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The Info List - Video 2000


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Video
Video
2000 (also known as V2000, with the tape standard Video
Video
Compact Cassette, or VCC) is a consumer videocassette system and analogue recording standard developed by Philips
Philips
and Grundig
Grundig
to compete with JVC's VHS
VHS
and Sony's Betamax
Betamax
video technologies. Designed for the PAL colour television standard (some models additionally handled SECAM), distribution of Video
Video
2000 products began in 1979 exclusively in Europe, South Africa and Argentina and ended in 1988. Video
Video
2000 was presented at the International Radio Exhibition in Berlin in 1979 and succeeded Philips's earlier Video
Video
Cassette Recording (VCR) format and its derivatives (VCR-LP and Grundig's SVR). Although some early models and advertising featured a mirror-image 'VCR' badge based on the older systems' logo, Video
Video
2000 was an entirely new (and incompatible) format that incorporated many technical innovations. Despite this, the format was not a major success and was eventually discontinued, having lost out to the rival VHS
VHS
system in the videotape format war.

Contents

1 The Video
Video
Compact Cassette 2 Format and features 3 Launch 4 Second-generation improvements 5 Format's demise 6 Planned developments 7 Machines 8 Technical specifications 9 References 10 External links

The Video
Video
Compact Cassette[edit] Philips
Philips
named the videotape standard Video
Video
Compact Cassette (VCC) to complement its landmark audio Compact Cassette format introduced in 1963, but the format itself was marketed under the trademark Video 2000. Despite the name, VCCs are marginally larger than VHS
VHS
cassettes —shorter, but thicker and deeper.[1][2] They have two co-planar reels containing half-inch (12.5mm) wide chromium dioxide magnetic tape. The format utilised only half (6.25mm) of the half-inch tape on a given 'side', and so it is occasionally referred to erroneously as a quarter-inch tape format despite its physical tape width. The cassette can then be flipped over to use the other half of the tape, thus doubling playing time. The tape is totally enclosed when not in use. Unlike competing formats that have spaces in the cassette for the tape loading mechanism to be inserted, thus exposing the delicate magnetic tape surface, VCCs have a retractable sheath that covers such space. The sheath is retracted as a tape is inserted into the machine and only then can the tape cover be raised to fully expose the tape. While VHS
VHS
and Beta tapes have a break-off tab to protect recordings from erasure (as in audio Compact Cassettes and, once broken, the cavity left by the missing tab must be covered or filled before the tape can be reused), VCCs employ a reversible solution: a switch on the tape edge can be turned to red/orange to protect the recordings, and back to black/brown (depending on the colour of the cassette housing) to re-record. The switch covers/uncovers a hole along the tape edge which is detected by a sensor in the machine. The tape edge features six such holes along each side of the tape, detected by sensors on the cassette's underside. The left-hand cluster includes the write-protection hole. The right-hand cluster of three is used (by various permutations of open/closed status) to tell the machine the total tape running time. This was employed in second generation machines such as Grundig's Video
Video
2x4 Super to provide a real-time tape counter: upon insertion of the tape the machine moves the tape forward and then backward by a small amount and monitors the comparative angular speed of the reels. This is looked up in a data table for the known total tape length and the hours and minutes used are then displayed. A similar technique was later used on Video8, MiniDV
MiniDV
and MicroMV
MicroMV
cassettes. Some later VHS
VHS
machines also featured this ability although it did not work with VHS-C
VHS-C
cassettes. NOTE: When Grundig
Grundig
began marketing VHS
VHS
recorders, its VS2XX series machines employed a similar system, whereby barcoded stickers attached to the tape edge indicated the total tape length to the machine so that it could calculate the time used. A hole between the two spools enables a pin in the VCR to pass right through the cassette. This pin releases ratchets within the cassette that prevent the tape accidentally becoming slack in transit. The VCR's eject function includes a tape tensioning action prior to the cassette being ejected. Format and features[edit] Dynamic Track Following (DTF) eliminated the need for a separate control track, and enabled the video heads to accurately follow the recorded tracks on the tape during playback. Therefore, by design V2000 machines does not require a video tracking control (however, Grundig's model 1600 lacked DTF). During record, a sequence of four pilot frequencies is recorded with the video signal. During playback, if a video head reads an adjacent track, a voltage of up to ± 150 volts is applied to the piezo-electric material on which the video heads are mounted. The flexible head mount enables the head to accurately read every track (ie, no noisebars), at up to seven times normal speed forwards, and fives times in reverse. VHS
VHS
developers JVC later introduced a so-called "Dynamic Drum" in a few top-of-the-range devices. V2000 is able to play both fields of the image in still frame mode, providing full vertical resolution whereas VHS
VHS
and Betamax
Betamax
could only reproduce one field, giving only half of the normal vertical resolution. A real advantage of DTF on all but the very first V2000 models is the ability to provide picture search without noise bars across the screen, a feature domestic VHS
VHS
or Betamax
Betamax
machines were only ever able to approach by introducing complex multi-head drums. At the time of its launch, Video
Video
2000 also offered several innovative features unmatched by the competing formats VHS
VHS
and Betamax:

All V2000 VCRs sport an auto-rewind function (later matched by VHS
VHS
and Betamax) Dynamic noise suppression to reduce tape hiss on the audio track (similar to Dolby on VHS
VHS
machines) Provision of a data track alongside the video track Channel selection and timer programming via a 0-9 numeric keypad While other formats used transparent leader to detect tape end, in a Video
Video
Compact Cassette a metal strip on the back of the tape is detected optically by reflection to trigger auto-stop Multiple motors meant that the mechanism was direct drive - each spool having its own motor and electric brake Direct control of any function so that, with a cassette inserted, one could just press play without switching the machine on first; machines would switch off after a short period of inactivity If record was pressed when the machine was empty or had a write-protected cassette in it, the machine would open the cassette carriage Automatically winding the tape to a tape counter value input on the keypad ("go to"). Not long before the end of production Philips
Philips
introduced a half-speed mode, the V2000 XL or eXtra Long, doubling capacity and making it possible to store 16 hours (eight hours per side) on one single tape. This was featured in Philips
Philips
VR2840 and Grundig's Video
Video
2x8 machines.

Linear stereo sound was available on some models, though both VHS
VHS
and Betamax
Betamax
were offering hifi stereo sound with near-CD quality by the mid 1980s. Launch[edit] Main article: videotape format war

The Philips
Philips
VR2020 was the first mass-marketed model for the Video 2000 format sold in the UK.

After displaying their VR2000 prototype at trade shows and to the media Philips
Philips
released the first Video
Video
2000 VCR, the VR2020, in the UK in 1979. Philips
Philips
models were re-badged as Pye and ITT, amongst others, and even re-skinned as Bang & Olufsen, whilst Grundig
Grundig
models were re-badged as Siemens. A key intention of the V2000 format, thanks to DTF, was tape compatibility. A tape from any machine should play perfectly on any other machine. Unfortunately, when the VR2020 reached the shops it was discovered that its audio head was 2.5mm out of position compared to that on Grundig's Video
Video
2x4. This meant that the sound would be out of sync with the picture when played back on the other type of machine. Both manufacturers' production lines hastily moved the audio head 1.25mm to a common position, but compatibility issues remained for recordings made on the first generation of machines.[3] Furthermore, the required close tolerances and fragility of the DTF system resulted in significant inter-machine compatibility issues which were never fully resolved. Furthermore, there were initially some compatibility issues with the tape interchange, allegedly even with the lap synchrony, if cassettes recorded with Philips
Philips
equipment were to be played on Grundig
Grundig
machines. Although Philips
Philips
and Grundig
Grundig
agreed on a common tape format, they came up with machines that were radically different mechanically. Building on its experience with VCR, Grundig
Grundig
machines featured a Betamax-style loading ring to gently pull the tape around the video heads in a 'U-wrap' over all three generations of their recorders, which was effective, simple and economical. Philips, however, used an 'M-wrap' similar to that in VHS
VHS
machines. Cables pulled pins along tracks in order to pull the tape into the transport path. This drive was large, heavy and very complex to produce, although having the head drum, capstan, audio/erase heads and the respective drive motors all mounted on a common base plate meant it was produced to high tolerances. Philips
Philips
referred to this assembly as the ‘microworld’. Second and third generation Philips
Philips
drives replaced the cable-pulled pins with a reliable lever mechanism. In addition, first and second generation Grundig
Grundig
recorders had a high failure rate due to thin-walled plastic connectors between the drive and the motor connection board. Second-generation improvements[edit]

The Philips
Philips
VR2340 is a second-generation Philips
Philips
Video
Video
2000 recorder. This particular model features IR remote control, trick play and linear stereo.

Compared to VHS, production costs were a big problem with Video
Video
2000. For their second-generation series Philips
Philips
developed a completely new drive, with the tape pulled against the heads in an formation by pins on lever arms. This drive was very compact, with very high quality and (compared to VHS) very fast response times, but still had five direct-drive motors (head drum, capstan, two belt drive and a threading and cassette compartment). Due to their compact nature, these last Philips
Philips
drives were quite expensive to service but defects in the mechanism are quite rare, except for the rubber pressure roller which is easy to change. Other improvements include reduced outer dimensions and weight and addition of a SCART
SCART
audio/video connector.

Format's demise[edit] Although Video
Video
2000 was technologically superior to the competition in several ways, it could not compete with VHS
VHS
and Betamax's key advantages:

By the time it reached the market, VHS
VHS
and Betamax
Betamax
had established market share and considerable prerecorded video libraries. JVC
JVC
offered other manufacturers free licenses to produce VHS
VHS
devices VHS
VHS
and Betamax
Betamax
recorders have been credited with greater reliability. VHS
VHS
and Betamax
Betamax
both had hi-fi stereo sound. Betamax
Betamax
camcorders arrived at market first. VHS
VHS
and Betamax
Betamax
enjoyed worldwide distribution.

Additionally, Video
Video
2000 never achieved the picture quality (optimally adjusted devices) of the predecessor systems VCR, VCR-LP or SVR because of the video writing speed. In 1985 Grundig
Grundig
started development and production of VHS
VHS
recorders alongside V2000, and in 1986 Philips
Philips
announced that it would discontinue the manufacturing of Video
Video
2000 recorders, focusing instead on VHS
VHS
exclusively. Their first home-grown VHS
VHS
recorder - VR6560 - was virtually a clone of the VR2324, using the VHS
VHS
format tapes and the usual VHS
VHS
M-wrap. Curiously, when Philips
Philips
launched its second-generation home-grown VHS
VHS
recorders (VR6467, VR6760, etc.) they pioneered the VHS
VHS
'U-wrap' (known colloquially as the "Charly" deck) and this was used in many Philips-built machines well into the first half of the 1990s. Grundig
Grundig
also used U-wrap in its own VHS
VHS
decks for a short while before using Panasonic-manufactured decks. Planned developments[edit] Philips
Philips
and Grundig
Grundig
intended Video
Video
2000 to improve on the perceived failings of the VHS
VHS
and Betamax
Betamax
formats whilst providing the potential for further developments. However, the format was withdrawn before many of these possibilities appeared on the market. The prototype Video
Video
Mini Cassette was a compact version of the VCC (analogous to VHS-C) that was playable in existing machines using a full-sized cassette adaptor. Published photos clearly show the nomenclature VMC120, suggesting that 60 minutes per side were possible (compared to 20 minutes total initially for VHS-C), but Philips retired Video
Video
2000 before the development was ready for market. The 108x72x21mm Video
Video
Mini Cassette was somewhat larger than VHS-C's (92x59x23mm). However, the cassette - as well as the adaptor - left the tape noticeably exposed to mishandling. Hifi sound was never marketed although photos of the Philips
Philips
VR2870 were published in 1985, shortly before the format's demise. This would have recorded pulse-code modulated (PCM) audio in the data track, offering the format another advantage over VHS/Beta as the hifi track would be independent of the visuals, and so could be re-recorded or dubbed as became possible later with Video8. Rumours also circulated in the press of an auto-reverse machine shortly before the format was retired. Technically this would have been a major challenge to enable a single head drum to scan both 'sides' of the tape at the correct angle. Alongside the write-protect hole were two that were never used. One was slated to indicate the tape formulation as higher coercivity tapes were to be introduced for the 'Super 2000' hi-band version of the format. The flexibility of this system also allowed for metal tape to be introduced for the digital version 'Digital 2000', also in the early stages of development as the format was canceled. Internal documents suggested the cassette abbreviations VSC and VDC to be used, respectively, for the two developments. Machines[edit]

A Pye 20VR22 recorder

Recorders in the format were manufactured by Philips
Philips
and Grundig
Grundig
and marketed additionally by Pye, ITT, Bang and Olufsen, Aristona, Erres, Radiola, Siera and Siemens.

Philips
Philips
VR2020 basic recorder (also Pye 20VR20, Siera 20VR20, B&O Beocord 8800, ITT 482) Philips
Philips
VR2021 as VR2020 with minor cosmetic changes to bring into line with VR2022, and incorporating several of that machine’s upgraded componentry (also Pye 20VR21, ITT 483) Philips
Philips
VR2022 as VR2021 with added noiseless Picture Search at 7x forwards and 5x reverse (Pye 20VR22, B&O Beocord 8802, ITT 580) Philips
Philips
VR2022S as VR2022 but with half-speed slow motion Philips
Philips
VR2023 redesigned fascia and remote control as standard Philips
Philips
VR2024 as VR2023 with added linear stereo (also as VR2099 in dark grey casing) Philips
Philips
VR2025 rebranded Grundig
Grundig
Video
Video
2x4 Super (PAL/ SECAM
SECAM
tuner - recorded SECAM
SECAM
as PAL) Philips
Philips
VR2026 (PAL/ SECAM
SECAM
tuner - recorded SECAM
SECAM
as PAL)[4] Philips
Philips
VR2220/VR2120 two-part (recorder/tuner-timer) portable machine (also Pye and Radiola 22VR20, Tesla VM2220, Seleco ST900/901) Philips
Philips
VR2324 basic series II compact machine (Pye 23VR24, Siera 23VR24) Philips
Philips
VR2330 as VR2324 with linear stereo Philips
Philips
VR2334 as VR2324 with added remote control and trick play Philips
Philips
VR2340 as VR2334 with added linear stereo Philips
Philips
VR2350 front-loading MatchLine model (features as for VR2340) Philips
Philips
VR2840 as VR2340 with added 16-hour XL recording mode Philips
Philips
VR2870 as VR2340 with PCM hifi stereo (only seen in photos, so perhaps just a development machine that wasn't released?) Philips
Philips
VR2414 basic series III compact machine Philips
Philips
VR2424 slightly redesigned VR2414 Grundig
Grundig
Video
Video
2x4 basic recorder 700 (also ITT 480, Siemens
Siemens
FM204) Grundig
Grundig
Video
Video
2x4 plus 770 – as 2x4 with added trick play Grundig
Grundig
Video
Video
2x4 Super 800 – series II machine with noiseless Picture Search at 7x forwards and 5x reverse (also Philips
Philips
VR2025, Siemens
Siemens
FM402) Grundig
Grundig
Video
Video
2x4 850 – as 2x4 Super Grundig
Grundig
Video
Video
2x4 Stereo 880 – as 2x4 Super with added linear stereo ( Siemens
Siemens
FM404) Grundig
Grundig
Video
Video
2x4 1600 – basic series III machine, the only V2000 not to feature DTF Grundig
Grundig
Video
Video
2x4 2000 – series III machine Grundig
Grundig
Video
Video
2x4 2000a - as 2000 but with redesigned electronics and updated display (also Siemens
Siemens
FM324) Grundig
Grundig
Video
Video
2x4 2200 – series III machine with added linear stereo Grundig
Grundig
Video
Video
2x4/2x8 2080 – series III machine featuring 16-hour XL recording mode (also Siemens
Siemens
FM328, FM328-9 PAL/SECAM) Grundig
Grundig
Video
Video
2x4/2x8 2280 - as 2080 with added linear stereo (also Siemens
Siemens
FM428, FM429, FM429-9 PAL/SECAM) Grundig
Grundig
Video
Video
2x4/2x8 2280a - as 2280 but completely redesigned to align with the VS2nn VHS
VHS
models

Technical specifications[edit]

TV system: 625/50 black and colour PAL
PAL
and SECAM Band: ½ inch (two ¼ inch tracks) Head drum diameter: 65mm Head drum speed: 1500rpm Video
Video
spread width: SP 22.5μm / LP 11.25μm Video
Video
head gap width: 0.28μm Azimuth angle of the two heads: +/- 15 ° Fitting Position: Rear Axle: 2 ° 38'51 " Tape speed: SP 2.442 cm/s, LP 1.221 cm/s Relative speed: SP 5.08 m/s, LP 5.09 m/s Video
Video
track length: 102 mm Control track: not required due to DTF, but design included a 0.3mm cue track for later applications Cassette dimension (L × W × H): VCC 183×110.5×26mm, VMC 108x72x21mm Video
Video
resolution luminance: 3 MHz = 240 lines (later, eg Philips VR 2840: 3.1 MHz = 250 lines) Video
Video
resolution Chroma (colour): approx. 0.5 MHz; Reduced colour with auxiliary support at 625 kHz Sound: Longitudinal track (stereo) with DNS (Dynamic Noise Suppression) Audio track width: mono 0.6mm, stereo 2×0.25mm (track pitch: 0.15mm)

References[edit]

^ "V2000 PALsite" accessed January 3, 2007, lists the VCC dimensions: 183mm × 26mm × 110 mm ^ VHS_e.htm " VHS
VHS
Community: VHS
VHS
1976" accessed January 3, 2007, lists the VHS
VHS
cassette dimensions: 188mm × 25mm × 104mm ^ Dean, Richard. Home Video
Video
(Newnes Technical Books, 1982), page 18 ^ Videorecorder VR2026/53 R-Player Philips
Philips
Radios, Radiomuseum

External links[edit]

Video
Video
2000 page at Total Rewind - The Virtual Museum of Vintage VCRs V2000 PALsite - Information about the V2000 video format New Scientist July, 5, 1979,page 25

v t e

Video
Video
storage formats

Videotape

Analog

Quadruplex (1956) VERA (1958) Ampex 2 inch helical VTR (1961) Sony
Sony
2 inch helical VTR (1961) Type A (1965) CV-2000 (1965) Akai (1967) U-matic
U-matic
(1969) EIAJ-1
EIAJ-1
(1969) Cartrivision (1972) Philips
Philips
VCR (1972) V-Cord (1974) VX (1974) Betamax
Betamax
(1975) IVC (1975) Type B (1976) Type C (1976) VHS
VHS
(1976) VK (1977) SVR (1979) Video
Video
2000 (1980) CVC (1980) VHS-C
VHS-C
(1982) M (1982) Betacam
Betacam
(1982) Video8
Video8
(1985) MII (1986) S- VHS
VHS
(1987) S- VHS-C
VHS-C
(1987) Hi8 (1989) Ruvi (1998)

Digital

D1 (1986) D2 (1988) D3 (1991) DCT (1992) Digital Betacam
Betacam
(1993) D5 (1994) Digital-S
Digital-S
(D9) (1995) Betacam
Betacam
SX (1996) Digital8
Digital8
(1999) MicroMV
MicroMV
(2001)

High Definition

Sony
Sony
HDVS (1984) UniHi (1984) W- VHS
VHS
(1994) HDCAM
HDCAM
(1997) D- VHS
VHS
(1998) D6 HDTV VTR
D6 HDTV VTR
(2000) HDV
HDV
(2003) HDCAM
HDCAM
SR (2003)

Videodisc

Analog

Phonovision (1927) Ampex-HS (1967) TeD (1975) LaserDisc
LaserDisc
(1978) CED (1981) VHD (1983) Laserfilm
Laserfilm
(1984) CD Video
Video
(1987) VSD (c. 1987)

Digital

VCD (1993) MovieCD
MovieCD
(1996) DVD
DVD
(1996) Mini DVD
DVD
(c. 1996) DVD- Video
Video
(1997) CVD (1998) SVCD (1998) EVD (2003) PVD (Personal Video
Video
Disc) (2003) HVD (High-Definition Versatile Disc) (2004) UMD (2004) FVD (2005)

High Definition

MUSE Hi-Vision LD (1994) VMD (2006) HD DVD
DVD
(2006) BRD (BD/ Blu-ray
Blu-ray
disc) (2006) MiniBD (c. 2006) HVD (Holographic Versatile Disc) (2007) CBHD (China Blue High-definition Disc) (2008) UHD BRD (Ultra HD Blu-ray
Blu-ray
disc) (2016)

Virtual

Media agnostic

DV (1995) DVCPRO (1995) DVCAM (1996) DVCPRO50 (1997) DVCPRO HD (2000)

Tapeless

CamCutter Editcam (1995) XDCAM
XDCAM
(2003) MOD (2005) AVCHD
AVCHD
(2006) AVC-Intra (2006) TOD (2007) iFrame (2009) XAVC (2012)

Solid state

P2 (2004) SxS (2007) MicroP2
MicroP2
(2012)

Video
Video
recorded to film

Kinescope
Kinescope
(1947) Telerecording
Telerecording
(1940s) Electronicam
Electronicam
kinescope (1950s) Electronic Video
Video
Recording (1967)

v t e

Philips

Divisions and subsidiaries

Current

Philips
Philips
Consumer Lifestyle

Gaggia Saeco

Philips
Philips
Healthcare

Philips
Philips
AVENT Respironics Shenzhen Goldway Industrial

Philips
Philips
Lighting

Philips
Philips
Lumileds Lighting Company

Corporate Technologies

Former and defunct

Liquavista Magnavox NXP Semiconductors Philips
Philips
Analytical Philips
Philips
Natuurkundig Laboratorium PolyGram

Fontana Records Mercury Records Philips
Philips
Classics Records Philips
Philips
Records PolyGram
PolyGram
Filmed Entertainment Vertigo Records

Joint ventures and shareholdings

Current

NXP Semiconductors
NXP Semiconductors
(19.9%) Philips-Neusoft Medical Systems (51%) TCL Corporation
TCL Corporation
(6.3%)

BlackBerry Mobile Alcatel Mobile TCL Multimedia
TCL Multimedia
(52.10%) Palm, Inc. Tonly Electronics

Former and defunct

ASML Holding Broadcast Television Systems Inc. Grundig LG. Philips
Philips
Displays LG Philips
Philips
LCD Marantz Navteq NEC Philips
Philips
Unified Systems Philips
Philips
Consumer Communications TP Vision TSMC SSMC Lumileds

Brands, products and standards

Current

Ambilight Hue Norelco Philips
Philips
Cinema 21:9 TV Philips
Philips
Entertaible Philips
Philips
GoGear Philips
Philips
Intimate Massagers Senseo ShoqBox Sonicare Streamium Trimension Video
Video
Content Protection System

Defunct

Philips
Philips
CD-i Philips
Philips
Nino Philips
Philips
Velo Philips
Philips
Videopac Philips
Philips
VideoWriter Philips
Philips
:YES Philishave SpeechMagic Video
Video
2000

People

Cor Boonstra President and Chief Executive Officer Frans van Houten Co-founders Anton Philips
Philips
and Gerard Philips Frits Philips

Places

Evoluon High Tech Campus Eindhoven Philips
Philips
Arena Philips
Philips
Stadion

Other

Carousel HDMI Licensing Philips
Philips
Sports Manager of the Year Phoebus cart

.