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Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
is an American designer, manufacturer, and marketer of women's lingerie, womenswear, and beauty products. Founded in 1977 as a response to packaged underwear, which the company's founder considered to be "ugly, floral-print nylon nightgowns", the company is now the largest American retailer of women's lingerie.[4]

.mw-parser-output .toclimit-2 .toclevel-1 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-3 .toclevel-2 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-4 .toclevel-3 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-5 .toclevel-4 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-6 .toclevel-5 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-7 .toclevel-6 ul display:none Contents

1 History

1.1 1977–1981 1.2 1982–1983 1.3 1990–2006 1.4 2006–present

2 Products

2.1 Current Products and Lines

2.1.1 PINK 2.1.2 Swimwear

2.2 Recent product history

3 Operating divisions

3.1 Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
stores

3.1.1 International expansion 3.1.2 International franchises

3.2 Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
Direct

3.2.1 Catalog 3.2.2 E-commerce

3.3 Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
Beauty

4 Corporate affairs

4.1 Ownership 4.2 Management structure

4.2.1 Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
stores 4.2.2 Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
Direct 4.2.3 Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
Beauty

4.3 Environmental record 4.4 Legal proceedings 4.5 Manufacturing

5 Corporate identity

5.1 Name 5.2 Marketing partners 5.3 Marketing

5.3.1 Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
Fashion Show

5.4 Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
Angels

5.4.1 Pink spokesmodels

6 Criticism and controversy

6.1 Influence on sociocultural body image norms 6.2 Formaldehyde
Formaldehyde
lawsuits 6.3 Child labor 6.4 Zephyrs lawsuit 6.5 Go East lingerie collection 6.6 Perfect Body campaign 6.7 Cultural appropriation 6.8 Transphobia allegations

7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links

History[edit] 1977–1981[edit] Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
was founded by Roy Raymond, and his wife, Gaye Raymond,[5] in San Francisco, California, on June 12, 1977.[6][7] Eight years prior to founding Victoria's Secret, in the late 1960s, Raymond was embarrassed when purchasing lingerie for his wife at a department store. Newsweek
Newsweek
reported him looking back on the incident from the vantage of 1981: "When I tried to buy lingerie for my wife," he recalls, "I was faced with racks of terry-cloth robes and ugly floral-print nylon nightgowns, and I always had the feeling the department store saleswomen thought I was an unwelcome intruder."[8] Raymond spent the next eight years studying the lingerie market.[9][10] At the time when Raymond founded Victoria's Secret, most women in America purchased "dowdy", "pragmatic", "foundation garments" by Fruit of the Loom, Hanes, and Jockey in packs of three from department stores and saved "fancier items" for "special occasions" like honeymoons.[11] "Lacy thongs and padded push-up bras" were niche products during this period found "alongside feathered boas and provocative pirate costumes at Frederick's of Hollywood" outside of the mainstream product offerings available at department stores.[11] In 1977, Raymond borrowed $40,000 from his parents and $40,000 from a bank to establish Victoria's Secret: a store in which men could feel comfortable buying lingerie.[7][12] The company's first store was located in Stanford Shopping Center
Stanford Shopping Center
in Palo Alto, California.[7] Raymond picked the name "Victoria" after Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
of the United Kingdom to associate with the refinement of the Victorian era. The "Secret" was what was hidden underneath the clothes. The “angels” comes from his wife being in a sorority, Pi Beta Phi, where their mascot was an angel.[12] Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
grossed $500,000 in its first year of business,[7] enough to finance the expansion from a headquarters and warehouse to four new store locations[13] and a mail-order operation.[7] By 1982, the fourth store (still in the San Francisco
San Francisco
area) was added at 395 Sutter Street.[14] Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
stayed at that location until 1990, when it moved to the larger Powell Street frontage of the Westin St. Francis.[15] In April 1982, Raymond sent out his 12th catalog; each catalog cost $3 (equivalent to $7.79 in 2018).[14] Catalog sales accounted for 55% of the company's $7 million annual sales in 1982.[14] The Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
stores at this time were "a niche player" in the underwear market. The business was described as "more burlesque than Main Street."[16]

1982–1983[edit] In 1982, Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
had grown to five stores, a 40-page catalog, and was grossing $6 million annually.[7] Raymond sold Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
Inc. to Leslie Wexner, creator of Limited Stores Inc of Columbus, Ohio, for $1 million.[7][17][18] In 1983, Wexner revamped Victoria's Secret's sales model. He discarded the money-losing model of selling lingerie to male customers and replaced it with one that focused on female customers.[19] Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
transformed from "more burlesque than Main Street" to a mainstay that sold broadly accepted underwear. The "new colors, patterns and styles that promised sexiness packaged in a tasteful, glamorous way and with the snob appeal of European luxury" meant to appeal to female buyers.[19] To further this image, the Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
catalog continued the practice that Raymond began:[20] listing the company's headquarters on catalogs at a fake London
London
address, with the real headquarters in Columbus, Ohio.[19] The stores were redesigned to evoke 19th century England. Howard Gross took over as president from his position as vice-president in 1985.[21] In October of that year, the Los Angeles Times
Los Angeles Times
reported that Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
was stealing market share from department stores;[22] in 1986, Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
was the only national chain of lingerie stores.[23] The New York Times reported on Victoria's Secret's rapid expansion from four stores in 1982 to 100 in 1986, and analysts' expectations that it could expand to 400 by 1988.[24] In 1987, Victoria's Secret was reportedly among the "best-selling catalogs".[25] In 1990, analysts estimated that sales had quadrupled in four years, making it one of the fastest growing mail-order businesses.[26] The New York Times described it as a "highly visible leader", saying it used "unabashedly sexy high-fashion photography to sell middle-priced underwear."[27] Victoria's Secret also released their own line of fragrances in 1992.[28]

1990–2006[edit] By the early 1990s, Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
faced a gap in management that led the company to be "plagued by persistent quality problems".[29][30] Howard Gross, who had grown the company significantly[31] since Wexner's 1982 purchase, was moved to the poorly performing L Brands subsidiary Limited Stores.[29] Business Week reported that "both divisions have suffered".[29] Grace Nichols, who became President and CEO beginning in 1992,[32] worked to resolve the quality problems;[31] their margins tightened, resulting in a slower growth of profits.[29] Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
introduced the Miracle Bra
Bra
selling two million within the first year, but faced competition from Sara Lee's WonderBra a year later. The company responded with a TV campaign.[33] By 1998, Victoria's Secret's market share of the intimate apparel market was 14 percent.[34] That year Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
also entered the $3.5 billion cosmetic market.[35] In 1999, the company aimed to increase its coverage with the Body by Victoria brand.[36] In May 2000, Wexner installed Sharen Jester Turney, previously of Neiman Marcus
Neiman Marcus
Direct, as the new chief executive of Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
Direct to turn around catalog sales that were lagging behind other divisions.[37][38] Forbes reported Turney stating, as she flipped through a Victoria's Secret catalog, "We need to quit focusing on all that cleavage."[37] In 2000, Turney began to redefine Victoria's Secret catalog from "breasts—spilling over the tops of black, purple and reptile-print underthings" to one that would appeal to an "upscale customer who now feels more comfortable buying La Perla or Wolford lingerie.";[37] "dimming the hooker looks" such as "tight jeans and stilettos"; and moving from "a substitute for Playboy in some dorm rooms," to something closer to a Vogue lifestyle layout, where lingerie, sleepwear, clothes and cosmetics appear throughout the catalog.[37] Beginning in 2000, Grace Nichols, CEO of Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
Direct, led a similar change at Victoria's Secret's stores—moving away from an evocation of 1800s England (or a Victorian bordello).[37]

2006–present[edit] By 2006, Victoria's Secret's 1,000 stores across the United States accounted for one third of all purchases in the intimate apparel industry. [39] In May 2006, Wexner promoted Sharen Jester Turney from the Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
catalog and online units to lead the whole company.[16] In 2008, she acknowledged "product quality that doesn't equal the brand's hype."[40] In September 2006, Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
reportedly tried to make their catalog feel more like magazines by head-hunting writers from Women's Wear Daily.[41] In February 2016, Turney stepped down as CEO of Victoria's Secret after serving for a decade.[42][43][44] In 2016, direct sales only grew 1.6% and fell by 7.4% in the last quarter of the year, typically a high revenue period due to the holidays. The company discontinued its use of a print catalog and dropped certain categories of clothing such as swimwear.[45] Sales revenue continued to stagnate and drop in early 2017.[46] In November 2018, it was announced that CEO Jan Singer had resigned amid declining sales.[47] According to The Wall Street Journal, quarterly same-store sales in the last two years raised only once.[48] The announcement came one week after CMO Ed Razek made the controversial comment that the company doesn't cast transgender or plus-size models in its annual fashion show "because the show is a fantasy."[49] After a 40% stock plunge in a single year, Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
announced in 2019 that it will be closing 53 stores in the U.S. The company also announced the relaunch of its swimwear line in March 2019.[50]

Products[edit] Current Products and Lines[edit] Victoria's Secret This is the main line of the brand including bras, underwear, lingerie, and sleepwear.[51]

PINK[edit] Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
Pink Store NYC In 2002, Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
launched Pink (stylized PINK), a lingerie line targeted toward younger women than Victoria's Secret's main line. Victoria Sport Victoria sport is a line of activewear that can be worn to the gym and on the street.[52] Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
Beauty The beauty line is composed of fragrances, make-up, accessories, lotions, and other bath and body products.[53]

Swimwear[edit] In 2002, swimwear was introduced and available via the web site and catalog.[54] In 2015 and 2016, a swim special was aired on CBS to promote the line. In April 2016, Chairman and CEO Leslie H. Wexner announced that Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
would end their swimwear line, replacing it with a new activewear line.[55] In November 2018, John Mehas replaced Jan Singer as Victoria's Secret's CEO and announced the relaunch of the swimwear line.[3] In March 2019, the swim line was made available in shops.[50]

Recent product history[edit] In 2010, Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
launched the Incredible bra.[56] In 2012, Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
launched the Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
Designer Collection described by Vogue as the company's "first high end lingerie line."[57] In 2016, Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
stopped selling swimwear, shoes, accessories and apparel that were only sold in online Victoria's Secret stores to stay more focused on the lingerie, fragrances and sleepwear that are still available in stores and online. In 2017 Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
began to put more emphasis on bralettes (bras without underwire, often intended to be worn visibly) and sports bras (under the Victoria Sport label) to appeal to a younger customer base.[58] In 2019, Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
relaunched its product line of eyewear, footwear and swimwear line in hopes of boosting struggling sales for the brand.[50]

Operating divisions[edit] Victoria Secret's operations are organized into three divisions: Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
Stores (stores), Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
Direct (online and catalog operations), and Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
Beauty (their bath and cosmetics line). The company does business in the following retail formats: general merchandise stores, apparel stores.[citation needed]

Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
stores[edit]

Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
stores 1982–2012

Year

# of stores

Store sales in millions of U.S. dollars

1982

4[14]

$3.15[14]

1983

1984

1985

84[22]

1986

100

1987

1988

237[59]

1989

326[60]-353[61]

$428[62]

1990

386[63]

$600[64]

1992

448

1992

545[65]

$840[66]

1993

570[65]

$992[66]

1994

600[33]

$1,181[67]

1995

600[68]

$1,286[69]

1996

736[70]

$1,450[70]

1997

750[71]

$1,702[70]

1998

884[34]

1999

902[72]

$2,100[37]

2000

2001

2002

1,014

2003

2004

2005

$3,200[73]

2006

$3,700[73]

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

1,028[74]

2012

1,017[74]-1050[75]

A store display Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
in Las Vegas, Nevada Throughout the 1980s, Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
took over the market using "faux-British veneer, romantic styling and soft classical music."[34][76] In 2000, the Los Angeles Times reported that Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
continued the practice of putting "on a British air—or what the Ohio-based chain thinks Americans believe is British. Boudoirish. Tony. Upscale."[72] During the 1990s, Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
saw a 30% increase in store sales after the use of analyzing in their data warehouse in which specific store the styles, sizes and color of which bras were selling.[77] As of 2010, there are 1,000 Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
lingerie stores and 100 independent Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
Beauty Stores in the United States, mostly in shopping centers. They sell a range of bras, panties, hosiery, cosmetics, sleepwear, and other products. Victoria's Secret mails more than 400 million of its catalogs per year.[78] During the 1990s, store sizes grew from the average 1,400 square feet to between 4,000 and 5,000 square feet.[61] In 2002, the average Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
store was 6,000 square feet.[79][80]

International expansion[edit]

Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
Canada stores 2011–2012

Year

# of stores

Store sales in millions of U.S. dollars

2011

12[74]

2012

19[74]

Map of Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
stores in the United States, as of August 2011 Up until the early 2000s, management at Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
actively decided to not expand outside the United States.[81] The drive to continue growing coupled with facing a maturing of the American retail market led to a change in that decision and to expand Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
outside the United States.[81] Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
announced the company's plan to expand into Canada in 2010.[82] The company opened 23 stores[citation needed] stores in Canada with locations in Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec,[83] Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
and Saskatchewan. In November 2005, the company opened its first boutique in the United Kingdom at Heathrow Airport, Terminal 5 with the help of World Duty Free.[84] This was followed in 2009 with several Victoria's Secret Travel and Tourism stores residing within airports outside the United States. These include locations in Schiphol International Airport, The Netherlands.[85][86] Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
opened their first store located at the Westfield Shopping Centre, Stratford, London[87] on July 24, 2012.[88] Their flagship 40,386-square-foot- (3,752.0 m2) store on New Bond Street, London
London
opened on August 29, 2012,[89] and there will be further nationwide expansion across the United Kingdom. Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
executive vice president and chief administrative officer Martyn R Redgrave told Women's Wear Daily "That's what we're looking to do as we expand, in the UK in particular, and those will be company-owned and operated".[90] Since 2013, stores opened across the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in Leeds, Manchester, Sheffield, Birmingham, Bristol and London
London
including Westfield London, Bluewater and Brent Cross
Brent Cross
and Glasgow. As of 2018, there are 16 stores in the United Kingdom.[91]

International franchises[edit] In 2010, Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
expanded with franchises internationally. The first franchise store in Latin America opened in Isla Margarita, Venezuela on June 25, 2010 followed by other stores in the country, and in Bogota, Colombia, in July 2012 selling beauty products and accessories. Angel's Group, the Colombian company operating the franchise, is planning to open 10 stores in Colombia.[92] Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
is also planning on opening a store in the exclusive Multiplaza Mall in San Salvador, El Salvador.[93] In 2010, M.H. Alshaya Co. opened the first Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
store in the Middle East region in Kuwait. M.H. Alshaya Co. operates the Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
franchise located in the Marina Mall selling products including "cosmetic and branded accessories, but it has left out the brand's infamous lingerie line".[94] The brand's first Caribbean store opened in November 2011 at Plaza Las Americas in San Juan, Puerto Rico.[95] Two stores also opened in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic at the Agora,[96] (mainly selling beauty products and accessories) and Sambil Santo Domingo[97] malls in August 2012 and October 2012, respectively. The first Polish store opened in July 2012 at the Złote Tarasy shopping mall in Warsaw
Warsaw
and is operated by M.H. Alshaya Co. It was the first Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
franchise store in Europe,[98] and it opened just a day before the first British store in London.[90] The first Serbian Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
store opened in January 2014 at the Nikola Tesla Airport
Nikola Tesla Airport
in Belgrade.[99] This was the first Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
store to open in the former Yugoslavia.

Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
Direct[edit] Catalog[edit]

Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
catalog sales 1982–2012

Year

Millions mailed

Sales in millions of U.S. dollars

1982

$3.85[14]

1983

1984

1985

1986

$30

1987

1988

1989

1990

$270[62]

1991

1992

$367[66]

1993

185

$436[66]

1994

260

$569[67]

1995

315

$661[69]

1996

$684[70]

1997

450

$789[70]

1998

$700[100]

1999

365[72]

$800[37]

2000

2001

2002

374

$870

2003

2004

2005

2006

350

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

Prior to the emergence of e-commerce, the Victoria's Secret's catalogs provided both an informative and exciting experience in the comfort of the consumer's home.[77] The catalog under Raymond's leadership took the form of an upmarket version of Frederick's of Hollywood
Frederick's of Hollywood
lingerie catalog being more sensuous than the catalog published under the future leadership of The Limited.[101] In 1982 the Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
catalog cost $3.[14] The New York Times reported that the financial success of Victoria's Secret catalogs influenced other catalogs, which changed to present lingerie as "romantic and sensual but tasteful" "in which models are photographed in ladylike poses against elegant backgrounds."[14] This led to Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
dominating the catalog field for "lingerie and sexy nightwear." The catalogs allowed for consumers to review the entire spectrum of product offerings, along the axes of style, color and fabric. Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
accepted catalog orders via telephone 24 hours a day.[77] Victoria's Secret's catalog offers a more diverse range of merchandise.[79] The Los Angeles Times
Los Angeles Times
described the catalog in 2000 as having achieved "an almost cult-like following."[72] In May 2016, the brand decided to discontinue the catalog which had cost the brand $125 million to $150 million annually. The decision came after the brand had the impression that catalogs have grown stale as a marketing device and that tests of dialing back the release of its catalog hadn't resulted in negative sales numbers.[102]

E-commerce[edit] In 1995 Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
began building its e-commerce website which the company launched after three years of development at 6 p.m. December 4, 1998, using the domain VictoriasSecret.com.[100] Twenty minutes later the first order was placed on the website from a Littleton, Colorado, customer at 6:20 p.m.[103] It was reported that the three year development was a result of the company's concern of rolling out a half-baked website that could "discourage return visits".[100] Viewers who logged onto the Victoria's Secret's website to view the company's first webcast of their fashion show on February 3, 1999, were unable to view the webcast due to the Internet infrastructure Victoria Secret's selected was unable to meet user demand causing some users to be unable to view the webcast.[104]

Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
Beauty[edit] The Limited, Inc in 1998 created Intimate Beauty Corporation with a mandate to establish a group of beauty businesses with Victoria's Secret Beauty being the first company in the firm's portfolio.[citation needed] In November 2012 Susie Coulter became president of Victoria's Secret Beauty; the company's beauty division located in New York City[105]

Corporate affairs[edit] Ownership[edit] Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
was originally owned by "The Limited".[106] In 2002 Wexner reincorporated Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
into the Limited; previously Victoria's Secret's parent company was Intimate Brands, a separately traded entity whose President was Ed Razek.[16][107] By 2006, 72% of Limited Brands' revenue—and almost all of their profits—came from their Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
and Bath & Body Works units.[108] On July 10, 2007, the Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
parent company, Limited Brands, sold a 75% interest in their apparel brands, Limited Stores and Express to Sun Capital Partners, to focus on expanding their Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
and Bath & Body Works units.[109] The immediate impact of the sale resulted in Limited Brands taking a $42 million after-tax loss.[110] In 2017 Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
recorded net sales of about US$7.39 billion worldwide.[111]

Management structure[edit] Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
stores[edit] In 1985, Howard Gross was promoted to president from vice president.[21] In 1991 Grace Nichols replaced Gross as president of Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
Stores. Nichols previously had been "executive vice president and general merchandise manager of Limited's lingerie division."[112] In 1998, Cynthia A. Fields became the president & chief executive of the company (when it was a division of Intimate Brands Inc.).[100][113]

Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
Direct[edit] In May 2000, Wexner installed Sharen Jester Turney, who had previously worked at Neiman Marcus
Neiman Marcus
Direct, as the new chief executive of Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
Direct.[37]

Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
Beauty[edit] Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
Beauty logo In May 2006, Christine Beauchamp was named president and CEO of Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
Beauty. Beauchamp was succeeded by Shashi Batra in 2009, who became president of Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
Beauty.[114] Robin Burns was CEO of Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
Beauty.[81]

Environmental record[edit] After two years of pressure from environmentalist groups, Victoria's Secret's parent firm and a conservation group reached an agreement to make the lingerie retailer's catalog more environmentally friendly in 2006.[115] [116] The catalog would no longer be made of pulp supplied from any woodland caribou habitat range in Canada, unless it has been certified by the Forest Stewardship Council. The catalogs will also be made of 10 percent recycled paper.[117] The company has bought organic and fair trade-grown cotton to make some of its panties.[118][119]

Legal proceedings[edit] On March 4, 2003, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled against Victoria's Secret in Moseley v. V Secret Catalogue, Inc.
Moseley v. V Secret Catalogue, Inc.
that there must be proof of actual harm to the trademark.[120][121]

Manufacturing[edit] In 2006 it was reported that Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
paid workers $7 per day to make bras for them in Thai factories.[122] One-tenth of all Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
bras are sourced via Intimate Fashions, a manufacturer with factories in the South Indian city of Guduvanchery.[123][124][citation needed] As a by-result of the Jordan– United States
United States
Free Trade Agreement, which retreated from standards established in the 1990s, working conditions in Jordan have been compared to slave labour.[125]

Corporate identity[edit] Name[edit] Prior to the 1982 sale, the company's business name was Victoria's Secret, Inc. then afterwards the name was changed to Victoria's Secret Stores, Inc. In 2005, the company changed to Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
Stores, LLC.[citation needed]

Marketing partners[edit] In the early 1980s, Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
used FCB/Leber Katz Partners for the development of their brand, marketing, and advertising.[59] In 1989, FCB/Leber Katz Partners and Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
executed a national advertising campaign featuring for the first time in the company's history a ten-page glossy insert that appeared in the November issue of Elle, Vogue, Vanity Fair, Victoria, House Beautiful, Bon Appetit, New Woman, and People
People
magazines.[61] Victoria's Secret used the insert to announce their expansion into the toiletries and fragrance business.[61] Up until the ten-page insert, the company's growth had been driven by their catalog, sporadic ads in fashion publications, and word of mouth.[61] Catalogs were discontinued in early 2016.

Marketing[edit] Victoria's Secret The Victoria's Secret Fashion Show
Victoria's Secret Fashion Show
is an annual "elaborate marketing tool for Limited Brands".[126] The show is a mix of "beautiful models scantily clad in lingerie" and A-list entertainers "And every year, it becomes less about fashion and more about show".[126] The company gained notoriety in the early 1990s after it began to use supermodels in its advertising and fashion shows. Throughout the 2000s, Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
has turned down celebrity models and endorsements.[127] In 1999, Victoria's Secret's 30 second Super Bowl
Super Bowl
advertisement led to one million visits to the company's website within an hour of airing.[128] In 2004, Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
featured Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
in an advertisement to test new marketing possibilities while Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
dropped their fashion show for 2004 as a result of the fallout from the Janet Jackson/ Super Bowl
Super Bowl
incident that caused complaints from women's groups.[129][130][131] The company created a campaign to market its "Body" bra line called "The Perfect Body." The campaign has elicited substantial controversy, with many sources saying it will lower women's self-esteem because it does not embrace all body types.[132]

Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
Fashion Show[edit] Main article: Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
Fashion Show Kelly Gale
Kelly Gale
at Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
Fashion Show, 2014. In 1995, Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
began holding their annual Victoria's Secret Fashion Show, which is broadcast on primetime American television.[133] Starting with the 1995 fashion show, they are "a combination of self-assured strutting for women and voyeuristic pleasures for men—and lingerie becomes mainstream entertainment."[134] Ken Weil, vice president at Victoria's Secret, and Tim Plzak, responsible for IT at Victoria's Secret's parent company Intimate Brands, led Victoria's Secret's first-ever online streaming of their fashion show in 1999.[107] The 18 minutes webcast streamed February 2, 1999, was at the time the Internet's "biggest event" since inception.[107] The 1999 webcast was reported as a failure by a number of newspapers on account of some user's inability to watch the show featuring Tyra Banks, Heidi Klum, and Stephanie Seymour[135] as a result of Victoria's Secret's technology falling short being able to meet the online user demand resulting in network congestion and users who could see the webcast receiving jerky frames.[107] In all, the company's website saw over 1.5 million visits while the Broadcast.com's computer's were designed to handle between 250,000 and 500,000 simultaneous viewers.[136] In total, 1.5 million viewers either attempted or viewed the webcast.[137] The 1999 webcast served to create a database for Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
of over 500,000 current and potential customers by requiring users to submit their contact details to view the webcast.[107] The next spring Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
avoided technical issues by partnering with Broadcast.com, America Online, and Microsoft.[107] The 2000 webcast attracted more than two million viewers.[38] By 2011, the budget for the fashion show was $12 million up from the first show's budget of $120,000.[138]

Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
Angels[edit] Main article: List of Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
models Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
started working with renowned models in the early 1990s, with the hiring of Stephanie Seymour, Karen Mulder, Yasmeen Ghauri, and Jill Goodacre.[139][140][141] These models helped the brand gain notice and soon enough were featured in televised commercials.[140] Veronica Webb
Veronica Webb
is one of the original Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
models.[142] Angels is one of Victoria's Secret's lingerie lines, which was launched in 1997, with a commercial featuring Helena Christensen, Karen Mulder, Daniela Peštová, Stephanie Seymour, and Tyra Banks
Tyra Banks
as well as pop star Tom Jones.[143][144] The commercial was a major success and the Angels began to be featured in various commercials, alongside other contract models for the brand such as Yasmeen Ghauri, Inés Rivero,[citation needed] and Laetitia Casta.[citation needed] From then onwards, the term Angel started to become synonymous with being a contracted spokesmodel for the brand and in February 1998, the Angels made their runway debut at Victoria's Secret's 4th annual fashion show, with Chandra North filling in for Christensen.[145] Seymour, Mulder, Pestova, Banks, and Casta were all featured in both of Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
webcast and took part in the promotion as the brand's contract models.[146] Starting 2001, the show has been televised and usually features the year's Angel line-up at the start of the show, starting with Pestova, Banks, Klum, Adriana Lima
Adriana Lima
and Gisele Bundchen[a] In 2004, due to the Super Bowl
Super Bowl
controversy, instead of a televised show, Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
sent its five contract models (Banks, Klum, Bundchen, Adriana Lima, and Alessandra Ambrosio) on a tour called Angels Across America, as by then, the word had become synonymous with Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
spokesmodels.[147] The last original Angel, Tyra Banks, departed the following year, as Karolina Kurkova, Selita Ebanks, and Izabel Goulart
Izabel Goulart
were hired.[148] Among other recognitions, the Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
Angels were chosen to be part of People
People
magazine's annual "100 Most Beautiful People
People
in the World" issue in 2007[149] and became the first trademark awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame
Hollywood Walk of Fame
on November 13, 2007, with Klum, Lima, Ambrosio, Kurkova, Goulart, Ebanks, Marisa Miller, and Miranda Kerr
Miranda Kerr
at hand.[150] Alongside new Angel Doutzen Kroes, they also took part in the grand reopening of the Fontainebleau in Miami in 2008.[151] In 2009, it was widely reported that Candice Swanepoel, Rosie Huntington-Whiteley, Chanel Iman, Emanuela de Paula
Emanuela de Paula
and Lindsay Ellingson had been hired by the brand.[152] However, De Paula was absent from the fashion show and Erin Heatherton
Erin Heatherton
was credited in her place, alongside the Angels (Klum, Ambrosio, Kerr, Miller, Kroes, and Behati Prinsloo, with Lima being on maternity leave).[153] The brand also held a nationwide competition to hire a new "runway Angel" (as are dubbed all the models who walk in the show), Kylie Bisutti was crowned as the winner but soon parted ways with the brand.[154] In the following year-and-a-half Swanepoel, Huntington-Whiteley, Iman, Heatherton, and Ellingson all were revealed as Angels. Various tours have been held featuring the Angels, such as the Bombshell Tour in 2010 (featuring Laura Croggon, Sophia Timpano, Katie Bryan, and new recruit Lily Aldridge), a VSX tour in 2013 (featuring Swanepoel, Ambrosio, Ellingson, and Aldridge) and a Swim Tour in 2013 (featuring Swanepoel, Ellingson, and Heatherton). The Angels have been heavily featured on the brand's social media, including on a short-lived Facebook application in 2013-2014 highlighting the Angels (then including Lima, Swanepoel, Ellingson, Aldridge, and Karlie Kloss) as well as Lais Ribeiro, Toni Garrn, and Barbara Palvin.[citation needed] Ellingson, Kroes, and Kloss all departed soon after the 2014 fashion show, leaving the brand with only 5 Angels.[155][156] In 2015, the Angels as well as models Elsa Hosk, Joan Smalls, Lais Ribeiro, Martha Hunt, Jasmine Tookes, Stella Maxwell, and Monika 'Jac' Jagaciak were featured on the brand's first ever Swim Special. Soon after, in the brand's biggest group hiring ever, all but Smalls were revealed as Angels, along with longtime catalog regulars Lais Ribeiro and Sara Sampaio
Sara Sampaio
as well as Kate Grigorieva, Taylor Hill, and Romee Strijd.[157][158] The following year, Jagaciak and Griegorieva exited, while catalog regular Josephine Skriver
Josephine Skriver
was added to the roster.[159] In 2017, Alessandra Ambrosio
Alessandra Ambrosio
announced that the yearly fashion show would be her last.[160] In 2018, Chinese models Sui He
Sui He
and Ming Xi received China-exclusive contracts; they are promoted as Angels in China, but are not official worldwide Angels. After nearly 20 years of serving as a Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
Angel, Lima made her final walk down the runway during the 2018 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show before retiring.[161] In 2019, new Angels Barbara Palvin, Alexina Graham, Leomie Anderson, and Grace Elizabeth were added to the roster. Palvin made her fashion show debut with Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
in 2012, afterwards not appearing in a runway show again until 2018, while Graham had appeared in Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
Fashion Shows in 2017 and 2018. Graham became the first redhead to be named a Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
Angel. Anderson first began walking in 2015, while Elizabeth walked her first show in 2016 and was a PINK spokesmodel from 2016 to 2019.[162][163][164][165] Other notable spokesmodels for the brand have included: Claudia Schiffer,[166] Eva Herzigová,[145] Oluchi Onweagba,[167] Jessica Stam,[168] Ana Beatriz Barros,[169] and Bregje Heinen[170] as well as a handful of celebrities such as Taylor Momsen.[171]

.mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbinner display:flex;flex-direction:column .mw-parser-output .tmulti .trow display:flex;flex-direction:row;clear:left;flex-wrap:wrap;width:100%;box-sizing:border-box .mw-parser-output .tmulti .tsingle margin:1px;float:left .mw-parser-output .tmulti .theader clear:both;font-weight:bold;text-align:center;align-self:center;background-color:transparent;width:100% .mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbcaption text-align:left;background-color:transparent .mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-left text-align:left .mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-right text-align:right .mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-center text-align:center @media all and (max-width:720px) .mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbinner width:100%!important;box-sizing:border-box;max-width:none!important;align-items:center .mw-parser-output .tmulti .trow justify-content:center .mw-parser-output .tmulti .tsingle float:none!important;max-width:100%!important;box-sizing:border-box;text-align:center .mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbcaption text-align:center 2019 Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
AngelsBehati PrinslooCandice SwanepoelLily AldridgeTaylor HillElsa HoskMartha HuntStella MaxwellLais RibeiroSara SampaioRomee StrijdJasmine TookesJosephine SkriverBarbara Palvin(Alexina Graham, Leomie Anderson, and Grace Elizabeth not pictured)

Nationality

Name

Contract[b]

First hiring

Runway shows[172]

 United States

Stephanie Seymour

1997–2000[143]

1992[140]

1995–2000

 Denmark

Helena Christensen

1997–1998[143][145]

1996[173]

1996–1997

 Netherlands

Karen Mulder

1997–2000[143]

1992[174]

1996–2000

 Czech Republic

Daniela Peštová

1997–2002[143]

1996[175]

1998–2001

 United States

Tyra Banks

1997–2005[143][176]

1996

1996–2003 • 2005

Chandra North

1998[177][c]

1998

1998

 Argentina

Inés Rivero

1998–1999[178]

1998

1998–2001

 France

Laetitia Casta

1998–2000[178]

1997

1997–2000

 Germany

Heidi Klum

1999–2010[179]

1997[179]

1997–2003 • 2005 • 2007–2009 (host only in 2006)

 Brazil

Gisele Bündchen

2000–2007[180]

1999

1999–2003 • 2005–2006

Adriana Lima

2000–2018[181]

1999[182]

1999–2003 • 2005–2008 • 2010–2018

Alessandra Ambrosio

2004–2017[183][160]

2000

2000–2003 • 2005–2017

 Czech Republic

Karolína Kurková

2005–2008[184][185]

2000

2000–2008 • 2010

 Cayman Islands

Selita Ebanks

2005–2009[186]

2004

2005–2010

 Brazil

Izabel Goulart

2005–2008

2004

2005–2016

 United States

Marisa Miller

2007–2010[187][188]

2002[189]

2007–2009

 Australia

Miranda Kerr

2007–2013[190][191]

2005[192]

2006–2009 • 2011–2012

 Netherlands

Doutzen Kroes

2008–2014[193][194][195]

2004

2005–2006 • 2008–2009 • 2011–2014

 Namibia

Behati Prinsloo

2009–present[196]

2007

2007–2015 • 2018–present

 United Kingdom

Rosie Huntington-Whiteley

2010–2011

2005[197]

2006–2010

 South Africa

Candice Swanepoel

2010–present

2007

2007–2015 • 2017–present

 United States

Chanel Iman

2010–2012

2008[198]

2009–2011

Erin Heatherton

2010–2013[179][183]

2008

2008–2013

Lily Aldridge

2010–present[199][200]

2008

2009–2017

Lindsay Ellingson

2011–2014

2006

2007–2014

Karlie Kloss

2013–2015[201][202]

2011

2011–2014 • 2017

 Russia

Kate Grigorieva

2015–2016[157][158][203]

2014

2014–2016

 United States

Taylor Hill

2015–present[157][158]

2014

2014–present

 Sweden

Elsa Hosk

2015–present[157][158]

2011

2011–present

 United States

Martha Hunt

2015–present[157][158]

2012

2013–present

 Poland

Jac Jagaciak

2015–2016[157][158][203]

2013

2013–2015

 New Zealand

Stella Maxwell

2015–present[157][158]

2014

2014–present

 Brazil

Lais Ribeiro

2015–present[157][158]

2010

2010–2011 • 2013–present

 Portugal

Sara Sampaio

2015–present[157][158]

2012

2013–present

 Netherlands

Romee Strijd

2015–present[157][158]

2014

2014–present

 United States

Jasmine Tookes

2015–present[157][158]

2012

2012–present

 Denmark

Josephine Skriver

2016–present [159]

2013

2013–present

 Hungary

Barbara Palvin

2019–present[162]

2011

2012 • 2018–present

 United Kingdom

Alexina Graham

2019–present[163]

2017

2017–present

Leomie Anderson

2019–present[164]

2015

2015–present

 United States

Grace Elizabeth

2019–present[165]

2016

2016–present

Pink spokesmodels[edit] Main article: Pink (Victoria's Secret)

Nationality

Name

Contract

Brazil

Alessandra Ambrosio

2004–2006[204]

Australia

Miranda Kerr

2006–2008[205]

Namibia

Behati Prinsloo

2008–2011[206][207]

Sweden

Elsa Hosk

2011–2014[208]

United States

Rachel Hilbert

2015–2017[209]

United States

Zuri Tibby

2016–present[210]

United States

Grace Elizabeth

2016–present[211]

Criticism and controversy[edit] Influence on sociocultural body image norms[edit] In the 2008 article "Victoria’s Dirty Secret: How Sociocultural Norms Influence Adolescent Girls and Women" written by Strahan, Lafrance, Wilson, and Ethier from Wilfrid Laurier University along with Spencer and Zanna from the University of Waterloo[212] have stated: "Women's body dissatisfaction is influenced by sociocultural norms for ideal appearance that are pervasive in society and particularly directed at women." These norms tell women that they are valued for their bodies, physical appearance, and scale of attractiveness. Girls as young as 10 years old start dieting because they are struggling with their weight and body perception. This will continue throughout their life span. Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
sends a message to these adolescent girls and women that their models are the standard of beauty. The models are shown on TV commercials, ads, and magazines meaning it is seen on an everyday basis. Girls are comparing themselves with these high unrealistic standards that is captivated by the media. Women in these ads are highly objectified, idealized, and sexualized. If women feel they have to live up to this sociocultural norm standard, it is only telling men that it is okay to objectify and sexualize women. The article concludes by stating: "Exposure to societal messages that reflect the sociocultural norm for ideal appearance has a negative effect on women."[212]

Formaldehyde
Formaldehyde
lawsuits[edit] In 2009, Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
was sued several times. The lawsuits alleged that defective underwear contained formaldehyde that caused severe rashes on women who wore them. Six cases were filed in Ohio
Ohio
and two in Florida. At least 17 other suits were filed in six other states after January 2008.[213][214][215] The plaintiff refused to submit to a simple patch test to determine the precise cause of her reaction and her case was later withdrawn.[216] The Formaldehyde
Formaldehyde
Council issued a statement that formaldehyde quickly dissipates in air, water and sunlight.[217]

Child labor[edit] In 2012, a Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
supplier was investigated for use of child labor in harvesting cotton used to make its products.[218][219][220]

Zephyrs lawsuit[edit] Also in 2012, Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
was sued by Zephyrs, "accused of breaching a 2001 agreement and selling cheap 'knockoffs' of the company's stockings."[221]

Go East lingerie collection[edit] The company drew criticism for a newly released lingerie collection titled "Go East" whose tagline pledged to women the capacity to "indulge in touches of eastern delight with lingerie inspired by the exquisite beauty of secret Japanese gardens."[90][222] The collection included a mesh teddy "Sexy Little Geisha" featuring "flirty cutouts and Eastern-inspired florals". The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal
reported that the collection was "accessorized with a miniature fan and a kimono-esque obi sash." Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
removed the Asian-themed collection "that traded in sexualized, generic pan-Asian ethnic stereotypes."[223][224][225]

Perfect Body campaign[edit] In 2014, a petition against the newly released lingerie collection called "Body" was created when the poster ads displayed the words 'THE PERFECT "BODY"' over well-known VS Angels. The petition, while becoming popular across social media, demanded that Victoria's Secret "apologise and take responsibility for the unhealthy and damaging message that their ‘Perfect Body’ campaign sends out about women's bodies and how they should be judged." The petition also demanded a change in the wording on Victoria's Secret advertisements for their bra range Body, to something that does not promote unhealthy and unrealistic standards of beauty," asking the company to not use such harmful marketing in the future. Petitioners created the hashtag "#iamperfect", which trended on Twitter for body shaming women. The petition had over 30,000 signatures. Although there was never a formal apology released, Victoria's Secret took note of the petition and changed the words on their ad campaign to 'A BODY FOR EVERY BODY.'

Cultural appropriation[edit] At the 2016 Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
Fashion Show, the brand was accused of "cultural appropriation" during the segment "The Road Ahead" that drew inspiration from Chinese culture. Kendall Jenner's flame tail, Elsa Hosk's dragon costume, and Adriana Lima's embroidered thigh-high boots is what caused an uproar because many fans thought that it was inappropriate for women of other cultures to wear those items that meant so much to the Chinese culture. The reason behind Victoria's Secret including this segment to the 2016 fashion show is because of their recent expansion into the Chinese market. They thought it would be a good way to appeal to the new Chinese customer. No apology or statement was released from the brand.[226]

Transphobia allegations[edit] In a November 2018, Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
president Edward Razek and executive Vice President Of public relations Monica Mitro were interviewed by Vogue. In the interview, when discussing diversity, Razek made the following comments regarding the Victoria's Secret Fashion Show: “Shouldn’t you have transsexuals in the show? No. No, I don’t think we should. Well, why not? Because the show is a fantasy. It’s a 42-minute entertainment special. That’s what it is.” [227] These comments received immediate backlash from many in the modeling community, including transgender model Carmen Carrera, former Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
Angels Lily Aldridge
Lily Aldridge
and Karlie Kloss, and model Kendall Jenner.[228] Razek later issued an apology, stating "My remark regarding the inclusion of transgender models in the Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
Fashion Show came across as insensitive. I apologize. To be clear, we would absolutely cast a transgender model for the show."[228]

See also[edit]

Companies portal Fashion portal Ohio
Ohio
portal List of swimwear brands List of Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
models PINK Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
Fashion Show Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
Swim Special Notes[edit]

^ There have been various instances where the fashion show credits included models who weren't Angels but were prominently featured by the brand, such as Candice Swanepoel, Lindsay Ellingson, Rosie Huntington-Whiteley, Erin Heatherton, and Behati Prinsloo
Behati Prinsloo
in 2009, Lais Ribeiro
Lais Ribeiro
in 2011, PINK model Elsa Hosk
Elsa Hosk
in 2013 and Hosk, Ribeiro, Jasmine Tookes, Martha Hunt, and Stella Maxwell
Stella Maxwell
in 2014. All of them later went on to become Angels.

^ Most Angels started working with the company years prior to signing an Angel contract. Listed above are the dates of first published or aired campaigns or, by default, first runway show or event.

^ Contracted as a replacement Angel for Helena Christensen
Helena Christensen
during the Victoria's Secret Fashion Show
Victoria's Secret Fashion Show
1998 and released immediately afterwards

References[edit]

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models (2000–2009)2000 Alessandra Ambrosio Mini Andén Danita Angell Tyra Banks Gisele Bündchen Naomi Campbell Laetitia Casta Aurélie Claudel Haylynn Cohen Rhea Durham Trish Goff Eva Herzigová Carmen Kass Heidi Klum Karolína Kurková Adriana Lima Angela Lindvall Ana Cláudia Michels Karen Mulder Oluchi Daniela Peštová Frankie Rayder Caroline Ribeiro Inés Rivero Stephanie Seymour Ingrid Seynhaeve Fernanda Tavares 2001 Alessandra Ambrosio Mini Andén Tyra Banks Gisele Bündchen Aurélie Claudel Rhea Durham Karen Elson Trish Goff Bridget Hall Emma Heming Eva Herzigová Heidi Klum Karolína Kurková Anouck Lepere Adriana Lima Audrey Marnay Omahyra Mota Daniela Peštová Rie Rasmussen Caroline Ribeiro Inés Rivero Maggie Rizer Molly Sims Fernanda Tavares Alek Wek 2002 Michelle Alves Alessandra Ambrosio Caitriona Balfe Tyra Banks Ana Beatriz Barros Letícia Birkheuer Gisele Bündchen Naomi Campbell Dewi Driegen Reka Ebergenyi Lindsay Frimodt Bridget Hall Ana Hickmann Carmen Kass Liya Kebede Heidi Klum Karolína Kurková Adriana Lima Oluchi Ujjwala Raut Frankie Rayder Caroline Ribeiro Inga Savits Nadine Strittmatter Yfke Sturm Fernanda Tavares Eugenia Volodina Raquel Zimmermann 2003 Michelle Alves Alessandra Ambrosio Mini Andén Tyra Banks Ana Beatriz Barros Letícia Birkheuer Marcelle Bittar Gisele Bündchen Naomi Campbell Dewi Driegen Isabeli Fontana Lindsay Frimodt Carmen Kass Liya Kebede Heidi Klum Karolína Kurková Adriana Lima Angela Lindvall Deanna Miller Oluchi Ujjwala Raut Frankie Rayder Margarita Svegzdaite Fernanda Tavares Eugenia Volodina Jacquetta Wheeler 2004 Canceled due to Super Bowl
Super Bowl
XXXVIII halftime show controversy 2005 Alessandra Ambrosio Tyra Banks Bianca Balti Ana Beatriz Barros Gisele Bündchen Ingūna Butāne Naomi Campbell Morgane Dubled Selita Ebanks Isabeli Fontana Izabel Goulart Heidi Klum Tatiana Kovylina Doutzen Kroes Karolína Kurková Adriana Lima Angela Lindvall Andi Muise Oluchi Natasha Poly Julia Stegner Yfke Sturm Fernanda Tavares Caroline Trentini Eugenia Volodina Marija Vujović Caroline Winberg Raquel Zimmermann 2006 Alessandra Ambrosio Ana Beatriz Barros Gisele Bündchen Élise Crombez Flávia de Oliveira Morgane Dubled Selita Ebanks Izabel Goulart Rosie Huntington-Whiteley Miranda Kerr Doutzen Kroes Karolína Kurková Adriana Lima Angela Lindvall Heather Marks Andi Muise Ajuma Nasenyana Oluchi Natasha Poly Katja Shchekina Hana Soukupová Jessica Stam Julia Stegner Caroline Trentini Caroline Winberg Raquel Zimmermann 2007 Alessandra Ambrosio Ingūna Butāne Élise Crombez Flávia de Oliveira Morgane Dubled Selita Ebanks Lindsay Ellingson Isabeli Fontana Izabel Goulart Rosie Huntington-Whiteley Miranda Kerr Heidi Klum Karolína Kurková Noémie Lenoir Adriana Lima Angela Lindvall Marisa Miller Andi Muise Oluchi Behati Prinsloo Hana Soukupová Jessica Stam Julia Stegner Candice Swanepoel Eugenia Volodina Marija Vujović Erin Wasson Jessica White Katie Wile Caroline Winberg 2008 Clara Alonso Alessandra Ambrosio Ana Beatriz Barros Ingūna Butāne Shannan Click Emanuela de Paula Flávia de Oliveira Morgane Dubled Selita Ebanks Lindsay Ellingson Isabeli Fontana Izabel Goulart Erin Heatherton Rosie Huntington-Whiteley Carmen Kass Miranda Kerr Heidi Klum Doutzen Kroes Karolína Kurková Abbey Lee Noémie Lenoir Adriana Lima Maryna Linchuk Angela Lindvall Sessilee Lopez Marisa Miller Behati Prinsloo Arlenis Sosa Julia Stegner Sarah Stephens Lara Stone Candice Swanepoel Edita Vilkevičiūtė Anne Vyalitsyna Caroline Winberg 2009 Lily Aldridge Alessandra Ambrosio Ana Beatriz Barros Kylie Bisutti Shannan Click Jamie Lee Darley Selita Ebanks Lindsay Ellingson Isabeli Fontana Izabel Goulart Erin Heatherton Rosie Huntington-Whiteley Chanel Iman Anna Jagodzińska Dorothea Barth Jörgensen Miranda Kerr Heidi Klum Tatiana Kovylina Doutzen Kroes Anastasia Kuznetsova Abbey Lee Maryna Linchuk Sessilee Lopez Enikő Mihalik Marisa Miller Aminata Niaria Behati Prinsloo Anja Rubik Lyndsey Scott Julia Stegner Candice Swanepoel Elyse Taylor Caroline Trentini Edita Vilkevičiūtė Liu Wen Caroline Winberg

vte Victoria's Secret Fashion Show
Victoria's Secret Fashion Show
models by first appearance in the 2010s2010 Gracie Carvalho Katsia Damankova Lily Donaldson Magdalena Frackowiak Héloïse Guérin Constance Jablonski Jacquelyn Jablonski Lais Ribeiro Fabiana Semprebom Martha Streck 2011 Jessica Clarke Toni Garrn Sui He Bregje Heinen Elsa Hosk Karlie Kloss Ieva Lagūna Anais Mali Caroline Brasch Nielsen Karmen Pedaru Cameron Russell Shanina Shaik Joan Smalls 2012 Cara Delevingne Sharam Diniz Jourdan Dunn Barbara Fialho Frida Gustavsson Jessica Hart Dorothea Barth Jörgensen Barbara Palvin Shu Pei Hilary Rhoda Jasmine Tookes Maud Welzen 2013 Sigrid Agren Maria Borges Cindy Bruna Malaika Firth Kelly Gale Martha Hunt Jac Jagaciak Sara Sampaio Josephine Skriver Kasia Struss Devon Windsor Ming Xi 2014 Daniela Braga Kate Grigorieva Imaan Hammam Taylor Hill Yumi Lambert Grace Mahary Stella Maxwell Enikő Mihalik Blanca Padilla Irina Sharipova Romee Strijd 2015  Leomie Anderson Gigi Hadid Rachel Hilbert Pauline Hoarau Kendall Jenner Bruna Lirio Bridget Malcolm Leila Nda Megan Puleri Vita Sidorkina  Sanne Vloet Valery Kaufman 2016 Alanna Arrington Dilone Grace Elizabeth Georgia Fowler Lameka Fox Luma Grothe Bella Hadid Xiao Wen Ju Maggie Laine Keke Lindgard Flávia Lucini Lais Oliveira Herieth Paul Brooke Perry Jourdana Phillips Camille Rowe Irina Shayk Zuri Tibby 2017 Frida Aasen Samile Bermannelli Grace Bol Estelle Chen Aiden Curtiss Roosmarijn de Kok Amilna Estêvão Alexina Graham Victoria Lee Nadine Leopold Vanessa Moody Alécia Morais Gizele Oliveira One Wang Yi Xin Xie 2018 Myrthe Bolt Josie Canseco Chey Carty Maia Cotton Willow Hand Winnie Harlow Iesha Hodges Sabah Koj Kelsey Merritt Isilda Moreira Sadie Newman Mayowa Nicholas Lorena Rae Sofie Rovenstine Duckie Thot Mélie Tiacoh Alannah Walton Yasmin Wijnaldum

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Botulinum toxin
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