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The Viceroyalty of Peru
Peru
(Spanish: Virreinato del Perú) was a Spanish colonial administrative district, created in 1542, that originally contained most of Spanish-ruled South America, governed from the capital of Lima. The Viceroyalty of Peru
Peru
was one of the two Spanish Viceroyalties in the Americas from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries. The Spanish did not resist the Portuguese expansion of Brazil
Brazil
across the meridian established by the Treaty of Tordesillas. The treaty was rendered meaningless between 1580 and 1640 while Spain controlled Portugal. The creation during the 18th century of Viceroyalties of New Granada and Rio de la Plata (at the expense of Peru's territory) reduced the importance of Lima
Lima
and shifted the lucrative Andean
Andean
trade to Buenos Aires, while the fall of the mining and textile production accelerated the progressive decay of the Viceroyalty of Peru. Eventually, the viceroyalty would dissolve, as with much of the Spanish empire, when challenged by national independence movements at the beginning of the nineteenth century. These movements led to the formation of the modern-day countries of Peru, Chile, Colombia, Panama, Ecuador, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina, Guyana
Guyana
and Venezuela
Venezuela
in the territories that at one point or another had constituted the Viceroyalty of Peru.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Exploration and settlement (1542–1643) 1.2 The last Spanish Habsburgs (1643–1713) 1.3 The Bourbon Reforms
Bourbon Reforms
(1713–1806) 1.4 End of the Viceroyalty (1806–24)

2 Politics

2.1 Audiencias 2.2 Autonomous Captaincy General 2.3 Intendancies

3 Economy 4 Demographics 5 Culture 6 Science 7 See also 8 Further reading

8.1 Conquest 8.2 Colonial

9 References 10 External links

History[edit] Exploration and settlement (1542–1643)[edit] See also: Toledo Reforms

Francisco Álvarez de Toledo, Viceroy
Viceroy
of Peru

Location of the most important Jesuit Reductions, with present political divisions.

After the Spanish conquest of Peru
Peru
(1532–37), the first Audiencia was constituted by Lope García de Castro
Lope García de Castro
(1516 - 8 January 1576), a Spanish colonial administrator that served as a member of the Council of the Indies and of the Audiencias of Panama
Panama
and Lima. From September 2, 1564 to November 26, 1569 he was interim viceroy of Peru. In 1542, the Spanish created the Viceroyalty of New Castile, that shortly afterwards would be called the Viceroyalty of Peru. In 1544, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V (King Charles I of Spain) named Blasco Núñez Vela Peru's first viceroy, but the viceroyalty was not organized until the arrival of Viceroy
Viceroy
Francisco Álvarez de Toledo. Toledo made an extensive tour of inspection of the colony. Francisco de Toledo, "one of the great administrators of human times",[1] established the Inquisition
Inquisition
and promulgated laws that applied to both Indians and Spanish alike, breaking the power of the encomenderos and reducing the old system mita, or forced native labor. He improved the safety in the viceroyalty with fortifications, bridges and la Armada del Mar del Sur (the Southern Fleet) against the pirates. Francisco de Toledo
Francisco de Toledo
also ended the indigenous Neo-Inca State in Vilcabamba, executing the Inca Túpac Amaru, and promoted economic development from the commercial monopoly and the mineral extraction, mainly, from silver mines of Potosí. The Amazon Basin
Amazon Basin
and some large adjoining regions had been considered Spanish territory since the Treaty of Tordesillas
Treaty of Tordesillas
and explorations such as that by Francisco de Orellana, but Portugal fell under Spanish control between 1580 and 1640. During this time, Portuguese territories in Brazil
Brazil
were controlled by the Spanish crown, which did object to the spread of Portuguese settlement into parts of the Amazon Basin that the treaty had awarded to Spain. Still, Luis Jerónimo de Cabrera, 4th Count of Chinchón sent out the third expedition to explore the Amazon River, under Cristóbal de Acuña. (This was part of the return leg of the expedition of Pedro Teixeira.) Many Pacific islands were visited by Spanish ships in the sixteenth century, but they made no effort to trade with or colonize them. These included New Guinea
New Guinea
(by Yñigo Ortiz de Retez
Yñigo Ortiz de Retez
in 1545), and the Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
(in 1568) and the Marquesas Islands
Marquesas Islands
(in 1595) by Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira. The first Jesuit reduction to Christianize the Indigenous population was founded in 1609, but some areas were occupied by Brazilians as Bandeirantes
Bandeirantes
gradually extended their activities throughout much of the basin and adjoining Mato Grosso
Mato Grosso
in the 17th and 18th centuries. These groups had the advantage of remote geography and river access from the mouth of the Amazon (which was in Portuguese territory). Meanwhile, the Spanish were barred by their laws from slaving of indigenous people, leaving them without a commercial interest deep in the interior of the basin.[2] One famous attack upon a Spanish mission in 1628 resulted in the enslavement of 60,000 indigenous people.[3] In fact as time passed they were used as a self funding occupation force by the Portuguese authorities in what was effectively a low level war of territorial conquest. In 1617, Francisco de Borja y Aragón
Francisco de Borja y Aragón
divided the government of Río de la Plata into two, Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
and Paraguay, both dependencies of the Viceroyalty of Peru. Viceroy
Viceroy
Borja y Aragón also established the Tribunal del Consulado, a special court and administrative body for commercial affairs in the viceroyalty. Diego Fernández de Córdoba, Marquis of Guadalcázar reformed the fiscal system and stopped the interfamily rivalry that was bloodying the domain. Other viceroys, such as Fernando Torres, Borja y Aragón, Fernández de Cabrera or Fernández Córdoba also expanded the colonial navy and fortified the ports to fight against pirate attacks, as those led by the Englishman Thomas Cavendish. Fernández de Cabrera suppressed an insurrection of the Uru and Mapuche
Mapuche
Indians. The last Spanish Habsburgs (1643–1713)[edit]

Colonized area in its maximum extension ca 1650 (dark green) and the Viceroyalty in 1816 (dark brown)

The Plaza
Plaza
Mayor and the Cathedral of Lima

Viceroys had to protect the Pacific coast from French contraband and English and Dutch pirates. They expanded the naval forces, fortified the ports of Valdivia, Valparaíso, Arica
Arica
and Callao
Callao
and constructed city walls in Lima
Lima
(1686) and Trujillo (1685–1687). Nevertheless, the famous English privateer Henry Morgan
Henry Morgan
took Chagres
Chagres
and captured and sacked the city of Panama
Panama
in the early part of 1670. Also Peruvian forces repelled the attacks by Edward David (1684 and 1686), Charles Wager and Thomas Colb (1708). The Peace of Utrecht
Peace of Utrecht
allowed the British to send ships and merchandise to the fair at Portobello. In this period, revolts were common. Around 1656, Pedro Bohórquez crowned himself Inca (emperor) of the Calchaquí Indians, inciting the indigenous population to revolt. From 1665 until 1668, the rich mineowners José and Gaspar Salcedo revolted against the colonial government. The clergy were opposed to the nomination of prelates from Spain. Viceroy
Viceroy
Diego Ladrón de Guevara
Diego Ladrón de Guevara
had to take measures against an uprising of slaves at the hacienda of Huachipa de Lima. There were terrible earthquakes (1655, 1687) and epidemics, too. During Baltasar de la Cueva Enríquez's administration, the laws of the Indies were compiled.[4] Diego de Benavides y de la Cueva
Diego de Benavides y de la Cueva
issued the Ordenanza de Obrajes (Ordenance of Manufactures) in 1664 and Pedro Álvarez de Toledo y Leiva introduced the papel sellado (literally, sealed paper). In 1683 Melchor de Navarra y Rocafull
Melchor de Navarra y Rocafull
reestablished the Lima
Lima
mint, which had been closed since 1572. Viceroy
Viceroy
Diego Ladrón de Guevara increased the production of silver in the mines of Potosí, and stimulated production in other mines at San Nicolás, Cajatambo and Huancavelica. He limited the manufacture of aguardiente from sugar cane to authorized factories, which he taxed heavily. The Churches of Los Desamparados (1672), La Buena Muerte and the convent of Mínimos de San Francisco de Paula were finished and opened. The Hospital of Espiritu Santo in Lima
Lima
and San Bartolomé hospital were built. The Bourbon Reforms
Bourbon Reforms
(1713–1806)[edit] Main article: Bourbon Reforms In 1717 the Viceroyalty of New Granada was created from the northern territories, the Audiencias of Bogotá, Quito
Quito
and Panamá. This viceroyalty initially lasted only until 1724, but was reestablished permanently in 1740. With the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata from southern areas that are now Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay
Paraguay
and Uruguay
Uruguay
in 1776, the Charcas and Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
audiencias were similarly lost. The 256-year-old Treaty of Tordesillas
Treaty of Tordesillas
was superseded by the 1750 Treaty of Madrid which granted Portugal control of the lands it had occupied in South America in the intervening centuries. This Portuguese occupation led to the Guaraní War
Guaraní War
of 1756. Amazonas is named after the Amazon River, and was formerly part of the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru, a region called Spanish Guyana. It was settled by the Portuguese in the early 18th century and incorporated into the Portuguese empire
Portuguese empire
after the Treaty of Madrid in 1750. It became a state of the Brazilian Republic in 1889.

1534 Portuguese America according to the Treaty of Tordesillas

1750 Portuguese America according to the Treaty of Madrid (1750)

Several viceroys had scientific, political and economic impact on the Viceroyalty. Manuel de Amat y Juniet
Manuel de Amat y Juniet
organized an expedition to Tahiti. Viceroy
Viceroy
Teodoro de Croix
Teodoro de Croix
also decentralized the government through the creation of eight intendencias in the area of the Audiencia of Lima, and two in the Captaincy General of Chile. Francisco Gil de Taboada
Francisco Gil de Taboada
reincorporated the region of Puno
Puno
into the Viceroyalty of Peru. José de Armendáriz stimulated the production of silver and took steps against fraud, corruption and smuggling. Amat y Juniet established the first Regulation of Commerce and Organization of Customs rules, which led to the building of the customshouse in Callao.[5] Teodoro de Croix
Teodoro de Croix
collaborated in the creation of the Junta Superior de Comercio and the Tribunal de Minería (1786). An earthquake demolished Lima
Lima
and Callao, in 1746. Viceroy
Viceroy
Amat y Juniet constructed various public works in Lima, including the first bull ring. Manuel de Guirior
Manuel de Guirior
also improved the medical care at ten hospitals in Lima
Lima
and established a foundling home. War between Spain and Britain again broke out (the War of Jenkins' Ear, 1739–1748). Amat y Juniet constructed the fortress of Real Felipe in Callao
Callao
in 1774. Nevertheless, throughout this period, rebellions by Native peoples were not entirely suppressed. In the eighteenth century alone, there were fourteen large uprisings, the most important of which were that of Juan Santos Atahualpa
Juan Santos Atahualpa
in 1742, and the Sierra Uprising
Sierra Uprising
of Túpac Amaru II in 1780. The Comunero Revolt broke out in Paraguay
Paraguay
from 1721 to 1732). In 1767, the Jesuits were expelled from the colony. End of the Viceroyalty (1806–24)[edit] See also: Peruvian War of Independence

The First Chilean Navy Squadron
First Chilean Navy Squadron
(in picture) made the 1820 Freedom Expedition of Perú possible. Chilean involvement in Peru's independence would later cause disputes over war debts.

Viceroy
Viceroy
José Fernando de Abascal y Sousa
José Fernando de Abascal y Sousa
promoted educational reforms, reorganized the army, and stamped out local rebellions. During his administration, the Inquisition
Inquisition
of Lima
Lima
was temporarily abolished as a result of the reforms taken by the Cortes in Spain. When the wars of independence broke out in 1810, Peru
Peru
was the center of Royalist reaction. Abascal reincorporated the provinces of Córdoba, Potosí, La Paz, Charcas, Chile
Chile
and Quito
Quito
(Ecuador) into the Viceroyalty of Peru. The Royal Army of Perú during 14 years defeated the patriots armies of Argentinians and Chileans, turning Peru
Peru
into the last royal bastion in South America. A large fire in Guayaquil
Guayaquil
destroyed approximately half of the city in 1812.[citation needed] Lord Cochrane, in command of the newly created Chilean Navy, unsuccessfully attacked Guayaquil
Guayaquil
and El Callao, but on 4 February he captured Valdivia, called at the time The Key of the South Seas and the Gibraltar of the Pacific, due to its huge fortifications. However the viceroyalty managed to defend Chiloé Island
Chiloé Island
until 1826. On September 8, 1820, the Expedición Libertadora of Peru, organized mainly by Argentinians and with some Peruvian and Chilean involvement, landed on the beach at Paracas Bay, near the city of Pisco, Peru. The army was under the command of José de San Martín. After fruitless negotiations with the viceroy, San Martín occupied the Peruvian capital of Lima
Lima
on July 21, 1821. The independence of Peru
Peru
was proclaimed on July 28, 1821. Viceroy
Viceroy
José de la Serna e Hinojosa, still in command of a sizable military force, retired to Jauja, and later to Cusco. On July 26, 1822, San Martín and Simón Bolívar
Simón Bolívar
met in Guayaquil
Guayaquil
to define a strategy for the liberation of the rest of Peru. The meeting was secret, and exactly what occurred is not known. However, afterwards San Martín returned to Argentina
Argentina
while Bolívar prepared to launch an offensive against the remaining royalist forces in Peru and Upper Peru
Peru
(Bolivia). In September 1823 Bolívar arrived in Lima with Antonio José de Sucre
Antonio José de Sucre
to plan the offensive. In February 1824 the royalists briefly regained control of Lima. Olañeta's Rebellion started by surprise and the entire royalist army of Upper Peru
Peru
(today's Bolivia) revolted, led by Pedro Antonio Olañeta (royalist) against La Serna, the viceroy of Peru
Peru
(a liberal). This broke the royal army and started a civil war in Upper Peru. Having regrouped in Trujillo, Bolívar in June led his rebel forces south to confront the Spanish under Field Marshal
Field Marshal
José de Canterac. The two armies met on the plains of Junín on August 6, 1824, and the Peruvians were victorious in a battle fought entirely without firearms. The Spanish troops subsequently evacuated Lima
Lima
for a second time. As a result of a decree of the Congress of Gran Colombia, Bolívar turned over command of the rebel troops to Sucre on October 7, 1824.

The Battle of Ayacucho

Royalist control was now reduced to Cuzco
Cuzco
in the south-central highlands. The viceroy launched a counter-offensive over Ayacucho. It was there that the final battle for the independence of Peru
Peru
would be fought. On 9 December 1824, the Battle of Ayacucho, or Battle of La Quinua, took place at Pampa de La Quinua, a few kilometers away from Ayacucho, near the town of Quinua. This battle — between royalist (Spanish) and nationalist (republican) troops — sealed the independence of Peru
Peru
and South America. The victorious nationalist forces were led by Antonio José de Sucre, Bolívar's lieutenant. Viceroy
Viceroy
Serna was wounded and taken prisoner. The Spanish army had 2,000 dead and wounded and lost 3,000 prisoners, with the remainder of the army entirely dispersed. After the battle, Serna signed the final capitulation whereby the Spaniards agreed to leave Peru. Serna was released soon afterwards and sailed for Europe. Spain made futile attempts to retain its former colonies, such as at the Siege of Callao
Callao
(1826), but after death of King Ferdinand VII of Spain, in 1836 government of Spain renounced its territorial and sovereignty claims over all of continental America. In 1867 Spain signed a peace treaty with Peru
Peru
and in 1879 it signed a treaty recognizing Peru's independence. Politics[edit]

Charles I, King of Spain and the Indies. The Viceroyalty of Peru
Peru
was founded under his reign.

The town of Lima, founded by Pizarro on January 18, 1535 as the "Ciudad de los Reyes" (City of the Kings/Magi), became the seat of the new viceroyalty. As the seat of a viceroy, who had oversight over all of Spanish South America except for Portuguese-dominated Brazil, Lima grew into a powerful city. During the 16th, 17th and most of the 18th centuries, all of the colonial wealth of South America created by the silver mines passed through Lima
Lima
on its way to the Isthmus of Panama and from there to Seville, Spain. The rest of the viceroyalty dependent upon Lima
Lima
in administrative matters, in a pattern that persists until today in Peru. By the start of 18th century, Lima
Lima
had become a distinguished and aristocratic colonial capital, seat of the 250-year-old Royal and Pontifical University of San Marcos and the chief Spanish stronghold in the Americas.

The audiencia subdivisions of the Viceroyalty of Peru
Peru
ca.1650, as numbered in the article.[6]

At ground level during the first century, Spanish encomenderos depended on local chieftains (curacas) to gain access to the Indian population's tribute labor, even the most remote settlements, and therefore, many encomenderos developed reciprocal, if still hierarchical, relationships with the curacas.[7] By the end of the 16th century the quasi-private encomienda had been replaced by the repartimiento system (known in Peru
Peru
by the Quechua term, mita), which was controlled by local crown officials. Politically the viceroyalty was further divided into audiencias, which were primarily superior tribunals, but which also had administrative and legislative functions. Each of these was responsible to the Viceroy
Viceroy
of Peru
Peru
in administrative matters (though not in judicial ones). Audiencias further incorporated the older, smaller divisions known as "governorships" (gobernaciones, roughly provinces) headed by a governor. (See, Adelantado.) Provinces which were under military threat were grouped into captaincies general, such as the Captaincy General of Chile
Chile
(established in 1541 and established as a Bourbon captaincy general in 1789), and which were joint military and political commands with a certain level of autonomy. (The viceroy was captain-general of the provinces which remained directly under his command). At the local level there were hundreds of districts, in both Indian and Spanish areas, which were headed by either a corregidor (also known as an alcalde mayor) or a cabildo (town council), both of which had judicial and administrative powers. In the late 18th century the Bourbon dynasty began phasing out the corregidores and introduced intendants, whose broad fiscal powers cut into the authority of the viceroys, governors and cabildos. (See Bourbon Reforms.) Audiencias[edit] With dates of creation:

Panamá
Panamá
(1st one, 1538–43), (2nd one, 1564–1751)* Santa Fe de Bogotá
Bogotá
(1548)* Quito
Quito
(1563)* Lima
Lima
(1543) La Plata de los Charcas (1559)† Chile
Chile
(1563–73; 1606)

Later Audiencias

Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
(1661–72; 1776)† Cuzco
Cuzco
(1787)

*Later part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada †Later part of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata Autonomous Captaincy General[edit] 1. Chile
Chile
(1789) Intendancies[edit] Listed under year of creation:[8][9] 1783 1. Lima, 2. Puno 1784 3. Trujillo, 4. Tarma, 5. Huancavelica, 6. Cusco, 7. Arequipa, (10. Chiloé, abolished in 1789) 1786 8. Santiago, 9. Concepción Economy[edit]

Potosí
Potosí
with Cerro Rico

The economy of the viceroyalty of Peru
Peru
largely revolved on the massive exports of silver.[10] The huge amounts of silver exported from the viceroyalty of Peru
Peru
and Mexico had also a deep impact on Europe where it believed by some scholars to have caused the so-called "price revolution".[11] Silver
Silver
mining was carried out using contract and free wage labourers[12] as well as the mita system of unfree labour,[11] a system inherited from pre-Hispanic times. Silver
Silver
production peaked in 1610.[11] Once the Viceroyalty of Peru
Peru
was established, gold and silver from the Andes enriched the conquerors, and Peru
Peru
became the principal source of Spanish wealth and power in South America. The first coins minted for Peru
Peru
(and indeed for South America) appeared between 1568 and 1570. Viceroy
Viceroy
Manuel de Oms y de Santa Pau
Manuel de Oms y de Santa Pau
was able to send back an enormous sum of money (1,600,000 pesos) to the king to cover some of the costs of the War of the Spanish Succession. This was possible in part because of the discovery of the mines in Caraboya. The silver from mines at Potosí, Bolivia
Bolivia
circulated around the world. Peruvian and other New World silver was so plentiful that it caused inflation in Spain and a collapse in its price. Even today, Peru
Peru
and Bolivia produce much of the world's silver. Luis Jerónimo Fernández de Cabrera
Luis Jerónimo Fernández de Cabrera
prohibited direct trade between Peru
Peru
and New Spain
New Spain
(Mexico) and the persecution of Portuguese Jews, the principal traders in Lima. Demographics[edit]

The social classes in the Viceroyalty of Peru: Pink and fuchsia colors represented the lowest demographic class - the slaves were at the lowest level, above which were poor Spaniards, native people, mestizos, free dark-skinned people and the castas; yellow color were the middle social class - traders, noble natives, corregidors; and green color of the pyramid was the upper class - the oidors and Tribunal del Consulado's traders.

A census taken by the last Quipucamayoc indicated that there were 12 million inhabitants of Inca Peru; 45 years later, under viceroy Toledo, the census figures amounted to only 1,100,000 Indians. While the attrition was not an organized attempt at genocide, the results were similar, largely resulting from smallpox and other Eurasian diseases to which the natives had no immunity. Inca cities were given Spanish Christian names and rebuilt as Spanish towns, each centered around a plaza with a church or cathedral facing an official residence. A few Inca cities like Cuzco
Cuzco
retained native masonry for the foundations of their walls. Other Inca sites, like Huanuco Viejo, were abandoned for cities at lower altitudes more hospitable to the Spanish. Viceroy
Viceroy
José de Armendáriz reestablished the system whereby Inca nobles who could prove their ancestry were recognized as hijosdalgos of Castile. This led to a frenzy on the part of the Indigenous nobility to legitimate their status. In the 1790s Viceroy
Viceroy
Francisco Gil de Taboada
Francisco Gil de Taboada
ordered the first official census of the population. The last cargo of black slaves in Peru
Peru
was landed in 1806. At that time an adult male slave sold for 600 pesos. Culture[edit]

Pin (Tupu), 18th century., Brooklyn Museum, Peru’s indigenous elite used visual traditions to negotiate power and privilege through self-representation. High-ranking Andean
Andean
women wore untailored dresses called anacus throughout the colonial period, typically topped with a lliclla, a mantle or shawl worn across the shoulders, and secured with one or more tupus, metal pins with large, often elaborately worked, ornamental heads

See also: Cuzco
Cuzco
School, Quito
Quito
School, Andean
Andean
Baroque, and Peruvian Viceroyal architecture Viceroy
Viceroy
Francisco de Borja y Aragón
Francisco de Borja y Aragón
reorganized the University of San Marcos and Luis Jerónimo Fernández de Cabrera
Luis Jerónimo Fernández de Cabrera
founded two chairs of medicine. In the 1710s, Viceroy
Viceroy
Diego Ladrón de Guevara
Diego Ladrón de Guevara
established a chair of anatomy. Teodoro de Croix
Teodoro de Croix
and Francisco Gil de Taboada founded anatomy centers. In 1810 the medical school of San Fernando was founded. On the death of the Peruvian astronomer Doctor Francisco Ruiz Lozano, Viceroy
Viceroy
Melchor Liñán y Cisneros
Melchor Liñán y Cisneros
(with the approval of the Crown) gave mathematics a permanent position in the University of San Marcos. Mathematics was attached to the chair of cosmography. Doctor Juan Ramón Koening, a Belgian by birth, was named to the chair.[1]. Viceroy
Viceroy
Manuel de Guirior
Manuel de Guirior
created two new chairs at the university. Luis Enríquez de Guzmán, 9th Count of Alba de Liste
Luis Enríquez de Guzmán, 9th Count of Alba de Liste
founded the Naval Academy of the colony. Francisco Gil de Taboada
Francisco Gil de Taboada
supported the navigation school. Teodoro de Croix
Teodoro de Croix
began the Botanic Garden of Lima. Francisco de Borja y Aragón
Francisco de Borja y Aragón
also founded, in Cuzco, the Colegio del Príncipe for sons of the Indigenous nobility and the Colegio de San Francisco for sons of the conquistadors. Manuel de Amat y Juniet founded the Royal College of San Carlos. The first books printed in Peru
Peru
were produced by Antonio Ricardo, a printer from Turin who settled in Lima. Diego de Benavides y de la Cueva built the first theater in Lima. Manuel de Oms y de Santa Pau founded a literary academy in 1709 and promoted weekly literary discussions in the palace that attracted some of Lima's best writers. These included the famous Criollo scholar Pedro Peralta y Barnuevo
Pedro Peralta y Barnuevo
and several Indigenous poets. Oms introduced French and Italian fashions in the viceroyalty. The Italian musician Rocco Cerruti (1688–1760) arrived in Peru. Francisco Gil de Taboada
Francisco Gil de Taboada
supported the foundation of the newspaper El Mercurio Peruano in 1791 and founded the Academy of Fine Arts. Jesuit Barnabé de Cobo (1582–1657), who explored Mexico and Peru, brought the cinchona bark from Lima
Lima
to Spain in 1632, and afterwards to Rome and other parts of Italy. In 1671, Saint Rose of Lima
Lima
was canonized by Pope Clement X. Rose was the first native-born American to become a Catholic saint. Pope Benedict XIII elevated another two important Peruvian saints, Toribio Alfonso de Mogrovejo and Francisco de Solano. Diego Quispe Tito
Diego Quispe Tito
was a famous artist before the age of Independence. Science[edit] In 1737 Jorge Juan y Santacilia
Jorge Juan y Santacilia
and Antonio de Ulloa, Spanish scientists sent by the French Academy
French Academy
on a scientific mission to measure a degree of meridian arc at the equator, arrived in the colony. They also had the mission of reporting on disorganization and corruption in the government and smuggling. Their report was published later, under the title Noticias Secretas de América (Secret News From America).

Santa Rosa de Lima

Manuel de Guirior
Manuel de Guirior
assisted the scientific expedition of Hipólito Ruiz López, José Antonio Pavón and Joseph Dombey, sent to study the flora of the viceroyalty. The expedition lasted from 1777 to 1788. Their findings were later published as La flora peruana y chilena (The Flora of Peru
Peru
and Chile). Again a major concern was stimulating the economy, which Guirior did by adopting liberal measures in agriculture, mining, commerce and industry. Another French influence on science in the colony was Louis Godin, another member of the meridian expedition. He was appointed cosmógrafo mayor by Viceroy
Viceroy
Mendoza.[2] The duties of cosmógrafo mayor included publishing almanacs and sailing instructions. Another French scientist in Peru
Peru
at this time was Charles Marie de La Condamine. The Balmis Expedition
Balmis Expedition
arrived in Lima
Lima
on May 23, 1806. At the same time these viceroys adopted rigorous measures to suppress the thought of the Encyclopedists and revolutionaries in the United States and France.

See also[edit]

Peru
Peru
portal Spain portal Colonialism
Colonialism
portal South America portal

History of Peru Peruvian Viceroyal architecture Inca architecture Colonialism List of Viceroys of Peru Spanish conquest of the Muisca Spanish colonization of the Americas Spanish Empire Viceroyalty of New Spain Kuraka

Further reading[edit] Conquest[edit]

Cieza de León, Pedro de. The Discovery and Conquest of Peru: Chronicles of the New World Encounter. Ed. and trans., Alexandra Parma Cook and David Noble Cook. Durham: Duke University Press 1998. Hemming, John. The Conquest of the Incas. New York: Harcourt Brace Janovich, 1970. Lockhart, James. The men of Cajamarca; a social and biographical study of the first conquerors of Peru, Austin, Published for the Institute of Latin American Studies by the University of Texas Press [1972] Yupanqui, Titu Cusi. An Inca Account of the Conquest of Peru. Trans. Ralph Bauer. Boulder: University Press of Colorado 2005.

Colonial[edit]

Andrien, Kenneth J. Crisis and Decline: The Viceroyalty of Peru
Peru
in the Seventeenth Century. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press 1985. Andrien, Kenneth. The Kingdom of Quito, 16990-1830: The State and Regional Development. New York: Cambridge University Press 1995. Andrien, Kenneth J. Andean
Andean
Worlds: Indigenous History, Culture, and Consciousness under Spanish Rule, 1532-1825. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press 2001. Bakewell, Peter J. Silver
Silver
and Entrepreneurship in Seventeenth-Century Potosí: The Life and times of Antonio López de Quiroga. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press 1988. Baker, Geoffrey. Imposing Harmony: Music and Society in Colonial Cuzco. Durham: Duke University Press 2008. Bowser, Frederick P. The African Slave in Colonial Peru, 1524-1650. Stanford: Stanford University Press 1973. Bradley, Peter T. Society, Economy, and Defence in Seventeenth-Century Peru: The Administration of the Count of Alba de Liste (1655-61). Liverpool: Institute of Latin American Studies, University of Liverpool 1992. Bradley, Peter T. The Lure of Peru: Maritime Intrusion into the South Sea, 1598-1701. New York: St Martin's Press 1989. Burns, Kathryn. Colonial Habits: Convents and the Spiritual Economy of Cuzco, Peru
Peru
(1999), on the crucial role that convents played in the Andean
Andean
economy as lenders and landlords; nuns exercised economic & spiritual power. Cahill, David. From Rebellion to Independence in the Andes: Soundings from Southern Peru, 1750-1830. Amsterdam: Aksant 2002. Chambers, Sarah C. From Subjects to Citizens: Honor, Gender, and Politics in Arequipa, Peru, 1780-1854. University Park: Penn State Press 1999. Charnay, Paul. Indian Society in the Valley of Lima, Peru, 1532-1824. Blue Ridge Summit: University Press of America 2001. Clayton, Lawrence A. Caulkers and Carpenters in a New World: The Shipyards of Colonial Guayaquil. Ohio University Press 1980. Dean, Carolyn. Inka Bodies and the Body of Christ: Corpus Christi in Colonial Cuzco, Peru. Durham: Duke University Press 1999. Fisher, John. Bourbon Peru, 1750-1824. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press 2003. Fisher, John R., Allan J. Kuethe, and Anthony McFarlane, eds. Reform and Insurrection in Bourbon New Granada and Peru. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press 2003. Gauderman, Kimberly. Women's Lives in Colonial Quito: Gender, Law, and Economy in Spanish America. Austin: University of Texas Press 2003. Garrett, David T. Shadows of Empire: The Indian Nobility of Cusco, 1750-1825. New York: Cambridge University Press 2005. Griffiths, Nicholas. The Cross and the Serpent: Religious Repression and Resurgence in Colonial Peru. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press 1996. Hyland, Sabine. The Jesuit and the Incas: The Extraordinary Life of Padre Blas Valera, S.J. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press 2003. Jacobsen, Nils. Mirages of Transition: The Peruvian Altiplano, 1780-1930 (1996) Lamana, Gonzalo. Domination Without Dominance: Inca-Spanish Relations in Early Colonial Peru. Durham: Duke University Press 2008. Lane, Kris. Quito
Quito
1599: City and Colony in Transition. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press 2002. Lockhart, James. Spanish Peru, 1532-1560: A Social History (1968), a detailed portrait of the social and economic lives of the first generation of Spanish settlers in Peru
Peru
& the development of Spanish colonial society in the generation after conquest Mangan, Jane E. Trading Roles: Gender, Ethnicity, and the Urban Economy in Colonial Potosí. Durham: Duke University Press 2005. Marks, Patricia. Deconstructing Legitimacy: Viceroys, Merchants, and the Military in Late Colonial Peru. University Park: Penn State Press 2007. Means, Philip Ainsworth. Fall of the Inca Empire
Inca Empire
and the Spanish Rule in Peru: 1530-1780 (1933) Miller, Robert Ryal, ed. Chronicle of Colonial Lima: The Diary of Joseph and Francisco Mugaburu, 1640-1697. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press 1975. Mills, Kenneth. Idolatry and Its Enemies: Colonial Andean
Andean
Religion and Extirpation, 1640-1750. Princeton: Princeton University Press 1997. Milton, Cynthia E. The Many Meanings of Poverty: Colonialism, Social Compacts, and Assistance in Eighteenth-Century Ecuador. Stanford: Stanford University Press 2007. Minchom, Martin. The People of Quito, 1690-1810: Change and Unrest in the Underclass. Boulder: Westview Press 1994. Osorio, Alejandra B. Inventing Lima: Baroque Modernity in Peru's South Sea Metropolis. New York: Palgrave 2008. Phelan, John Leddy, The Kingdom of Quito
Quito
in the Seventeenth-Century. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press 1967, Poma de Ayala, Felipe Guaman, The First New Chronicle and Good Government: On the History of the World and the Incas up to 1615. Ed. and trans. Roland Hamilton. Austin: University of Texas Press 2009. Premo, Bianca. Children of the Father King: Youth, Authority, and Legal Minority in Colonial Lima. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press 2005. Ramírez, Susan Elizabeth. The World Turned Upside Down: Cross-Cultural Contact and Conflict in Sixteenth-Century Peru. Stanford: Stanford University Press 1996. Serulnikov, Sergio. Subverting Colonial Authority: Challenges to Spanish Rule in Eighteenth-Century Southern Andes. Durham: Duke University Press 2003. Spalding, Karen. Huarochirí: An Andean
Andean
Society Under Inca and Spanish Rule. Stanford: Stanford University Press 1984. Stavig, Ward. The World of Tupac Amaru: Conflict, Community, and Identity in Colonial Peru
Peru
(1999), an ethnohistory that examines the lives of Andean
Andean
Indians, including diet, marriage customs, labor classifications, taxation, and the administration of justice, in the eighteenth century. Tandeter, Enrique. Coercion and Market: Silver
Silver
Mining in Colonial Potosí, 1692-1826. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press 1993. TePaske, John J., ed. and trans. Discourse and Political Reflections on the Kingdom of Peru
Peru
by Jorge Juan and Antonio Ulloa. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press 1978. Thomson, Sinclair. We Alone Will Rule: Native Andean
Andean
Politics in the Age of Insurgency. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press 2003. Van Deusen, Nancy E. Between the Sacred and the Worldly: the Institutional and Cultural Practice of Recogimiento in Colonial Lima. Stanford: Stanford University Press 2001. Varón Gabai, Rafael. Francisco Pizarro
Francisco Pizarro
and His Brothers: The Illusion of Power in Sixteenth-Century Peru. Trans. by Javier Flores Espinosa. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press 1997. Walker, Charles F. Shaky Colonialism: The 1746 Earthquake-Tsunami in Lima, Peru, and Its Long AftermathStay (2008) Wightman, Ann M. Indigenous Migration and Social Change: The Forasteros of Cuzco, 1570-1720. Durham: Duke University Press 1990.

References[edit]

^ Mabry, Donald J., Colonial Latin America. Coral Springs, Fla.: Llumina Press, 2002. ^ The Laws of Burgos (1512) and the New Laws
New Laws
(1542) had been intended to protect the interests of indigenous people. While in spirit they were often abused, as through forced exploitative labour of locals, they did prevent widespread formal enslavement of indigenous people in Spanish territories. Renegade slavers, operating illegally in Spanish territory, did so as agents of the Portuguese slave markets in Brazil. ^ An early bandeira in 1628, led by Antônio Raposo Tavares), composed of 2,000 allied Indians, 900 Mamluks (Mestizos) and 69 white Paulistanos, to find precious metals and stones and / or to capture Indians for slavery. This expedition alone was responsible for the destruction of most of the Jesuit missions of Spanish Guairá and the enslavement of over 60.000 indigenous people. In response the missions that followed were militarized. ^ Follow this link Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine.. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-03-10. Retrieved 2007-01-20.  ^ For two, somewhat different interpretations of the boundaries in unsettled areas, see Burkholder, Mark A. and Lyman L. Johnson. Colonial Latin America (10 editions). (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990), Map 2, 73 ISBN 0-19-506110-1; and Lombardi, Cathryn L., John V. Lombardi and K. Lynn Stoner. Latin American History: A Teaching Atlas. (Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1983), 29. ISBN 0-299-09714-5 ^ Steve Stern. “The Rise and Fall of Indian-White Alliances: a Regional View of ‘Conquest’ History,” Hispanic American Historical Review, 61:3 (1981), 461-491 ^ Harding, C. H., The Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
in America. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1947), 133-135 ^ Lombardi, Cathryn L., John V. Lombardi and K. Lynn Stoner, Latin American History: A Teaching Atlas. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1983), 50. ISBN 0-299-09714-5 ^ Viceryoalty of Peru, Encycloepdia Britannica. Academic edition. 2011. ^ a b c Garner, Richard L. Long-Term Silver
Silver
Mining Trends in Spanish America: A Comparative Analysis of Peru
Peru
and Mexico ^ Cook, Noble David (1981). Demographic collapse, Indian Perú, 1520-1620. Cambridge University Press. p. 237. ISBN 0-521-23995-8. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Viceroyalty of Perú (Virreinato del Perú).

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Conquest of Peru

Punta Quemada Puná Cajamarca Vilcaconga 1st Cusco Maraycalla 2nd Chimborazo 2nd Cusco Ollantaytambo Abancay Las Salinas Chupas Añaquito Huarina Jaquijahuana Chuquinga Vilcabamba

Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries.org: "The colonial Andes: tapestries and silverwork, 1530-1830" — exhibition catalog with info on the Viceroyalty of Peru
Peru
(available online as PDF).

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Viceroyalties of the Spanish Empire

Europe

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Americas and East Indies

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Spanish Empire

Timeline

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New Laws
in favour of the indigenous Expulsion of the Moriscos Ottoman–Habsburg wars French Wars of Religion Eighty Years' War Portuguese Restoration War Piracy in the Caribbean Bourbons Napoleonic invasion Independence of Spanish continental Americas Liberal constitution Carlist Wars Spanish–American War German–Spanish Treaty (1899) Spanish Civil War Independence of Morocco (Western Sahara conflict)

Territories

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New Spain
(Western United States, Mexico, Central America, Spanish Caribbean) Spanish Louisiana (Central United States) Coastal Alaska Haiti Belize Jamaica Trinidad and Tobago Venezuela, Western Guyana New Granada (Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, a northernmost portion of Brazilian Amazon) Peru
Peru
(Peru, Acre) Río de la Plata (Argentina, Paraguay, Charcas (Bolivia), Banda Oriental (Uruguay), Falkland Islands) Chile Equatorial Guinea North Africa (Oran, Tunis, Béjaïa, Peñón of Algiers, Western Sahara, Spanish Morocco, Ifni
Ifni
and Cape Juby)

Administration

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Administrative subdivisions

Viceroyalties

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Audiencias

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Military

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Sailors

Christopher Columbus Pinzón brothers Ferdinand Magellan Juan Sebastián Elcano Juan de la Cosa Juan Ponce de León Miguel López de Legazpi Pedro Menéndez de Avilés Sebastián de Ocampo Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca Alonso de Ojeda Vasco Núñez de Balboa Alonso de Salazar Andrés de Urdaneta Antonio de Ulloa Ruy López de Villalobos Diego Columbus Alonso de Ercilla Nicolás de Ovando Juan de Ayala Sebastián Vizcaíno Juan Fernández Felipe González de Ahedo

Conquistadors

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Old World

Won

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Lost

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New World

Won

Tenochtitlan Cajamarca Cusco Bogotá
Bogotá
savanna Reynogüelén Penco Guadalupe Island San Juan Cartagena de Indias Cuerno Verde Pensacola

Lost

La Noche Triste Tucapel Chacabuco Carabobo Ayacucho Guam Santiago de Cuba Manila Bay Asomante

Spanish colonizations

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Chiapas Yucatán Guatemala Petén

El Salvador Honduras Nicaragua Chibchan Nations Colombia Peru Chile

Other civil topics

Spanish missions in the Americas Architecture Mesoamerican codices Cusco
Cusco
painting tradition Indochristian painting in New Spain Quito
Quito
painting tradition Colonial universities in Latin America Colonial universities in the Philippines General Archive of the Indies Colonial Spanish Horse Castas Old inquisition Slavery in Spanish Empire British and American slaves granted their freedom by Spain

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Peru articles

History

Timeline

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Spanish conquest Neo-Inca State

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