of imperialism and colonialism.

Contents

1 World War II 2 First Indochina War 3 North Vietnam
Vietnam
and the end of the Việt Minh 4 Khmer Việt Minh 5 Note 6 See also 7 References

World War II[edit] See also: French Indochina
French Indochina
in World War II, Japanese coup d'état in French Indochina, and August Revolution During World War II, Japan occupied French Indochina. As well as fighting the French, the Việt Minh
Việt Minh
started a campaign against the Japanese. As of the end of 1944, the Việt Minh
Việt Minh
claimed a membership of 500,000, of which 200,000 were in Tonkin, 150,000 in Annam, and 150,000 in Cochinchina. Due to their opposition to the Japanese, the Việt Minh
Việt Minh
received funding from the United States, the Soviet Union and the Republic of China
Republic of China
. When Japan surrendered in August 1945, the Japanese handed over control of some public buildings and weapons requisitioned from the French army to the Việt Minh, now led by Hồ Chí Minh, after turning in the Vietnamese nationalist leaders of the Việt Minh
Việt Minh
to the French colonialists. The Việt Minh
Việt Minh
also recruited more than 600 of the Japanese soldiers, who fought in the war against France until 1945. After the nationalist organizations proclaimed the independence of Việt Nam, Hồ proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam
Vietnam
on September 2, 1945. First Indochina War[edit] Main articles: War in Vietnam
Vietnam
(1945–46) and First Indochina War However, within days, the Chinese Kuomintang
Kuomintang
(Nationalist) Army arrived in Vietnam
Vietnam
to supervise the repatriation of the Japanese Imperial Army. The Democratic Republic of Vietnam
Vietnam
therefore existed only in theory and effectively controlled no territory. A few months later, the Chinese, Vietnamese and French came to a three-way understanding. The French gave up certain rights in China, the Việt Minh agreed to the return of the French in exchange for promises of independence within the French Union, and the Chinese agreed to leave. Negotiations between the French and Việt Minh
Việt Minh
broke down quickly. What followed was nearly ten years of war against France. This was known as the First Indochina War
First Indochina War
or, to the Vietnamese, the French War. The Việt Minh, who were short on modern military knowledge, created a military school in Quảng Ngãi Province
Quảng Ngãi Province
in June 1946. More than 400 Vietnamese were trained by Japanese defectors in this school. These soldiers were considered to be students of the Japanese. Later, some of them fought as generals against the United States in the Vietnam
Vietnam
War or, to the Vietnamese, the American War. French General Jean Étienne Valluy quickly pushed the Việt Minh
Việt Minh
out of Hanoi. His French infantry with armored units went through Hanoi, fighting small battles against isolated Việt Minh
Việt Minh
groups. The French encircled the Việt Minh
Việt Minh
base, Việt Bắc, in 1947, but failed to defeat the Việt Minh
Việt Minh
forces, and had to retreat soon after. The campaign is now widely considered a Việt Minh
Việt Minh
victory over the well-equipped French force. The Việt Minh
Việt Minh
continued fighting against the French until 1949, when the border of China and Vietnam
Vietnam
was linked together as a result of the campaign called Chiến dịch Biên giới ("Borderland Campaign"). The newly communist People's Republic of China
Republic of China
gave the Việt Minh both sheltered bases and heavy weapons with which to fight the French. With the additional weapons, the Việt Minh
Việt Minh
were able to take control over many rural areas of the country. Soon after that, they began to advance towards the French-occupied areas. North Vietnam
Vietnam
and the end of the Việt Minh[edit] Following their defeat at the Battle of Điện Biên Phủ, the French began negotiations to leave Vietnam. As a result of peace accords worked out at the Geneva
Geneva
Conference in Geneva, Switzerland, Vietnam
Vietnam
was divided into North Vietnam
Vietnam
and South Vietnam
Vietnam
at the 17th Parallel as a temporary measure until unifying elections could take place in 1956. Transfer of civil administration of North Vietnam
Vietnam
to the Việt Minh
Việt Minh
was given on October 11, 1954. Hồ Chí Minh was appointed Prime Minister of North Vietnam, which would be run as a socialist state. Ngô Đình Diệm, who was previously appointed Prime Minister of South Vietnam
Vietnam
by Emperor Bảo Đại, eventually assumed control of South Vietnam. The Geneva
Geneva
Accords promised elections in 1956 to determine a national government for a united Vietnam. Neither the United States government nor Ngô Đình Diệm’s State of Vietnam
Vietnam
signed anything at the 1954 Geneva
Geneva
Conference. With respect to the question of reunification, the non-communist Vietnamese delegation objected strenuously to any division of Vietnam, but lost out when the French accepted the proposal of Việt Minh
Việt Minh
delegate Phạm Văn Đồng,[4] who proposed that Vietnam
Vietnam
eventually be united by elections under the supervision of “local commissions”.[5] The United States countered with what became known as the “American Plan”, with the support of South Vietnam
Vietnam
and the United Kingdom.[6] It provided for unification elections under the supervision of the United Nations, but was rejected by the Soviet delegation.[6] From his home in France, Vietnamese Emperor Bảo Đại
Bảo Đại
appointed Ngô Đình Diệm as Prime Minister of South Vietnam. With American support, in 1955 Diệm used a referendum to remove the former Emperor and declare himself the president of the Republic of Vietnam. When the elections failed to occur, Việt Minh
Việt Minh
cadres who stayed behind in South Vietnam
Vietnam
were activated and started to fight the government. North Vietnam
Vietnam
also occupied portions of Laos to assist in supplying the National Liberation Front (Viet Cong) in South Vietnam. The war gradually escalated into the Second Indochina War, more commonly known as the “ Vietnam
Vietnam
War” in the West and the “American War” in Vietnam. Khmer Việt Minh[edit] The Khmer Việt Minh
Việt Minh
were the 3,000 to 5,000 Cambodian communist cadres, left-wing members of the Khmer Issarak
Khmer Issarak
movement regrouped in the United Issarak Front
United Issarak Front
after 1950, most of whom lived in exile in North Vietnam
Vietnam
after the 1954 Geneva
Geneva
Conference. It was a derogatory term used by Norodom Sihanouk, dismissing the Cambodian leftists who had been organizing pro-independence agitations in alliance with the Vietnamese.[7] Sihanouk’s public criticism and mockery of the Khmer Việt Minh
Việt Minh
had the damaging effect of increasing the power of the hardline, anti-Vietnamese, but also anti-monarchist, members of the Communist Party of Kampuchea
Communist Party of Kampuchea
(CPK), led by Pol Pot.[8] The Khmer Việt Minh
Việt Minh
were instrumental in the foundation of the Cambodian Salvation Front (FUNSK) in 1978. The FUNSK invaded Cambodia along with the Vietnamese Army
Vietnamese Army
and overthrew the Democratic Kampuchea Pol Pot
Pol Pot
state. Many of the Khmer Việt Minh
Việt Minh
had married Vietnamese women during their long exile in Vietnam.[9] Note[edit] The Việt Nam Độc Lập Đồng Minh Hội must not be confused with the Việt Nam Cách Mạng Đồng Minh Hội (League for the Vietnamese Revolution, abbreviated as Việt Cách) which was founded by Nguyễn Hải Thần and Hồ Ngoc Lam, and which later joined the Vietnamese National Coalition in 1946. See also[edit]

Viet Cong Pathet Lao History of Vietnam August Revolution Communist Party of Vietnam History of the Communist Party of Vietnam

References[edit]

^ NGUYEN, Sai D. "The National Flag of Viet Nam" (PDF). Vpac-usa.org. pp. 212–3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 May 2005. Retrieved 4 January 2015.  ^ H., Hunt, Michael. The world transformed : 1945 to the present. p. 124. ISBN 9780199371020. OCLC 907585907.  ^ Việt Nam, Hội Khuyến học (17 November 2011). "Mặt trận Tổ quốc Việt Nam: Chặng đường 80 năm vẻ vang". http://dantri.com.vn.  External link in website= (help) ^ The Pentagon Papers (1971), Beacon Press, vol. 3, p. 134. ^ The Pentagon Papers (1971), Beacon Press, vol. 3, p. 119. ^ a b The Pentagon Papers (1971), Beacon Press, vol. 3, p. 140. ^ "Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / Country Studies / Area Handbook Series / Cambodia / Appendix B". Lcweb2.loc.gov. Retrieved 4 January 2015.  ^ Ben Kiernan. How Pol Pot
Pol Pot
came to power, Yale University Press, 2004, p.227 ^ Margaret Slocomb, The People's Republic of Kampuchea, 1979-1989: The revolution after Pol Pot
Pol Pot
ISBN 978-974-9575-34-5

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