The Việt Cộng (Vietnamese: [vîət
kə̂wŋmˀ] ( listen)), also known as the National
Liberation Front, was a mass political organization in South Vietnam
Cambodia with its own army – the People's Liberation Armed
South Vietnam (PLAF) – that fought against the United
States and South Vietnamese governments during the
eventually emerging on the winning side. It had both guerrilla and
regular army units, as well as a network of cadres who organized
peasants in the territory it controlled. Many soldiers were recruited
in South Vietnam, but others were attached to the People's Army of
Vietnam (PAVN), the regular North Vietnamese army. During the war,
communists and anti-war activists insisted the Việt Cộng was an
insurgency indigenous to the South, while the U.S. and South
Vietnamese governments portrayed the group as a tool of Hanoi.
Although the terminology distinguishes northerners from the
southerners, communist forces were under a single command structure
set up in 1958.
North Vietnam established the National Liberation Front on December
20, 1960, to foment insurgency in the South. Many of the Việt
Cộng's core members were volunteer "regroupees", southern Việt
Minh who had resettled in the North after the Geneva Accord (1954).
Hanoi gave the regroupees military training and sent them back to the
South along the
Ho Chi Minh trail
Ho Chi Minh trail in the early 1960s. The NLF called
for southern Vietnamese to "overthrow the camouflaged colonial regime
of the American imperialists" and to make "efforts toward the peaceful
unification". The PLAF's best-known action was the Tet Offensive, a
gigantic assault on more than 100 South Vietnamese urban centers in
1968, including an attack on the U.S. embassy in Saigon. The offensive
riveted the attention of the world's media for weeks, but also
overextended the Việt Cộng. Later communist offensives were
conducted predominantly by the North Vietnamese. The organization was
dissolved in 1976 when North and
South Vietnam were officially unified
under a communist government.
2.2 Launches "armed struggle"
2.3 Logistics and equipment
2.4 Tet Offensive
2.6 Fall of Saigon
3 Relationship with Hanoi
4 See also
7 Further reading
8 External links
Guerrilla forces from North Vietnam's Vietcong movement cross a river
in 1966 during the
The term Việt Cộng appeared in
Saigon newspapers beginning in
1956. It is a contraction of Việt Nam Cộng-sản (Vietnamese
communist), or alternatively Việt gian cộng sản ("Communist
Traitor to Vietnam"). The earliest citation for Việt Cộng in
English is from 1957. American soldiers referred to the Việt
Cộng as Victor Charlie or V-C. "Victor" and "Charlie" are both
letters in the NATO phonetic alphabet. "Charlie" referred to communist
forces in general, both Việt Cộng and North Vietnamese.
The official Vietnamese history gives the group's name as the
Liberation Army of
South Vietnam or the National Liberation Front for
South Vietnam (NLFSV; Mặt trận Dân tộc Giải phóng miền Nam
Việt Nam).[nb 1] Many writers shorten this to National Liberation
Front (NLF).[nb 2] In 1969, the Việt Cộng created the "Provisional
Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam" (Chính
Phủ Cách Mạng Lâm Thời Cộng Hòa Miền Nam Việt Nam),
abbreviated PRG.[nb 3] Although the NLF was not officially abolished
until 1977, the Việt Cộng no longer used the name after PRG was
created. Members generally referred to the Việt Cộng as "the
Front" (Mặt trận). Today's Vietnamese media most frequently
refers to the group as the "People's Liberation Armed Forces of South
Vietnam (PLAF)" (Quân Giải phóng Miền Nam Việt Nam).
Soldiers and civilians took supplies south on the
Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh trail
By the terms of the Geneva Accord (1954), which ended the Indochina
War, France and the Việt Minh agreed to a truce and to a separation
of forces. The Việt Minh had become the government of Democratic
Vietnam since the Vietnamese 1946 general election, and
military forces of the communists regrouped there. Military forces of
the non-communists regrouped in South Vietnam, which became a separate
state. Elections on reunification were scheduled for July 1956. A
Vietnam angered Vietnamese nationalists, but it made the
country less of a threat to China. The Democratic Republic of Vietnam
in the past and
Vietnam in the present did not and do not recognize
the division of
Vietnam into two countries. Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai
negotiated the terms of the ceasefire with France and then imposed
them on the Việt Minh.
About 90,000 Việt Minh were evacuated to the North while 5,000 to
10,000 cadre remained in the South, most of them with orders to
refocus on political activity and agitation. The Saigon-Cholon
Peace Committee, the first Việt Cộng front, was founded in 1954 to
provide leadership for this group. Other front names used by the
Việt Cộng in the 1950s implied that members were fighting for
religious causes, for example, "Executive Committee of the Fatherland
Front", which suggested affiliation with the
Hòa Hảo sect, or
Cambodia Buddhist Association". Front groups were favored
by the Việt Cộng to such an extent that its real leadership
remained shadowy until long after the war was over, prompting the
expression "the faceless Việt Cộng".
Situation of the Communist forces in
South Vietnam in early 1964
Led by Ngô Đình Diệm,
South Vietnam refused to sign the Geneva
Accord. Arguing that a free election was impossible under the
conditions that existed in communist-held territory, Diệm announced
in July 1955 that the scheduled election on reunification would not be
held. After subduing the
Bình Xuyên organized crime gang in the
Saigon in 1955, and the
Hòa Hảo and other militant
religious sects in early 1956, Diệm turned his attention to the
Việt Cộng. Within a few months, the Việt Cộng had been
driven into remote swamps. The success of this campaign inspired
U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower to dub Diệm the "miracle man" when
he visited the U.S. in May 1957. France withdrew its last soldiers
Vietnam in April 1956.
In March 1956, southern communist leader
Lê Duẩn presented a plan
to revive the insurgency entitled "The Road to the South" to the other
members of the Politburo in Hanoi. He argued adamantly that war
with the United States was necessary to achieve unification. But
as China and the Soviets both opposed confrontation at this time, Lê
Duẩn's plan was rejected and communists in the South were ordered to
limit themselves to economic struggle. Leadership divided into a
"North first", or pro-Beijing, faction led by Trường Chinh, and a
"South first" faction led by Lê Duẩn.
Sino-Soviet split widened in the following months,
to play the two communist giants off against each other. The North
Vietnamese leadership approved tentative measures to revive the
southern insurgency in December 1956. Lê Duẩn's blueprint for
revolution in the South was approved in principle, but implementation
was conditional on winning international support and on modernizing
the army, which was expected to take at least until 1959.
Hồ Chí Minh
Hồ Chí Minh stressed that violence was still a last
resort. Nguyễn Hữu Xuyên was assigned military command in the
South, replacing Lê Duẩn, who was appointed North Vietnam's
acting party boss. This represented a loss of power for Hồ, who
preferred the more moderate Võ Nguyên Giáp, who was defense
This 23-year-old man, who had defected from the Communist forces and
South Vietnam Government side, was recaptured by the Việt
Cộng and spent a month in a Việt Cộng internment camp, 1966.
An assassination campaign, referred to as "extermination of traitors"
 or "armed propaganda" in communist literature, began in April
1957. Tales of sensational murder and mayhem soon crowded the
headlines. Seventeen civilians were killed by machine gun fire at a
Châu Đốc in July and in September a district chief was
killed with his entire family on a main highway in broad daylight.
In October 1957, a series of bombs exploded in
Saigon and left 13
In a speech given on September 2, 1957, Hồ reiterated the "North
first" line of economic struggle. The launch of
Sputnik in October
boosted Soviet confidence and led to a reassessment of policy
regarding Indochina, long treated as a Chinese sphere of influence. In
November, Hồ traveled to Moscow with
Lê Duẩn and gained approval
for a more militant line. In early 1958,
Lê Duẩn met with the
leaders of "Inter-zone V" (northern South Vietnam) and ordered the
establishment of patrols and safe areas to provide logistical support
for activity in the
Mekong Delta and in urban areas. In June 1958,
the Việt Cộng created a command structure for the eastern Mekong
Delta. French scholar
Bernard Fall published an influential
article in July 1958 which analyzed the pattern of rising violence and
concluded that a new war had begun.
Launches "armed struggle"
The North Vietnamese Communist Party approved a "people's war" on the
South at a session in January 1959 and this decision was confirmed by
the Politburo in March. In May 1959,
Group 559 was established to
maintain and upgrade the
Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh trail, at this time a six-month
mountain trek through Laos. About 500 of the "regroupees" of 1954 were
sent south on the trail during its first year of operation. The
first arms delivery via the trail, a few dozen rifles, was completed
in August 1959.
Two regional command centers were merged to create the Central Office
South Vietnam (Trung ương Cục miền Nam), a unified communist
party headquarters for the South. COSVN was initially located in
Tây Ninh Province near the Cambodian border. On July 8, the Việt
Cộng killed two U.S. military advisors at Biên Hòa, the first
American dead of the
Vietnam War.[nb 4] The "2d Liberation Battalion"
ambushed two companies of South Vietnamese soldiers in September 1959,
the first large unit military action of the war. This was
considered the beginning of the "armed struggle" in communist
accounts. A series of uprisings beginning in the Mekong Delta
Bến Tre in January 1960 created "liberated zones",
models of Việt Cộng-style government. Propagandists celebrated
their creation of battalions of "long-hair troops" (women). The
fiery declarations of 1959 were followed by a lull while
on events in
Laos (1960–61). Moscow favored reducing
international tensions in 1960, as it was election year for the U.S.
presidency.[nb 5] Despite this, 1960 was a year of unrest in South
Vietnam, with pro-democracy demonstrations inspired by the South
Korean student uprising that year and a failed military coup in
Brinks Hotel, Saigon, following a Việt Cộng bombing on Dec. 24,
1964. Two American officers were killed.
To counter the accusation that
North Vietnam was violating the Geneva
Accord, the independence of the Việt Cộng was stressed in
communist propaganda. The Việt Cộng created the National
Liberation Front of
South Vietnam in December 1960 at Tân Lập
Tây Ninh as a "united front", or political branch intended
to encourage the participation of non-communists. The group's
formation was announced by Radio
Hanoi and its ten-point manifesto
called for, "overthrow the disguised colonial regime of the
imperialists and the dictatorial administration, and to form a
national and democratic coalition administration." Thọ, a lawyer
and the NLF's "neutralist" chairman, was an isolated figure among
cadres and soldiers. South Vietnam's Law 10/59, approved in May 1959,
authorized the death penalty for crimes "against the security of the
state" and featured prominently in Việt Cộng propaganda.
Violence between the Việt Cộng and government forces soon
increased drastically from 180 clashes in January 1960 to 545 clashes
By 1960, the
Sino-Soviet split was a public rivalry, making China more
supportive of Hanoi's war effort. For Chinese leader Mao Zedong,
North Vietnam was a way to enhance his "anti-imperialist"
credentials for both domestic and international audiences. About
40,000 communist soldiers infiltrated the South in 1961–63. The
Việt Cộng grew rapidly; an estimated 300,000 members were enrolled
in "liberation associations" (affiliated groups) by early 1962. The
ratio of Việt Cộng to government soldiers jumped from 1:10 in 1961
to 1:5 a year later.
A Việt Cộng prisoner captured in 1967 by the U.S. Army awaits
The level of violence in the South jumped dramatically in the fall of
1961, from 50 guerrilla attacks in September to 150 in October.
John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy decided in November 1961 to
substantially increase American military aid to South Vietnam. The
USS Core arrived in
Saigon with 35 helicopters in December 1961.
By mid-1962, there were 12,000 U.S. military advisors in Vietnam.
The "special war" and "strategic hamlets" policies allowed
push back in 1962, but in 1963 the Việt Cộng regained the military
initiative. The Việt Cộng won its first military victory
against South Vietnamese forces at Ấp Bắc in January 1963.
A landmark party meeting was held in December 1963, shortly after a
military coup in
Saigon in which Diệm was assassinated. North
Vietnamese leaders debated the issue of "quick victory" vs "protracted
war" (guerrilla warfare). After this meeting, the communist side
geared up for a maximum military effort and PAVN troop strength
increased from 174,000 at the end of 1963 to 300,000 in 1964. The
Soviets cut aid in 1964 as an expression of annoyance with Hanoi's
ties to China.[nb 6] Even as
Hanoi embraced China's international
line, it continued to follow the Soviet model of reliance on technical
specialists and bureaucratic management, as opposed to mass
mobilization. The winter of 1964–1965 was a high-water mark for
the Việt Cộng, with the
Saigon government on the verge of
collapse. Soviet aid soared following a visit to
Hanoi by Soviet
Alexei Kosygin in February 1965.
Hanoi was soon receiving
up-to-date surface-to-air missiles. The U.S. would have 200,000
South Vietnam by the end of the year.
U.S. Air Force
Douglas A-1E Skyraider
Douglas A-1E Skyraider drops a white phosphorus bomb on
a Việt Cộng position in
South Vietnam in 1966.
In January 1966, Australian troops uncovered a tunnel complex which
had been used by COSVN. Six thousand documents were captured,
revealing the inner workings of the Việt Cộng. COSVN retreated to
Mimot in Cambodia. As a result of an agreement with the Cambodian
government made in 1966, weapons for the Việt Cộng were shipped to
the Cambodian port of Sihanoukville and then trucked to Việt Cộng
bases near the border along the "
Sihanouk Trail", which replaced the
Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh Trail.
Many People's Liberation Armed Forces of
South Vietnam (PLAF) units
operated at night, and employed terror as a standard tactic.
Rice procured at gunpoint sustained the Việt Cộng. Squads were
assigned monthly assassination quotas. Government employees,
especially village and district heads, were the most common targets.
But there were a wide variety of targets, including clinics and
medical personnel. Notable Việt Cộng atrocities include the
massacre of over 3,000 unarmed civilians at Huế, 48 killed in the
bombing of My Canh floating restaurant in
Saigon in June 1965 and
a massacre of 252 Montagnards in the village of
Đắk Sơn in
December 1967 using flamethrowers. Việt Cộng death squads
assassinated at least 37,000 civilians in South Vietnam; the real
figure was far higher since the data mostly cover 1967-72. They also
waged a mass murder campaign against civilian hamlets and refugee
camps; in the peak war years, nearly a third of all civilian deaths
were the result of Việt Cộng atrocities. Ami Pedahzur has
written that "the overall volume and lethality of Vietcong terrorism
rivals or exceeds all but a handful of terrorist campaigns waged over
the last third of the twentieth century".
Logistics and equipment
Viet Cong and PAVN logistics and equipment
Việt Cộng soldier stands beneath a Việt Cộng flag carrying his
Major reversals in 1966 and 1967, as well as the growing American
presence in Vietnam, inspired
Hanoi to consult its allies and reassess
strategy in April 1967. While Beijing urged a fight to the finish,
Moscow suggested a negotiated settlement. Convinced that 1968
could be the last chance for decisive victory, General Nguyễn Chí
Thanh, suggested an all-out offensive against urban centers.[nb 7]
He submitted a plan to
Hanoi in May 1967. After Thanh's death in
July, Giáp was assigned to implement this plan, now known as the Tet
Offensive. The Parrot's Beak, an area in
Cambodia only 30 miles from
Saigon, was prepared as a base of operations. Funeral processions
were used to smuggle weapons into Saigon. Việt Cộng entered
the cities concealed among civilians returning home for Tết. The
U.S. and South Vietnamese expected that an announced seven-day truce
would be observed during Vietnam's main holiday.
A U.S. propaganda leaflet urges Việt Cộng to defect using the
Chiêu Hồi Program.
At this point, there were about 500,000 U.S. troops in Vietnam, as
well as 900,000 allied forces. General William Westmoreland, the
U.S. commander, received reports of heavy troop movements and
understood that an offensive was being planned, but his attention was
focused on Khe Sanh, a remote U.S. base near the DMZ. In January
and February 1968, some 80,000 Việt Cộng struck more than 100
towns with orders to "crack the sky" and "shake the Earth." The
offensive included a commando raid on the U.S. Embassy in
Saigon and a
Huế of about 3,500 residents. House-to-house
fighting between Việt Cộng and South Vietnamese Rangers left much
of Cholon, a section of Saigon, in ruins. The Việt Cộng used any
available tactic to demoralize and intimidate the population,
including the assassination of South Vietnamese commanders. A
photo by Eddie Adams showing the summary execution of a Việt Cộng
Saigon on February 1 became a symbol of the brutality of the
war. In an influential broadcast on February 27, newsman Walter
Cronkite stated that the war was a "stalemate" and could be ended only
The offensive was undertaken in the hope of triggering a general
uprising, but urban Vietnamese did not respond as the Việt Cộng
anticipated. About 75,000 communist soldiers were killed or wounded,
according to Trần Văn Trà, commander of the "B-2" district, which
consisted of southern South Vietnam. "We did not base ourselves on
scientific calculation or a careful weighing of all factors, but...on
an illusion based on our subjective desires", Trà concluded.
Earle G. Wheeler, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, estimated
that Tet resulted in 40,000 communist dead (compared to about
10,600 U.S. and South Vietnamese dead). "It is a major irony of the
Vietnam War that our propaganda transformed this debacle into a
brilliant victory. The truth was that Tet cost us half our forces. Our
losses were so immense that we were unable to replace them with new
recruits", said PRG Justice Minister Trương Như Tảng. Tet had
a profound psychological impact because South Vietnamese cities were
otherwise safe areas during the war. U.S. President Lyndon Johnson
and Westmoreland argued that panicky news coverage gave the public the
unfair perception that America had been defeated.
Aside from some districts in the Mekong Delta, the Việt Cộng
failed to create a governing apparatus in
South Vietnam following Tet,
according to an assessment of captured documents by the U.S. CIA.
The breakup of larger Việt Cộng units increased the effectiveness
of the CIA's
Phoenix Program (1967–72), which targeted individual
leaders, as well as the
Chiêu Hồi Program, which encouraged
defections. By the end of 1969, there was little communist-held
territory, or "liberated zones", in South Vietnam, according to the
official communist military history. There were no predominantly
southern units left and 70 percent of communist troops in the South
The Việt Cộng created an urban front in 1968 called the Alliance
of National, Democratic, and Peace Forces. The group's manifesto
called for an independent, non-aligned
South Vietnam and stated that
"national reunification cannot be achieved overnight." In June
1969, the alliance merged with the NLF to form a "Provisional
Revolutionary Government." (PRG)
Tet Offensive increased public discontent with American
participation in the
Vietnam War and led the U.S. to gradually
withdraw combat forces and to shift responsibility to the South
Vietnamese, a process called Vietnamization. Pushed into Cambodia, the
Việt Cộng could no longer draw South Vietnamese recruits. In
Trường Chinh urged "protracted war" in a speech that was
published prominently in the official media, so the fortunes of his
"North first" fraction may have revived at this time. COSVN
rejected this view as "lacking resolution and absolute
determination." The Soviet invasion of
Czechoslovakia in August
1968 led to intense Sino-Soviet tension and to the withdrawal of
Chinese forces from North Vietnam. Beginning in February 1970, Lê
Duẩn's prominence in the official media increased, suggesting that
he was again top leader and had regained the upper hand in his
longstanding rivalry with Trường Chinh. After the overthrow of
Sihanouk in March 1970, the Việt Cộng faced a hostile
Cambodian government which authorized a U.S. offensive against its
bases in April. However, the capture of the
Plain of Jars
Plain of Jars and other
territory in Laos, as well as five provinces in northeastern Cambodia,
allowed the North Vietnamese to reopen the
Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh trail.
Although 1970 was a much better year for the Việt Cộng than
1969, it would never again be more than an adjunct to the PAVN.
Easter Offensive was a direct North Vietnamese attack across
the DMZ between North and South. Despite the Paris Peace Accords,
signed by all parties in January 1973, fighting continued. In March,
Trà was recalled to
Hanoi for a series of meetings to hammer out a
plan for an enormous offense against Saigon.
Việt Cộng soldiers carry an injured American POW to a prisoner
swap in 1973. The VC uniform was a floppy jungle hat, rubber sandals,
and green fatigues without rank or insignia.
Fall of Saigon
For the full article, see Fall of Saigon.
In response to the anti-war movement, the U.S. Congress passed the
Case–Church Amendment to prohibit further U.S. military intervention
Vietnam in June 1973 and reduced aid to
South Vietnam in August
1974. With U.S. bombing ended, communist logistical preparations
could be accelerated. An oil pipeline was built from
North Vietnam to
Việt Cộng headquarters in Lộc Ninh, about 75 miles northwest of
Saigon. (COSVN was moved back to
South Vietnam following the Easter
Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh Trail, beginning as a series of
treacherous mountain tracks at the start of the war, was upgraded
throughout the war, first into a road network driveable by trucks in
the dry season, and finally, into paved, all-weather roads that could
be used year-round, even during the monsoon. Between the beginning
of 1974 and April 1975, with now-excellent roads and no fear of air
interdiction, the communists delivered nearly 365,000 tons of war
matériel to battlefields, 2.6 times the total for the previous 13
The success of the 1973–74 dry season offensive convinced
accelerate its timetable. When there was no U.S. response to a
successful communist attack on Phước Bình in January 1975, South
Vietnamese morale collapsed. The next major battle, at Buôn Ma
Thuột in March, was a communist walkover. After the fall of Saigon
on April 30, 1975, the PRG moved into government offices there. At the
victory parade, Tạng noticed that the units formerly dominated by
southerners were missing, replaced by northerners years earlier.
The bureaucracy of the Republic of
Vietnam was uprooted and authority
over the South was assigned to the PAVN. People considered tainted by
association with the former South Vietnamese government were sent to
reeducation camps, despite the protests of the non-communist PRG
members including Tạng. Without consulting the PRG, North
Vietnamese leaders decided to rapidly dissolve the PRG at a party
meeting in August 1975. North and South were merged as the
Socialist Republic of
Vietnam in July 1976 and the PRG was dissolved.
The NLF was merged with the
Vietnamese Fatherland Front
Vietnamese Fatherland Front in February
Relationship with Hanoi
The alleged 1966 martyrdom of Việt Cộng soldier Nguyễn Văn Bé
is much celebrated in Vietnam, despite the fact that he later turned
Activists opposing American involvement in
Vietnam said that the
Việt Cộng was a nationalist insurgency indigenous to the
South. They claimed that the Việt Cộng was composed of several
parties—the People's Revolutionary Party, the Democratic Party and
the Radical Socialist Party—and that NLF Chairman Nguyễn Hữu
Thọ was not a communist.
Anti-communists countered that the Việt Cộng was merely a front
for Hanoi. They said some statements issued by communist leaders
in the 1980s and 1990s suggested that southern communist forces were
influenced by Hanoi. According to the memoirs of Trần Văn Trà,
the Việt Cộng's top commander and PRG defense minister, he
followed orders issued by the "Military Commission of the Party
Central Committee" in Hanoi, which in turn implemented resolutions of
the Politburo.[nb 8] Trà himself was deputy chief of staff for the
PAVN before being assigned to the South. The official Vietnamese
history of the war states that "The Liberation Army of South Vietnam
[Việt Cộng] is a part of the People's Army of Vietnam".
Viet Cong and PAVN strategy, organization and structure
Viet Cong and PAVN battle tactics
Kit Carson Scouts, former Việt Cộng who worked with U.S. Marines
Vietnam People's Army, the North Vietnamese army.
Hanoi called it the "National Front for the Liberation of
South Vietnam" in a January 1961 broadcast announcing the group's
formation. In his memoirs,
Võ Nguyên Giáp
Võ Nguyên Giáp called the group the
South Vietnam National Liberation Front" (Nguyên Giáp Võ, Russell
Stetler (1970). The Military Art of People's War: Selected Writings of
General Vo Nguyen Giap. pp. 206, 208, 210. ). See also the
"Program of the National Liberation Front of South Viet-Nam". Archived
from the original on 2010-06-26. (1967).
^ The terminology "liberation front" is adapted from the earlier Greek
and Algerian National Liberation Fronts.
^ This also follows terminology used earlier by leftists in Greece
(Provisional Democratic Government) and Algeria (Provisional
Government of the Algerian Republic).
Dale R. Buis and Master Sergeant Charles Ovnand, the first
names to appear on the
Vietnam Veterans Memorial.
^ This is sometimes referred to as the "Genoa Policy" and later
inspired Khrushchev to take credit for Kennedy's election.(Lynn-Jones,
Sean M.; Steven E. Miller; Stephen Van Evera (1989). Soviet Military
Policy: An International Security Reader. p. 28.
ISBN 0-262-62066-9. )
^ There was also a U.S. presidential election in 1964.
^ Disappointed with the results of the 1964 U.S. presidential
election, the Kremlin did not try to influence the election of 1968.
Desiring "businesslike" relations, the Kremlin favored incumbent
Richard Nixon against left-wing challenger
George McGovern in 1972.
(Lynn-Jones, p. 29).
^ Trà begins, "How did the B2 theater carry out the mission assigned
it by the Military Commission of the Party Central Committee?" (Trần
Văn Trà (1982), Vietnam: History of the Bulwark B2 Theatre, archived
from the original on 2011-06-02 )
^ "National Liberation Front (Viet Cong)".
^ a b Burchett, Wilfred (1963): "Liberation Front: Formation of the
NLF", The Furtive War, International Publishers, New York.
^ Also general secretary.
^ Possibly a pseudonym for Trần Văn Trà. "Man in the News:
Lt.-Gen. Tran Van Tra". February 2, 1973. Archived from the original
on August 23, 2009.
^ Bolt, Dr. Ernest. "Provisional Revolutionary Government of South
Vietnam (1969–1975)". University of Richmond.
^ a b c Military History Institute of Vietnam,(2002) Victory in
Vietnam: The Official History of the People's Army of Vietnam,
1954–1975, translated by Merle L. Pribbenow. University Press of
Kansas. p. 68. ISBN 0-7006-1175-4.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Origins of the Insurgency in South
Vietnam, 1954–1960". The Pentagon Papers. 1971.
^ William S. Turley (2009). The second
Indochina War: a concise
political and military history. Rowman & Littlefield.
pp. xiv. ISBN 978-0-7425-5526-6.
^ "Viet Cong", Oxford English Dictionary
^ See, for example, this story in Viet Nam News, the official
^ Karnow, p. 238.
^ a b Karnow, p. 245.
^ a b c "The History Place —
Vietnam War 1945–1960".
^ a b Ang, Cheng Guan (2002). The
Vietnam War from the Other Side.
RoutledgeCurzon. p. 16. ISBN 0-7007-1615-7.
^ a b Ang, p. 21
^ Olson, James; Randy Roberts (1991). "Where the Domino Fell: America
and Vietnam, 1945–1990". New York: St. Martin's Press: 67.
This decision was made at the 11th Plenary Session of the Lao Động
^ Ang, p. 19
^ Võ Nguyên Giáp. The Political and Military Line of Our Party. The
Military Art. pp. 179–80.
^ Ang, p. 20.
^ McNamera, Robert S.; Blight, James G.; Brigham, Robert K. (1999).
Argument Without End. PublicAffairs. p. 35.
^ Ang, p. 23.
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^ Kelly, Francis John (1989) . History of
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^ Nghia M. Vo Saigon: A History 2011 - Page 140 "... on December 19 to
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chief comptroller of a bank, Drs. Dương Quỳnh Hoa and Phùng Văn
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of the Battle of Hue. pg. 30. Westport 1993.
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^ Guenter Lewy, America in Vietnam, (Oxford University Press, 1978),
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^ Ang, p. 115.
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Gettleman, Marvin E (1995). Marvin E. Gettleman, Jane Franklin,
Marilyn Young, eds.
Vietnam and America. p. 345.
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^ Dougan, Clark; Stephen Weiss (1983). Nineteen Sixty-Eight. Boston:
Boston Publishing Company. pp. 8, 10. Missing or empty
^ "The Massacre of Hue". Time. October 31, 1969.
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^ Kearny, Cresson H. (Maj) (1997). "Jungle Snafus...and Remedies".
Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine: 327.
^ Lee, Nathan (April 10, 2009). "A Dark Glimpse From Eddie Adams's
Camera". New York Times.
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^ Tran Van Tra. "Tet". in Warner, Jayne S. Warner (1993). Luu
Doan Huynh, eds. The
Vietnam War: Vietnamese and American
Perspectives. Armonk NY: M.E. Sharpe. pp. 49–50. CS1
maint: Uses editors parameter (link) A map of the military districts
can be found here.
^ Tran Van Tra. "Comments on Tet '68".
^ a b "
Vietnam Veterans for Academic Reform". Archived from the
original on 2009-02-26.
^ Crowell, Todd Crowell (October 29, 2006). "The
Tet Offensive and
Iraq". Archived from the original on August 23, 2009.
^ Aron, Paul (2005-11-07). Mysteries in History. p. 404.
^ "Failure of the
Viet Cong to establish liberation committees".
CIA Documents on the
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Declassified Feb. 22, 1991. Check date values in: date= (help)
^ a b Whitcomb, Col Darrel (Summer 2003). "Victory in Vietnam: The
Official History of the People's Army of Vietnam, 1954–1975 (book
review)". Air & Space Power Journal. Archived from the original on
^ a b c Porter, Gareth (1993). Vietnam: The Politics of Bureaucratic
Socialism. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-8014-2168-6.
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^ a b Porter, p. 29
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^ Friedman, SGM Herbert A. "The Strange Case of the Vietnamese 'Late
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p. 51, ISBN 1-85728-323-6
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Vietnam (1972), part I, part II, part III, and part IV.
Marvin Gettleman, et al.
Vietnam and America: A Documented History.
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Việt Cộng, and Chapter 21 on the communist take-over in 1975.
Frances Fitzgerald. Fire in the Lake: The Vietnamese and the Americans
in Vietnam. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1972.
ISBN 0-316-28423-8. See Chapter 4. "The National Liberation
Douglas Valentine. The Phoenix Program. New York: William Morrow and
Company. 1990. ISBN 0-688-09130-X.
Merle Pribbenow (translation). Victory in Vietnam: The Official
History of the People's Army of Vietnam. University Press of Kansas.
2002 ISBN 0-7006-1175-4
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Trần Văn Hương→
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