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Vientiane
Vientiane
(/vjɛnˈtjɑːn/; French pronunciation: ​[vjɛ̃ˈtjan]; Lao: ວຽງຈັນ/ວຽງຈັນທນ໌/ວຽງຈັນທະບູຣີ ສຼີສັຕນາຄຄນາຫຸຕ ວິສຸທທິຣັຕນຣາຊທານີ ບໍຣີຣົມຍ໌, Viang chan, IPA: [wíəŋ tɕàn]) is the capital and largest city of Laos, on the banks of the Mekong River near the border with Thailand. Vientiane
Vientiane
became the capital in 1563 due to fears of a Burmese invasion but was later looted then razed to the ground in 1827 by the Siamese (Thai).[2] Vientiane
Vientiane
was the administrative capital during French rule and, due to economic growth in recent times, is now the economic center of Laos. Vientiane
Vientiane
is noted as the home of the most significant national monument in Laos: That Luang, which is a known symbol of Laos
Laos
and an icon of Buddhism in Laos. Other significant Buddhist temples in Laos can be found there as well, such as Haw Phra Kaew, which formerly housed the Emerald Buddha. The estimated population of the city is 760,000 (2015). The city hosted the 25th Southeast Asian Games
Southeast Asian Games
in December 2009 celebrating the 50 years of Southeast Asian Games.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Geography and climate

3.1 Geography 3.2 Climate

4 Tourism 5 Colleges and universities 6 Broadcasting 7 Economy 8 Transportation

8.1 Within Laos 8.2 From Thailand 8.3 To Thailand 8.4 From China 8.5 By air

9 Healthcare 10 Twin towns – Brother cities 11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

Etymology[edit] The name of the city is derived from Pali, the liturgical language of Theravada Buddhism. Although the original meaning of the name of the city is "city of sandalwood", as shown by ancient Lao inscription which wrote according to etymology, unlike modern Lao which is written phonetically, in modern Lao, the meaning of the name Vientiane
Vientiane
is ambiguous. Many, if not most, Lao people
Lao people
claim that the city's name means "city of the moon", while many also claim correctly that the city's name means "city of sandalwood" because the words for "moon" (ຈັນ or ຈັນທຣ໌ from chandra चन्द्र in Sanskrit) and "sandalwood" (ຈັນ or ຈັນທນ໌ from chandana चन्दन in Sanskrit) are written and pronounced identically as "chan" in modern Lao. Most academic and historic Lao sources claim that the city's name does in fact mean "city of sandalwood", reinforced by the city's Thai (เวียงจันทน์) and Khmer (វៀងចន្ទន៍) names both retain the etymological spelling, which indicates "city of sandalwood". The romanised spelling "Vientiane" is of French origin, and reflects the difficulty the French had in pronouncing the /tɕ/ sound in the Lao language. A common English-based spelling is "Viangchan", or occasionally "Wiangchan". History[edit]

Buddha
Buddha
sculptures at Pha That Luang

Haw Phra Kaew
Haw Phra Kaew
or Temple of the Emerald Buddha

Pha That Luang

The great Laotian epic, the Phra Lak Phra Lam, claims that Prince Thattaradtha founded the city when he left the legendary Lao kingdom of Muong Inthapatha Maha Nakhone because he was denied the throne in favor of his younger brother. Thattaradtha founded a city called Maha Thani Si Phan Phao on the western banks of the Mekong
Mekong
River; this city was said to have later become today's Udon Thani, Thailand. One day, a seven-headed Naga told Thattaradtha to start a new city on the east bank of the river opposite Maha Thani Si Phan Phao. The prince called this city Chanthabuly Si Sattanakhanahud; which was said to be the predecessor of modern Vientiane.[citation needed] Contrary to the Phra Lak Phra Lam, most historians believe Vientiane was an early Khmer settlement centered around a Hindu
Hindu
temple, which the Pha That Luang
That Luang
would later replace. In the 11th and 12th centuries, the time when the Lao and Thai people
Thai people
are believed to have entered Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
from Southern China, the few remaining Khmers in the area were either killed, removed, or assimilated into the Lao civilization, which would soon overtake the area.[citation needed] In 1354, when Fa Ngum
Fa Ngum
founded the kingdom of Lan Xang.[3]:223 Viangchan became an important administrative city, even though it was not made the capital. King Setthathirath
Setthathirath
officially established it as the capital of Lan Xang
Lan Xang
in 1563, to avoid Burmese invasion.[4] When Lan Xang
Lan Xang
fell apart in 1707, it became an independent Kingdom of Vientiane. In 1779, it was conquered by the Siamese general Phraya Chakri and made a vassal of Siam. When King Anouvong
Anouvong
raised an unsuccessful rebellion, it was obliterated by Siamese armies in 1827. The city was burned to the ground and was looted of nearly all Laotian artifacts, including Buddha
Buddha
statues and people. Viangchan was in great disrepair, depopulated and disappearing into the forest, when the French arrived. It eventually passed to French rule in 1893. It became the capital of the French protectorate of Laos
Laos
in 1899. The French rebuilt the city and rebuilt or repaired Buddhist temples such as Pha That Luang, Haw Phra Kaew, and left many colonial buildings behind. During World War II, Viangchan fell with little resistance and was occupied by Japanese forces, under the command of Sako Masanori.[5] On 9 March 1945 French paratroopers arrived, and reoccupied the city on 24 April 1945.[6] As the Laotian Civil War
Laotian Civil War
broke out between the Royal Lao Government and the Pathet Lao, Vientiane
Vientiane
became unstable. In August 1960, Kong Le seized the capital and insisted that Souvanna Phouma
Souvanna Phouma
become prime minister. In mid-December, Phoumi Nosavan then seized the capital, overthrew the Phouma Government, and installed Boun Oum
Boun Oum
as prime minister. In mid-1975, Pathet Lao
Pathet Lao
troops moved towards the city and Americans began evacuating the capital. On 23 August 1975, a contingent of 50 Pathet Lao
Pathet Lao
women symbolically liberated the city.[6] On 2 December 1975, the communist party of the Pathet Lao
Pathet Lao
took over Vientiane, defeated the Kingdom of Laos, and renamed the country the Lao People's Democratic Republic, which ended the Laotian Civil War. The next day, an Insurgency in Laos
Laos
began in the jungle, with the Pathet Lao
Pathet Lao
fighting factions of Hmong and royalists. Vientiane
Vientiane
was the host of the incident-free 2009 Southeast Asian Games. Eighteen competitions were dropped from the previous games held in Thailand, due to Laos' landlocked borders and the lack of adequate facilities in Vientiane.

Geography and climate[edit] Geography[edit] Vientiane
Vientiane
is on a bend of the Mekong
Mekong
River, at which point it forms the border with Thailand. Climate[edit] Vientiane
Vientiane
features a tropical savanna climate (Köppen Aw) with a distinct wet season and a dry season. Vientiane’s dry season spans from November through March. April marks the onset of the wet season which in Vientiane
Vientiane
lasts about seven months. Vientiane
Vientiane
tends to be hot and humid throughout the course of the year, though temperatures in the city tend to be somewhat cooler during the dry season than the wet season.

Climate data for Vientiane

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 35.6 (96.1) 37.8 (100) 40.0 (104) 41.1 (106) 38.9 (102) 37.8 (100) 36.1 (97) 37.2 (99) 38.9 (102) 38.9 (102) 34.4 (93.9) 33.4 (92.1) 41.1 (106)

Average high °C (°F) 28.4 (83.1) 30.3 (86.5) 33.0 (91.4) 34.3 (93.7) 33.0 (91.4) 31.9 (89.4) 31.3 (88.3) 30.8 (87.4) 30.9 (87.6) 30.8 (87.4) 29.8 (85.6) 28.1 (82.6) 31.1 (88)

Average low °C (°F) 16.4 (61.5) 18.5 (65.3) 21.5 (70.7) 23.8 (74.8) 24.6 (76.3) 24.9 (76.8) 24.7 (76.5) 24.6 (76.3) 24.1 (75.4) 22.9 (73.2) 19.3 (66.7) 16.7 (62.1) 21.8 (71.2)

Record low °C (°F) 0.0 (32) 7.6 (45.7) 12.1 (53.8) 17.1 (62.8) 20.0 (68) 21.1 (70) 21.2 (70.2) 21.1 (70) 21.2 (70.2) 12.9 (55.2) 8.9 (48) 5.0 (41) 0.0 (32)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 7.5 (0.295) 13.0 (0.512) 33.7 (1.327) 84.9 (3.343) 245.8 (9.677) 279.8 (11.016) 272.3 (10.72) 334.6 (13.173) 297.3 (11.705) 78.0 (3.071) 11.1 (0.437) 2.5 (0.098) 1,660.5 (65.374)

Average rainy days 1 2 4 8 15 18 20 21 17 9 2 1 118

Average relative humidity (%) 70 68 66 69 78 82 82 84 83 78 72 70 75

Mean monthly sunshine hours 254.4 214.3 216.8 226.3 207.1 152.9 148.6 137.1 137.7 247.7 234.3 257.5 2,434.7

Source #1: World Meteorological Organization,[7] Deutscher Wetterdienst (extremes 1907–1990)[8]

Source #2: NOAA (sun and humidity)[9]

Tourism[edit]

Wat Si Muang

Buddha
Buddha
Park

Although still a small city, the capital experiences a major influx of tourists. The city contains many temples and Buddhist monuments with Pha That Luang, a Buddhist stupa, one of the most famous in Laos. It is the most important national cultural monument and very popular amongst foreign tourists. The original was built in 1566 by King Setthathirath, and was restored in 1953. The golden stupa is 45 metres tall and is believed to contain a relic of the Lord Buddha.[10] Another site that is also popular amongst tourists is Wat Si Muang. The temple was built on the ruins of a Khmer Hindu
Hindu
shrine, the remains of which can be seen behind the ordination hall.[11] It was built in 1563 and is believed to be guarded by the spirit of a local girl called “Si". Legend says that Nang Si, who was pregnant at the time, leapt to her death as a sacrifice, just as the pillar was being lowered into the hole. In front of the temple stands a statue of King Sisavang Vong.[11] The memorial monument, Patuxai, began construction in 1957 and completed in 1968, is perhaps the most prominent landmark in the city.[10] While the Arc de Triomphe
Arc de Triomphe
in Paris
Paris
inspired the architecture, the design incorporates typical Lao motifs including “Kinnari”, a mythical bird woman. Energetic visitors can climb to the top of the monument, which reveals a panoramic view of the city. Buddha
Buddha
Park was built in 1958 by Luang Pu Bunleua Sulilat
Luang Pu Bunleua Sulilat
and contains a collection of Buddhist and Hindu
Hindu
sculptures, scattered amongst gardens and trees. The park was built about 28 kilometres south of Vientiane
Vientiane
at the edge of the Mekong
Mekong
River.[12] Vientiane
Vientiane
is home to one of the three bowling alleys in Laos
Laos
(the other two are in Luang Prabang
Luang Prabang
and Pakse). There are many upper-class hotels in Vientiane. Other sites include:

Haw Phra Kaew, former temple, now museum and small shops Lao National Museum Talat Sao
Talat Sao
Morning market That Dam, large stupa Wat Ong Teu Mahawihan, Buddhist monastery Wat Sri Chomphu Ong Tue, Buddhist temple Wat Si Saket, Buddhist wat Wat Sok Pa Luang, Buddhist temple Settha Palace Hotel, Established 1932 The Sanjiang Market[13]

Vientiane
Vientiane
from Patuxai.

Colleges and universities[edit] The National University of Laos, one of three universities in the country, is in Vientiane.[14] Broadcasting[edit]

Lao National Radio has a large mediumwave transmitter with a 277-metre guyed mast at 18° 20' 33"N, 102° 27' 01"E China
China
Radio International (CRI) FM 93.0[15]

Economy[edit] Vientiane
Vientiane
is the driving force behind economic change in Laos. In recent years, the city has experienced rapid economic growth from foreign investment.[16] In 2011, the stock exchange opened with two listed company stocks, with the cooperation of South Korea.[17] Transportation[edit] Within Laos[edit] There are regular bus services connecting Vientiane
Vientiane
Bus
Bus
Station with the rest of the country. In Vientiane, regular bus services around the city are provided by Vientiane
Vientiane
Capital State Bus
Bus
Enterprise.[18] From Thailand[edit]

Wattay International Airport

Older taxis in Vientiane
Vientiane
are being replaced by newer Chinese-made cars, like this Soueast
Soueast
Lioncel.[19]

Thanaleng Train Station

The First Thai-Lao Friendship Bridge, built in the 1990s, crosses the river 18 kilometres downstream of the city of Nong Khai
Nong Khai
in Thailand, and is the major crossing between the two countries. The official name of the bridge was changed in 2007 by the addition of "First", after the Second Friendship Bridge linking Mukdahan
Mukdahan
in Thailand
Thailand
with Savannakhet
Savannakhet
in Laos
Laos
was opened early in 2007. A metre gauge railway link over the bridge was formally inaugurated on 5 March 2009, ending at Thanaleng Railway Station, in Dongphosy village ( Vientiane
Vientiane
Prefecture), 20 km east of Vientiane.[20][21] As of November 2010, Lao officials plan to convert the station into a rail cargo terminal for freight trains, allowing cargo to be transported from Bangkok
Bangkok
into Laos
Laos
at a lower cost than would be possible with road transport.[22] To Thailand[edit] Daily non-stop bus services run between Vientiane
Vientiane
and Nong Khai, Udon Thani, and Khon Kaen. From China[edit] In October 2010, plans were announced for a 530 km high-speed railway linking Vientiane
Vientiane
to Xishuangbanna, in Yunnan
Yunnan
Province in China.[23] which was later modified to a high speed train from Boten to Vientiane
Vientiane
with total distance of 421.243 km to be served by 21 stations including 5 major stations passing through 165 bridges (total length of 92.6 km) and 69 tunnels (total length of 186.9 km)[24][25] Construction on this line—as part of the longer Kunming to Singapore Railway
Kunming to Singapore Railway
began on 25 April 2011.[26] By air[edit] Vientiane
Vientiane
is served by Wattay International Airport
Wattay International Airport
with international connections to other Asian countries. Lao Airlines
Lao Airlines
has regular flights to several domestic destinations in the country (including several flights daily to Luang Prabang, plus a few flights weekly to other local destinations).[27] In Thailand, Udon Thani
Udon Thani
International Airport, one of Wattay's main connections, is less than 90 km distant. Healthcare[edit] The "Centre Medical de l'Ambassade de France" is available to the foreign community in Laos. The Mahosot Hospital is an important local hospital in treating and researching diseases and is connected with the University of Oxford. In 2011 the Alliance Clinic opened near the airport, with a connection to Thai hospitals. The Setthathirat International Clinic has foreign doctors. A free, 24/7 ambulance service is provided by Vientiane
Vientiane
Rescue, a volunteer-run rescue service established in 2010.[28] Saysaath pharmacy sells a wide variety of prescription drugs and over the counter drugs, beauty products, health care and medical equipment. Saysaath also provides health care services and mutiple locations throughout Vientiane. Twin towns – Brother cities[edit] Vientiane
Vientiane
is twinned with:

Bangkok, Thailand Chittagong, Bangladesh Phnom Penh, Cambodia Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam Cirebon, Indonesia

See also[edit]

Laos
Laos
portal

Kingdom of Vientiane National Library of Laos Auguste Pavie Vat Yotkeo

References[edit]

^ Lonely Planet. "History of Vientiane Province
Vientiane Province
- Lonely Planet Travel Information". Retrieved 18 July 2015.  ^ "Vientiane". Farlex Encyclopedia. Retrieved 25 Nov 2010.  ^ Coedès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella, ed. The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. trans.Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1.  ^ " Vientiane
Vientiane
marks 450 years anniversary". Retrieved 18 July 2015.  ^ "Far East and Australasia". Archived from the original on November 21, 2010. Retrieved 25 Nov 2010.  ^ a b Far East and Australasia 2003 - Google Books ^ "World Weather Information Service - Vientiane
Vientiane
(1951-2000)". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved May 14, 2010.  ^ "Klimatafel von Vientiane
Vientiane
(Viangchan) / Laos" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved January 23, 2016.  ^ " Vientiane
Vientiane
Climate Normals 1961−1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved November 29, 2013.  ^ a b Lao National Tourism Administration - Tourist Sites in Vientiane Capital Archived July 23, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b "Wat Si Muang". Retrieved 18 July 2015.  ^ " Buddha
Buddha
Park - Vientiane
Vientiane
- Laos
Laos
- Asia for Visitors". Retrieved 18 July 2015.  ^ " China
China
Gives Southeast Asia's Poorest First Time Access to Consumer Goods - China
China
Briefing News". China
China
Briefing News.  ^ "National University of Laos
Laos
(NUOL)". National University of Laos (NUOL). NUOL. Retrieved 2014-12-08.  ^ " China
China
Radio International".  ^ Work begins on major new Vientiane
Vientiane
shopping centre Lao Voices Archived May 3, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Laos
Laos
stocks soar on debut – yes, both of them". Financial Times.  ^ "Timetables". Vientiane
Vientiane
Capital State Bus
Bus
Enterprise. VCSBE. Retrieved 2014-12-08.  ^ Matthias Gasnier (2012-08-13). " Laos
Laos
2012 Update: Chinese models keep spreading". bestsellingcarsblog.com. Retrieved 2013-11-10.  ^ "Inaugural train begins Laos
Laos
royal visit". Railway Gazette International. 2009-03-05.  ^ Andrew Spooner (2009-02-27). "First train to Laos". The Guardian. Retrieved 2011-03-13.  ^ Rapeepat Mantanarat (2010-11-09). " Laos
Laos
rethinks rail project". TTR Weekly. Archived from the original on July 27, 2011. Retrieved 2011-03-13.  ^ "New China- Laos
Laos
link". Railways Africa. Archived from the original on January 31, 2014. Retrieved 2010-12-07.  ^ "Boten Vientiane
Vientiane
Railway Link". Laos-Travel-Guide. Archived from the original on July 13, 2011. Retrieved 2011-01-18.  ^ "中国铁路考察团对中老铁路进行全线考察 China Railway Erju Group Corporation (中铁二局集团公司)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 8, 2011. Retrieved 2010-12-25.  ^ "Kunming- Singapore
Singapore
High-Speed Railway begins construction". People's Daily. 25 Apr 2011. Archived from the original on April 29, 2011. Retrieved 26 Apr 2011.  ^ "Route Map". Lao Airlines. Lao Airlines. Retrieved 2014-12-08.  ^ "About". Vientiane
Vientiane
Rescue. Retrieved 11 October 2016. 

Further reading[edit]

Askew, Marc, William Stewart Logan, and Colin Long. Vientiane: Transformations of a Lao Landscape. London: Routledge, 2007. ISBN 978-0-415-33141-8 Sharifi et al., Can master planning control and regulate urban growth in Vientiane, Laos?. Landscape and Urban Planning, 2014. DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2014.07.014 Flores, Penelope V. Good-Bye, Vientiane: Untold Stories of Filipinos in Laos. San Francisco, CA: Philippine American Writers and Artists, Inc, 2005. ISBN 978-0-9763316-1-2 Renaut, Thomas, and Arnaud Dubus. Eternal Vientiane. City heritage. Hong Kong: Published by Fortune Image Ltd. for Les Editions d'Indochine, 1995. Schrama, Ilse, and Birgit Schrama. Buddhist Temple Life in Laos: Wat Sok Pa Luang". Bangkok: Orchid Press, 2006. ISBN 978-974-524-073-5 Women's International Group (Viangchan, Laos). Vientiane
Vientiane
Guide. [Vientiane]: Women's International Group, 1993.

External links[edit]

Vientiane
Vientiane
travel guide from Wikivoyage Media related to Vientiane
Vientiane
at Wikimedia Commons Pictures of Vientiane
Vientiane
on Flickr Map of Vientiane Laos-Travel-Guide.com Vientiane
Vientiane
Travel Guide Vientiane: Gourmet Grasshoppers - video report by Global Post Vientiane
Vientiane
on Google Maps

v t e

Districts of Laos

Attapeu

Phouvong Samakkhixay ( Attapeu
Attapeu
city) Sanamxay Sanxay Saysetha

Bokeo

Houay Xay Meung Pak Tha ( Ban Houayxay
Ban Houayxay
city) Pha Oudom Ton Pheung

Bolikhamsai

Borikhane Khamkeut Pakkading Paksane (city) Thaphabat Viengthong

Champasak

Batiengchaleunsouk Champassack Khong Mounlapamok Pak Sé (city) Paksong Pathouphone Phonthong Sanasomboun Soukhoumma

Houaphanh

Houameuang Et Sop Bao Samneua (city) Samtay Viengthong Viengxay Xiengkho

Khammouane

Boualapha Hineboune Mahaxay Nakai Nong Bok Saybouathong Sebangphay Thakhek
Thakhek
(city) Yommalath

Luang Namtha

Long Na Le Namtha ( Luang Namtha
Luang Namtha
city) Sing Viengphoukha

Luang Prabang

Chomphet Luang Prabang
Luang Prabang
(city) Nam Bak Nane Ngoy Pak Seng Pak Ou Phonxay Phoukhoune Viengkham Xiengngeun

Oudomxay

Beng Houne La Na Mo Nga Pak Beng Xay (city)

Phongsaly

Boun Neua ( Phongsali
Phongsali
city) Boun Tay Khoua May Yot Ou Phongsaly Samphanh

Salavan

Khongxedone Lakhonepheng Lao Ngam Saravane (city) Sa Mouay Ta Oy Toumlane Vapy

Savannakhet

Atsaphangthong Assaphone Champhone Kaysone Phomvihane ( Savannakhet
Savannakhet
city) Khanthaboury Nong Outhoumphone Phine Seponh Songkhone Thapangthong Thaphalanxay Viraboury Xayboury Xonboury

Sekong

Dak Cheung Kaleum La Mam ( Sekong
Sekong
city) Tha Teng

Vientiane

Feuang Hinhurp Hom Kasy Keooudom Mad Pholhong (city) Thoulakhom Vangvieng Viengkham Xanakharm

Vientiane
Vientiane
(Viengchan)

Vientiane
Vientiane
Capital City

Chanthabuly Hadxayfong Mayparkngum Naxaithong Sangthong Sikhottabong Sisattanak Xaysetha Xaythany

Xaignabouli

Botene Hongsa Kenethao Khop Ngeun Parklai Phiang Thongmyxay Xaignabouli city Xienghone

Xaisomboun

Anouvong Longchaeng Longxan Hom Thathom

Xiangkhouang

Kham Khoune Mok May Nong Het Pek ( Phonsavan
Phonsavan
city) Phaxay Phou Kout

v t e

Capitals of Asia

Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in italics

North and Central Asia South Asia Southeast Asia West and Southwest Asia

Ashgabat, Turkmenistan Astana, Kazakhstan* Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan Dushanbe, Tajikistan Moscow, Russia* Tashkent, Uzbekistan

East Asia

Beijing, China Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
(China) Macau, Macau
Macau
(China) Pyongyang, North Korea Seoul, South Korea Taipei, Taiwan
Taiwan
(ROC) Tokyo, Japan Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Kabul, Afghanistan Dhaka, Bangladesh Diego Garcia, BIOT (UK) Islamabad, Pakistan Kathmandu, Nepal Kotte, Sri Lanka Malé, Maldives New Delhi, India Thimphu, Bhutan

Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Bangkok, Thailand Dili, East Timor Flying Fish Cove, Christmas Island
Christmas Island
(Australia) Hanoi, Vietnam Jakarta, Indonesia* Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Manila, Philippines Naypyidaw, Myanmar Phnom Penh, Cambodia Singapore Vientiane, Laos West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
(Australia)

Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Amman, Jordan Ankara, Turkey* Baghdad, Iraq Baku, Azerbaijan* Beirut, Lebanon Cairo, Egypt* Doha, Qatar Jerusalem, Israel/Palestine † Kuwait
Kuwait
City, Kuwait Manama, Bahrain

Muscat, Oman Nicosia, Cyprus* North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus* Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Sana'a, Yemen Stepanakert, Artsakh* Sukhumi, Abkhazia* Tbilisi, Georgia* Tehran, Iran Tskhinvali, South Ossetia* Yerevan, Armenia*

*Transcontinental country. † Disputed. See: Positions on Jerusalem.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 125433012 GND: 4350641-0 SELIBR: 162416 BNF:

.